Other references: http://oaks.nvg.org/taxonomy-bloom.html http://www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/ThinkersPdf/bloome.pdf
In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Bloom found that over 95 % of the test questions students encounter require them to think only at the lowest possible level...the recall of information. http://www.officeport.com/edu/blooms.htm
This is Bloom’s Taxonomy
• Specifics • Ways and means of dealing with specifics • Trends and sequences • Classifications and categories • Methodology • The universals and abstractions in a field • Principles and generalizations • Theories and structures So knowledge, or being told, can be a foundation for very much learning. It provides a basis for higher levels of thinking, but is rote in nature. Insight rides on top of it. Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules.
• Translation • Interpretation • Extrapolation Comprehension, the ability to grasp meaning, explain, restate ideas, means understanding the basic information and translating, interpreting, and extrapolating it. Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in one&apos;s own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet.
Application, or using learned material in new situations, involves using information, ideas, and skills to solve problems, then selecting and applying them appropriately. Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee&apos;s vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test.
• Of elements • Of relationships • Of organizational principles Analysis suggests separating items, or separate material into component parts and show relationships between parts. It also means breaking apart information and ideas into their component parts. Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training.
• Production of a unique communication • Production of a plan, or proposed set of operations • Derivation of a set of abstract relations Synthesis suggests the ability to put together separate ideas to form new wholes of a fabric, or establish new relationships. Synthesis involves putting together ideas and knowledge in a new and unique form. This is where innovations truly take place. Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. Revises and process to improve the outcome.
• Judgement in terms of internal evidence • Judgements in tems of external criteria Evaluation is the highest level in this arrangement. Here the ability to judge the worth of material against stated criteria will show itself. Evaluation involves reviewing and asserting evidence, facts, and ideas, then making appropriate statements and judegments. Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget. http://www.nwlink.com/~Donclark/hrd/bloom.html
Mox Ernest Benjamin Bloom
Who is he?
• He received a bachelor’s and
master’s degree from
Pennsylvania State University in
• Ph.D. in Education from the
University of Chicago in 1942