In Recognition of Mental Health Awareness WeekENGAGING AFRICAN AMERICAN       COMMUNITIES:BRIDGING BARRIERS TO MENTAL     ...
WELCOME
With a healthy mind   and a healthybody, we can have a   healthy spirit
Our Goal today isto facilitate a dialogue on    the topic of Mental  Health with a special  focus on the African-  America...
Do you hear what I hear… Do you see what I see…
Four of the 10 leading causes  of disability in the US and  other developed countries    are mental disorders.            ...
Some 8 million to 14  million Americans     suffer fromdepression each year.  (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2009)
As many as one in fiveAmericans will suffer at  least one episode of    major depression during their lifetimes.   (Univer...
Economic cost of untreated mental   illness is more than 100 billion   dollars each year in the United                Stat...
Indirect costs such as lost       employment, reduced        productivity, criminal  activity, vehicular accidents and soc...
Suicide is the third leading cause of death for people  between the ages of 15           and 24.         (University of Ma...
81 Americansdie by suicide  each day
Did you know that…
Since 1980, suicidehas doubled amongyoung black males in      America
Suicide is real and certain types ofdiscrimination can drive those people home, and it can cause them to hangthemselves or...
Did you know that…
African Americans areover-represented inhigh-need populationsthat are particularly atrisk for mentalillnesses   (Surgeon G...
They are also Less  likely to seek    treatment          (Surgeon General Report, 1999)
When African Americans seektreatment, they are more likely tobe hospitalized in psychiatric unitsand involuntarily committ...
Did you know that…
African Americans of  all ages areoverrepresented in inpatient  treatment.(Surgeon General Report, 1999)
but are under- represented inout patient care.       (Neighbors, et. Al. , 2003)
African    Americans    are over  represented in the diagnosis of  schizophrenia.Surgeon General Report, 1999)
but are under-represented in    the diagnosis of mood          disorders.             (Neighbors, et. Al. , 2003)
Minoritystudents, especially African American   males are over   represented in    Emotionally    Behaviorally     Disorde...
but are under-represented in the  classification of       Gifted   Programming.    ( Artilles, 2000 &Losen, et. al, 2002)
We all know that…
"The future health of the nation will be determined to a large extent by how effectively we work with communities to reduc...
But did you know that…
“   A majority of Americans     are unaware that racial      and ethnic minorities       receive poorer care         than ...
Research tells us    that……
There are contributing  factors that impact  mental health andprovision of services in   African American     communities
They are:
• Poverty• Lack of service and supports• Pervasive stigma• Prejudice• Criminalization of Mental Illness• Lack of cultural ...
In their own words…
Lack of Services and Support“In this society, many of us feel alone. Who can we turn to?”                  (Bryant, T. et ...
Lack of Services and Support “After they told me, in their    way, that I had a mentaldisorder (after one session) and aft...
Lack of Services and Support   “We  need a watchdog    organization to helpdetermine which services for treating Black men...
Lack of Services and Support “There needs to be aserious media education     and awarenesscampaign about mental       heal...
STIGMAIs a major barrier
“For centuries mental illness has been seen as shameful, dangerous, unpleasa nt, embarrassing, a weakness of character, in...
63 percent ofAfrican-Americansview depression as  a character flaw         (Survey by the NMHA, 1999)
“   Stigma, born out of history      and limited information       inhibits help seeking in          African American     ...
Internalized belief system of   “Never show weakness”  born out of shared history  of slavery, Jim Crow Laws and Instituti...
“Well I think that also goes with an    African American dream to be considered a strong family. Mental  illness is consid...
Impact of History
Impact of History“We have a problem asking   for help-especially from folks who we think are the    reasons for our mental...
Impact of History“Many of us have developed a ‘What difference does it make’ attitude. Racism has forced a lot of Black me...
Cultural Competency in    Service Delivery
Cultural Competency in        Service Delivery“African Americans don’t get the sametreatment in hospitals. ... Doctors don...
Cultural Competency in        Service Delivery“If they don’t try to understand you  and to step into your shoes, they can ...
“I would say there are more White psychotherapists out there than Blacks. You know if you made an appointment to see a the...
Did you know that…???
African Americans    are critically underrepresented as professionals in the Mental health       field.
African Americans represent•2% of the Psychiatrists•2% of the Psychologists•4% of all Social Workers               (Surgeo...
But wait, in 1872
stThe African    1   AmericanPsychiatrist was     born
Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller        (1872–1953)   1st African American         Psychiatrist
Whathappened???
In ourcommunities,
We should always  remember …
People with Mental Illness Enrich Our        Lives
Come       &travel with us!
What would our lives be without these     people…
Donny Hathaway
Phyllis Hyman
Abraham Lincoln
Richard Pryor
James Marshall "Jimi" Hendrix
Ludwig van Beethoven
Charley Frank Pride
Ernest Hemingway
Mike Tyson
Mike Wallace
Jennifer Holliday
Marilyn Monroe
Vincent Van Gogh
Donyale Luna
Patty Duke
Joe Louis
Virginia Woolf
What lies ahead…?
The “Healthy People       2010” Goal• Increase quality and years  of healthy life• Eliminate health disparities  among U.S...
National Minority MentalHealth Awareness Month.           The US House of           Representatives           proclaimed J...
Who is Bebe Moore  Campbell ???
Bebe Moore CampbellNAMI’S Outstanding Advocate &  Literature Award Recipient
Engaging African American  Communities: Building Bridges to Mental Health
Ask Yourself…
What do I plan to do???
Where do I start???
Let us listenand hear to…
The Wisdom in Their    Own Words…
“There needs to be a serious   media education and awareness campaign about     mental health ...”                        ...
“We need to get to [reach]  more young Black boys   before they become men, and help them work  through a lot of ‘stuff’ a...
“There is a need for research  on how African American   populations receive and   respond to information    about mental ...
Local Organizations and Agencies must actively utilize and incorporate  the National Cultural Competence Standards   to es...
Local Organizations and  Agencies must have aculturally diverse advisory committees that include     African American     ...
We must include the natural support systems within the       African American  communities to assist withservice delivery....
We must understand and be   aware of the impact ofhistory, identity, meaning of    racial differences and        experienc...
Training on diagnostic accuracy and culturally    sensitive psycho-educational assessments  especially for African  Americ...
More sensitive mental“health counselors and folks who are sincereand who are not quick to judge Black men.”              (...
Increase the number of African Americans and other minorities in the field of mental health.                       103
African American consumers and family members must   talk about their mental    health/ their recovery     process and act...
"As a pastor, I believe that spirituality is a key   ingredient to positive mental health, but that means the church shoul...
To minimize any inappropriate    use of emergency room   services for mental health  needs, community agenciesmight consid...
Recap
What can we do inPalm Beach County???
Education andAwareness Raising
Celebrate July asNational Minority  Mental HealthAwareness Month.
Reach out more to black men and young Black          boys
More Targeted  Research
Adhere to CulturalCompetence Standards
Maintain Culturally Diverse Advisory   committees
Include Natural Support  Systems in Treatment        Options
Understand and talk about the residual  impact of history
Diagnostic accuracy and   culturally sensitive  psycho-educational      assessments.
Increase the number of  African Americans in the Mental Health field
African Americancommunity membersmust continue to get      involved
Involve and reach out to African American Faith      Organizations
Consider establishingwalk-in and urgent-caremental health services
Last thought
“The real difficulty in changing thecourse of any enterprise lies not in   developing new ideas but in       escaping old ...
“The real difficulty in  changing the course ofany enterprise lies not in   developing new ideasbut in escaping old ones.”...
Thank you for making a      difference!
Web Resources• Black Mental Health Alliance for Education andConsultation, Inc: http://www.blackmentalhealth.com/• Black P...
References•   Alliance for Health Reform (November 2006). Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health    Care. Robert Wood Joh...
References• Head, J., (2005). Black Men and Depression: Saving our Lives, Healing our  Families and Friends. Harlem Moon.•...
References•   Lawson, W.B., Hepler, N. Holladay, J. & Cuffel B. (1994). Race as a factor in inpatient and    outpatient ad...
References• Poussaint, A. , (2000. Lay My Burden Down: Unraveling Suicide and the  Mental Health Crisis Among African-Amer...
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Engaging african american communities bridging barriers to mental health

  1. 1. In Recognition of Mental Health Awareness WeekENGAGING AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITIES:BRIDGING BARRIERS TO MENTAL HEALTH TUESDAY, OCTOBER 6, 2009
  2. 2. WELCOME
  3. 3. With a healthy mind and a healthybody, we can have a healthy spirit
  4. 4. Our Goal today isto facilitate a dialogue on the topic of Mental Health with a special focus on the African- American community
  5. 5. Do you hear what I hear… Do you see what I see…
  6. 6. Four of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. (NAMI, 2009)
  7. 7. Some 8 million to 14 million Americans suffer fromdepression each year. (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2009)
  8. 8. As many as one in fiveAmericans will suffer at least one episode of major depression during their lifetimes. (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2009)
  9. 9. Economic cost of untreated mental illness is more than 100 billion dollars each year in the United States. (NAMI, 2009)
  10. 10. Indirect costs such as lost employment, reduced productivity, criminal activity, vehicular accidents and social welfare programs increase the total cost of mental andsubstance abuse disorders to more than $273 billion a year.
  11. 11. Suicide is the third leading cause of death for people between the ages of 15 and 24. (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2009)
  12. 12. 81 Americansdie by suicide each day
  13. 13. Did you know that…
  14. 14. Since 1980, suicidehas doubled amongyoung black males in America
  15. 15. Suicide is real and certain types ofdiscrimination can drive those people home, and it can cause them to hangthemselves or down a whole bottle of pills or other means of suicide. African American Youth (UC Davis, 2009)
  16. 16. Did you know that…
  17. 17. African Americans areover-represented inhigh-need populationsthat are particularly atrisk for mentalillnesses (Surgeon General Report, 1999)
  18. 18. They are also Less likely to seek treatment (Surgeon General Report, 1999)
  19. 19. When African Americans seektreatment, they are more likely tobe hospitalized in psychiatric unitsand involuntarily committed than European American. (Lawson, Et al, 1994)
  20. 20. Did you know that…
  21. 21. African Americans of all ages areoverrepresented in inpatient treatment.(Surgeon General Report, 1999)
  22. 22. but are under- represented inout patient care. (Neighbors, et. Al. , 2003)
  23. 23. African Americans are over represented in the diagnosis of schizophrenia.Surgeon General Report, 1999)
  24. 24. but are under-represented in the diagnosis of mood disorders. (Neighbors, et. Al. , 2003)
  25. 25. Minoritystudents, especially African American males are over represented in Emotionally Behaviorally Disordered classification for special education programming. (Artilles, 2000 &Losen, et. al, 2002).
  26. 26. but are under-represented in the classification of Gifted Programming. ( Artilles, 2000 &Losen, et. al, 2002)
  27. 27. We all know that…
  28. 28. "The future health of the nation will be determined to a large extent by how effectively we work with communities to reduce and eliminate health disparities between non-minority and minority populations experiencing disproportionate burdens of disease, disability, and premature death." ~ Guiding Principle for Improving Minority Health-CDC-OMHD
  29. 29. But did you know that…
  30. 30. “ A majority of Americans are unaware that racial and ethnic minorities receive poorer care than whites do.” (Alliance for Health Reform, 2006)
  31. 31. Research tells us that……
  32. 32. There are contributing factors that impact mental health andprovision of services in African American communities
  33. 33. They are:
  34. 34. • Poverty• Lack of service and supports• Pervasive stigma• Prejudice• Criminalization of Mental Illness• Lack of cultural competence in service delivery (NAMI, 2002)
  35. 35. In their own words…
  36. 36. Lack of Services and Support“In this society, many of us feel alone. Who can we turn to?” (Bryant, T. et al , 2003)
  37. 37. Lack of Services and Support “After they told me, in their way, that I had a mentaldisorder (after one session) and after only one conversation, I never went back. They didn’t care and neither did I.” (Bryant, T. et al , 2003)
  38. 38. Lack of Services and Support “We need a watchdog organization to helpdetermine which services for treating Black men are the best and most effective.” (Bryant, T. et al , 2003)
  39. 39. Lack of Services and Support “There needs to be aserious media education and awarenesscampaign about mental health …” (Bryant, T. et al , 2003)
  40. 40. STIGMAIs a major barrier
  41. 41. “For centuries mental illness has been seen as shameful, dangerous, unpleasa nt, embarrassing, a weakness of character, incurable and something to be hidden away, without hope of recovery.” (Townsend, W., May, 2005)
  42. 42. 63 percent ofAfrican-Americansview depression as a character flaw (Survey by the NMHA, 1999)
  43. 43. “ Stigma, born out of history and limited information inhibits help seeking in African American communities.” (Davis, K., Townsend, W., Bell Noel, M., May, 2005)
  44. 44. Internalized belief system of “Never show weakness” born out of shared history of slavery, Jim Crow Laws and Institutionalized Racism contribute to the low rate of help seeking behavior
  45. 45. “Well I think that also goes with an African American dream to be considered a strong family. Mental illness is considered a weakness and we wouldn’t even recognize it in the first place, because strong families just don’t do that. Focus Group Participant (Thompson, Bazile & Akbar, 2004)
  46. 46. Impact of History
  47. 47. Impact of History“We have a problem asking for help-especially from folks who we think are the reasons for our mental illness.” (Bryant, T. et al , 2003)
  48. 48. Impact of History“Many of us have developed a ‘What difference does it make’ attitude. Racism has forced a lot of Black men to sit on top of their pain. They feel there are very few outlets to share their feelings of frustration with the system.” (Bryant, T. et al , 2003)
  49. 49. Cultural Competency in Service Delivery
  50. 50. Cultural Competency in Service Delivery“African Americans don’t get the sametreatment in hospitals. ... Doctors don’tknow the culture of people of color, areuncomfortable with them, and want toget them out of the room as fast aspossible.” Community Leader (UC Davis, 2009)
  51. 51. Cultural Competency in Service Delivery“If they don’t try to understand you and to step into your shoes, they can never get the diagnosis right. I really felt rejected and unworthy of help and support.” (Bryant, T. et al , 2003)
  52. 52. “I would say there are more White psychotherapists out there than Blacks. You know if you made an appointment to see a therapist, more likely than not you are going to be sitting down talking to someone who can’t relate to you.” Focus Group Participant (Thompson, Bazile & Akbar, 2004)
  53. 53. Did you know that…???
  54. 54. African Americans are critically underrepresented as professionals in the Mental health field.
  55. 55. African Americans represent•2% of the Psychiatrists•2% of the Psychologists•4% of all Social Workers (Surgeon General Report, 1999)
  56. 56. But wait, in 1872
  57. 57. stThe African 1 AmericanPsychiatrist was born
  58. 58. Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller (1872–1953) 1st African American Psychiatrist
  59. 59. Whathappened???
  60. 60. In ourcommunities,
  61. 61. We should always remember …
  62. 62. People with Mental Illness Enrich Our Lives
  63. 63. Come &travel with us!
  64. 64. What would our lives be without these people…
  65. 65. Donny Hathaway
  66. 66. Phyllis Hyman
  67. 67. Abraham Lincoln
  68. 68. Richard Pryor
  69. 69. James Marshall "Jimi" Hendrix
  70. 70. Ludwig van Beethoven
  71. 71. Charley Frank Pride
  72. 72. Ernest Hemingway
  73. 73. Mike Tyson
  74. 74. Mike Wallace
  75. 75. Jennifer Holliday
  76. 76. Marilyn Monroe
  77. 77. Vincent Van Gogh
  78. 78. Donyale Luna
  79. 79. Patty Duke
  80. 80. Joe Louis
  81. 81. Virginia Woolf
  82. 82. What lies ahead…?
  83. 83. The “Healthy People 2010” Goal• Increase quality and years of healthy life• Eliminate health disparities among U.S. populations. (The Department of Heath and Human Services, 2000)
  84. 84. National Minority MentalHealth Awareness Month. The US House of Representatives proclaimed July as Bebe Moore Campbell National Minority Mental Health Awareness Month. (NAMI, 2009)
  85. 85. Who is Bebe Moore Campbell ???
  86. 86. Bebe Moore CampbellNAMI’S Outstanding Advocate & Literature Award Recipient
  87. 87. Engaging African American Communities: Building Bridges to Mental Health
  88. 88. Ask Yourself…
  89. 89. What do I plan to do???
  90. 90. Where do I start???
  91. 91. Let us listenand hear to…
  92. 92. The Wisdom in Their Own Words…
  93. 93. “There needs to be a serious media education and awareness campaign about mental health ...” ) (Bryant, T. et al , 2003
  94. 94. “We need to get to [reach] more young Black boys before they become men, and help them work through a lot of ‘stuff’ and feelings of isolation.” (Bryant, T. et al , 2003)
  95. 95. “There is a need for research on how African American populations receive and respond to information about mental illness.” (Davis, K., Townsend, W., Bell Noel, M., May, 2005)
  96. 96. Local Organizations and Agencies must actively utilize and incorporate the National Cultural Competence Standards to establish positive outcomes 97
  97. 97. Local Organizations and Agencies must have aculturally diverse advisory committees that include African American community members, families and consumers. 98
  98. 98. We must include the natural support systems within the African American communities to assist withservice delivery. We must alsoaddress prejudices, perceived or real , in the therapeutic setting. 99
  99. 99. We must understand and be aware of the impact ofhistory, identity, meaning of racial differences and experiences of discrimination/isolation on mental health. ( La Roche and Maxie, 2003)
  100. 100. Training on diagnostic accuracy and culturally sensitive psycho-educational assessments especially for African American clients and students
  101. 101. More sensitive mental“health counselors and folks who are sincereand who are not quick to judge Black men.” (Bryant, T. et al 2003).
  102. 102. Increase the number of African Americans and other minorities in the field of mental health. 103
  103. 103. African American consumers and family members must talk about their mental health/ their recovery process and actively participate in community mental health initiatives. (Townsend, 104
  104. 104. "As a pastor, I believe that spirituality is a key ingredient to positive mental health, but that means the church should be working in tandem with mental health professionals and not offering simplistic remedies. More and more pastors must join forces with mental health professionals. This is particularly important for communities of color, who tend to have different attitudes about mental health from that of the dominant culture.” (Williams, B. July 2006).
  105. 105. To minimize any inappropriate use of emergency room services for mental health needs, community agenciesmight consider providing, walk- in and urgent-care mental health services (Thompson, Bazile & Akbar, 2004)
  106. 106. Recap
  107. 107. What can we do inPalm Beach County???
  108. 108. Education andAwareness Raising
  109. 109. Celebrate July asNational Minority Mental HealthAwareness Month.
  110. 110. Reach out more to black men and young Black boys
  111. 111. More Targeted Research
  112. 112. Adhere to CulturalCompetence Standards
  113. 113. Maintain Culturally Diverse Advisory committees
  114. 114. Include Natural Support Systems in Treatment Options
  115. 115. Understand and talk about the residual impact of history
  116. 116. Diagnostic accuracy and culturally sensitive psycho-educational assessments.
  117. 117. Increase the number of African Americans in the Mental Health field
  118. 118. African Americancommunity membersmust continue to get involved
  119. 119. Involve and reach out to African American Faith Organizations
  120. 120. Consider establishingwalk-in and urgent-caremental health services
  121. 121. Last thought
  122. 122. “The real difficulty in changing thecourse of any enterprise lies not in developing new ideas but in escaping old ones.” John Maynard Keynes
  123. 123. “The real difficulty in changing the course ofany enterprise lies not in developing new ideasbut in escaping old ones.” John Maynard Keynes
  124. 124. Thank you for making a difference!
  125. 125. Web Resources• Black Mental Health Alliance for Education andConsultation, Inc: http://www.blackmentalhealth.com/• Black Psychiatrists of America (BPA): http://www.blackpsych.org/id6.html• National Association of People of Color Against Suicide (NOPCAS): http://www.nopcas.org/articles/• Association of Black Psychologist: http://www.abpsi.org/• The National Association of Black Social Workers, Inc. (NABSW): http://www.nabsw.org/mserver/
  126. 126. References• Alliance for Health Reform (November 2006). Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation• Artilles, A. J., & Trent, S.C. (2000). Representations of culturally/linguistically diverse students. In C. R. Reynolds, & E. Fletcher-Janzen (Eds), Encyclopedia of Special Education, (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 513-517). New York: John Wiley & Sons• Bryant, T., Ro, M., Rowe, R. (July 2003). Souls of Black Men: African American Men Discuss Mental Health . Black Mental Health alliance. Retrieved on July, 15, 2009 from http://www.consumerstar.org/pubs/Souls.pdf• Building Partnerships: Conversations with African Americans about mental health needs and community strengths. (March, 2009 ). UC Davis; Center for Reducing Health Disparities• Davis, K., Townsend, W., Bell Noel, M. (May, 2005). Decreasing Discrimination and Stigma Associated with Mental Illness in the African American Community. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS).• Facts about Mental Health. (2009). University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved on June, 2009, from http://www.umm.edu/mentalhealth/facts.htm
  127. 127. References• Head, J., (2005). Black Men and Depression: Saving our Lives, Healing our Families and Friends. Harlem Moon.• Jackson, J. S., Neighbors, H., & Gurin, G. (1986). Findings from a national survey of Black mental health: Implications for practice and training. In M. R. Miranda & H. L. Kitano (Eds.), Mental health research and practice in minority communities: Development of culturally sensitive training programs (pp. 91–116). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office• La Roche, M. J., & Maxie, A. (2003). Ten considerations in addressing cultural differences in psychotherapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34, 180–186.• Losen, D., Orfield, G. (2002). Racial inequity in special education. The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University and the Harvard Education Press.
  128. 128. References• Lawson, W.B., Hepler, N. Holladay, J. & Cuffel B. (1994). Race as a factor in inpatient and outpatient admissions and diagnosis. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 45, 72-74.• NAMI (2009). National Minority Mental Health Awareness Month. Retrieved on July, 2009 from http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=Multicultural_Support1&Template=/Cont entManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=63615• NAMI Mental Illness Among Minority Groups: NAMI Advocates for Minorities with Mental Illness | Suite101.com“. Retrieved on May, 2009 from http://political- activism.suite101.com/article.cfm/mental_illness_among_minority_groups#ixzz0Gzbm h8WU&A• Neighbors, H.W. Trierweiler, S.J., Ford, B.C., & Mufoff, J.R. (2003). Racial differences in DSM diagnosis using a semi-structured instrument: The importance of clinical judgment in the diagnosis of African American. Journal of health and Social behavior, 43, 237-256.• Office of Minority Health and Heath Disparities , the Department of Heath and Human Services, (2000). Eliminating Racial & Ethnic Health Disparities. Retrieved on June, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/omhd/About/disparities.htm
  129. 129. References• Poussaint, A. , (2000. Lay My Burden Down: Unraveling Suicide and the Mental Health Crisis Among African-Americans. Beacon Press• Sanchez , J., ( July 2001). The First Session With African-Americans: A Step- By-Step Guide. The American Psychological Association Manual, 5th Edition• Surgeon General Report, (1999) Retrieved on June, 2009, from• http://www.mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/cre/fact1.asp• Thompson, Bazile & Akbar (2004). African Americans’ Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Vol. 35, No. 1, 19–26• The Department of Heath and Human Services, (2000). Eliminating Racial & Ethnic Health Disparities. Retrieved on June, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/omhd/About/disparities.htm• Williams, B. (July 2006). More than Demons at work in Mental Illness. Retrieved http://www.huffingtonpost.com/byron-williams/more-than- demons-at-work-_b_25930.html

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