Learning Theories

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Learning Theories

  1. 1. J.J. Rousseau Learning by Learning Theories Experience 1712 – 1778 J.J. Rousseau J.J. Rousseau “A child should “Learning is grow in done through accordance trial and with his own error...” nature.” 1712 – 1778 1712 – 1778 J.J. Rousseau Sigmund Freud “The instruments of education is Models of our own Personality body.” 1712 – 1778 1856 - 1939 1
  2. 2. Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud Id Ego 1856 - 1939 1856 - 1939 Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud Super Ego Libido 1856 - 1939 1856 - 1939 Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud 5 Psychosexual Oral Stage Stages of Development 1856 - 1939 1856 - 1939 2
  3. 3. Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud Anal Stage Phallic Stage 1856 - 1939 1856 - 1939 Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud Latency Genital Stage Period 1856 - 1939 1856 - 1939 John Dewey John Dewey Experiential Active Learning Learning 1859 - 1952 1859 - 1952 3
  4. 4. John Dewey John Dewey “Students should be involved in Pragmatism real-life tasks and challenges.” 1859 - 1952 1859 - 1952 Maria Montessori Maria Montessori “Preparing the most natural The and life- supporting Montessori environments Method for the child” 1870 - 1952 1870 - 1952 Maria Montessori Lev Vygtosky “Engaging Zone of children in Proximal exercise in Development daily living” 1870 - 1952 1896 - 1934 4
  5. 5. Lev Vygtosky Jean Piaget 4 Stages of Scaffolding Development Theory 1896 - 1934 1896 - 1980 Jean Piaget Jean Piaget Sensorimotor Preoperational Stage Stage 1896 - 1980 1896 - 1980 Jean Piaget Jean Piaget Concrete- Formal- Operational Operational Stage Stage 1896 - 1980 1896 - 1980 5
  6. 6. Jean Piaget Jean Piaget Assimilation Theory of and Adaptation Accommodation 1896 - 1980 1896 - 1980 Jean Piaget Erik Erikson Constructivism 8 Stages of Development 1896 - 1980 1902 - 1994 Erik Erikson Erik Erikson Infant Toddler Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame 1902 - 1994 1902 - 1994 6
  7. 7. Erik Erikson Erik Erikson Preschooler School Age Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority 1902 - 1994 1902 - 1994 Erik Erikson Erik Erikson Adolescent Young Adult Identity vs. Role Intimacy vs. Confusion Isolation 1902 - 1994 1902 - 1994 Erik Erikson Erik Erikson Middle-Age Old-Age Adult Adult Generativity vs. Integrity vs. Stagnation Despair 1902 - 1994 1902 - 1994 7
  8. 8. B.F. Skinner B.F. Skinner Reinforcement Operant and Conditioning Punishment 1904 – 1990 1904 – 1990 B.F. Skinner B.F. Skinner “Skinner Box” Shaping 1904 – 1990 1904 – 1990 Malcolm Knowles Malcolm Knowles Andragogy Adult Education 1913 – 1997 1913 – 1997 8
  9. 9. Benjamin Bloom Benjamin Bloom Taxonomy of 3 Learning Learning Domains 1913 – 1999 1913 – 1999 Benjamin Bloom Benjamin Bloom Cognitive Domain Old Taxonomy 1913 – 1999 1913 – 1999 Benjamin Bloom Benjamin Bloom Affective Domain New Taxonomy 1913 – 1999 1913 – 1999 9
  10. 10. Benjamin Bloom Robert Gagné Psychomotor 9 Events of Domain Instruction 1913 – 1999 1916 – 2002 Robert Gagné Robert Gagné Gain Inform Attention Learner of Objective 1916 – 2002 1916 – 2002 Robert Gagné Robert Gagné Recall Prior Present Knowledge Material 1916 – 2002 1916 – 2002 10
  11. 11. Robert Gagné Robert Gagné Provide Elicit Guided Performance Learning 1916 – 2002 1916 – 2002 Robert Gagné Robert Gagné Provide Assess Feedback Performance 1916 – 2002 1916 – 2002 Robert Gagné Albert Bandura Social Enhance Cognitive Retention Theory and Transfer 1916 – 2002 1925 11
  12. 12. Albert Bandura Albert Bandura Observational Learning or Attention Modeling 1925 1925 Albert Bandura Albert Bandura Retention Reproduction 1925 1925 Albert Bandura Albert Bandura Reinforcements Motivation past promised vicarious 1925 1925 12
  13. 13. Albert Bandura “People not only Albert Bandura gain understanding through “Bobo Doll” reflection they Study evaluate and alter their own thinking.” 1925 1925 Albert Bandura Seymour Papert “Nurture Constructionism shapes nature.” 1925 1928 Seymour Papert Seymour Papert Computers as Logo Instruments Programming for Learning Language 1928 1928 13
  14. 14. Seymour Papert Seymour Papert Mindstorms: LEGO Logo Children Computers and Powerful Ideas 1928 1928 Howard Gardner Howard Gardner Multiple Visual Intelligences Picture Smart 1943 1943 Howard Gardner Howard Gardner Linguistic Logical Word Smart Number Smart 1943 1943 14
  15. 15. Howard Gardner Howard Gardner Kinesthetic Rhythmic Body Smart Music Smart 1943 1943 Howard Gardner Howard Gardner Interpersonal Intrapersonal People Smart Self Smart 1943 1943 C. Reigeluth C. Reigeluth Course Structure Elaboration conceptual Theory procedural theoretical 15
  16. 16. C. Reigeluth C. Reigeluth Sequencing Summarizers general-specific and simple-complex abstract-concrete Synthesizers C. Reigeluth C. Reigeluth Analogies and Learner Cognitive Control Cues 16

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