Masters of Arts in Bilingual Interpretation INTR 515 Fundamentals of Interpretation Fall 2009 Codes of Ethics in Judicial and Healthcare Settings
Eight Canons Canon 1 . Accuracy Canon 2. Impartiality and Conflicts of Interest Canon 3. Confidentiality Canon 4. Limitations of Practice Canon 5. Protocol and Demeanor Canon 6. Maintenance and Improvement of Skills and Knowledge Canon 7. Accurate Representation of Credentials Canon 8. Impediments to Compliance NAJIT CODE OF ETHICS
Canon 1. Accuracy Source-language speech should be faithfully rendered into the target language by conserving all the elements of the original message while accommodating the syntactic and semantic patterns of the target language . The rendition should sound natural in the target language , and there should be no distortion of the original message through addition or omission, explanation or paraphrasing . All hedges, false starts and repetitions should be conveyed ; also, English words mixed into the other language should be retained , as should culturally-bound terms which have no direct equivalent in English, or which may have more than one meaning. The register, style and tone of the source language should be conserved. Guessing should be avoided . Court interpreters who do not hear or understand what a speaker has said should seek clarification. Interpreter errors should be corrected for the record as soon as possible . NAJIT CODE OF ETHICS
Canon 2. Impartiality and Conflicts of Interest Court interpreters and translators are to remain impartial and neutral in proceedings where they serve, and must maintain the appearance of impartiality and neutrality , avoiding unnecessary contact with the parties . Court interpreters and translators shall abstain from comment on matters in which they serve. Any real or potential conflict of interest shall be immediately disclosed to the Court and all parties as soon as the interpreter or translator becomes aware of such conflict of interest . NAJIT CODE OF ETHICS
Canon 3. Confidentiality Privileged or confidential information acquired in the course of interpreting or preparing a translation shall not be disclosed by the interpreter without authorization. NAJIT CODE OF ETHICS
Canon 4. Limitations of Practice Court interpreters and translators shall limit their participation in those matters in which they serve to interpreting and translating, and shall not give advice to the parties or otherwise engage in activities that can be construed as the practice of law . NAJIT CODE OF ETHICS
Canon 5. Protocol and Demeanor Court interpreters shall conduct themselves in a manner consistent with the standards and protocol of the Court , and shall perform their duties as unobtrusively as possible . Court interpreters are to use the same grammatical person as the speaker . When it becomes necessary to assume a primary role in the communication, they must make it clear that they are speaking for themselves. NAJIT CODE OF ETHICS
Canon 6. Maintenance and Improvement of Skills and Knowledge Court interpreters and translators shall strive to maintain and improve their interpreting and translation skills and knowledge. NAJIT CODE OF ETHICS
Canon 7. Accurate Representation of Credentials Court interpreters and translators shall accurately represent their certifications, accreditations, training and pertinent experience. NAJIT CODE OF ETHICS
Canon 8. Impediments to Compliance Court interpreters and translators shall bring to the Court’s attention any circumstance or condition that impedes full compliance with any Canon of this Code , including interpreter fatigue, inability to hear, or inadequate knowledge of specialized terminology, and must decline assignments under conditions that make such compliance patently impossible NAJIT CODE OF ETHICS
NATIONAL CODE OF ETHICS FOR INTERPRETERS IN HEALTH CARE National Council on Interpreting in Healthcare
What is Ethics? Human beings are ethical animals. (Simon Blackburn, 2001) National Council on Interpreting in Healthcare
The term ethic derives from the Greek word ethos , meaning “moral custom.” An ethic, therefore, is “a principle of right or good conduct” (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language). Consequently, ethical behavior is behavior that corresponds to the accepted and idealized principles expressing what is considered right and wrong. As professions mature and become established, they begin to create an ethical environment of shared expectations and norms for acceptable and appropriate behavior in the enactment of its duties and obligations . In the words of Blackburn (2001) an ethical environment provides National Council on Interpreting in Healthcare
The Core Values of the Code of Ethics for Health Care Interpreters The National Code of Ethics for Health Care Interpreters is grounded on three core values form an overarching set of ideals that infuse the work of the health care interpreter and embody what interpreters care about in their relationships with the patient and the provider. 1. Beneficence 2. Fidelity 3. Respect for the importance of culture and cultural differences
The Core Values of the Code of Ethics for Health Care Interpreters <ul><li>Beneficence </li></ul><ul><li>A central value of the health care interpreting profession is the health and well-being of he patient. This is a core value that is shared with other health care professions. It means that the members of these professions have as their essential obligation and duty to support the health and well-being of the patient and her/his family system of supports (e.g., family and community) and to do no harm. </li></ul>
The Core Values of the Code of Ethics for Health Care Interpreters 2. Fidelity The essence of the interpreter role is encapsulated in the value of fidelity. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language describes fidelity as involving “the unfailing fulfillment of one’s duties and obligations and the keeping of one’s word or vows. In a related non personal sense, it refers to faithfulness to an original . . .” This description accurately describes the quality of the interpreter's work and the attitude with which interpreters should approach their work. In adhering to the essential function of their role, interpreters make what amounts to a vow to remain faithful to the original message as they convert utterances from one language into another without adding to, omitting from, or distorting the original message. Fidelity to our integrity and to our role as human beings.
The Core Values of the Code of Ethics for Health Care Interpreters 3. Respect for the importance of culture and cultural differences Culture frames the way we interpret the world, our experiences in it, and our relationship to ourselves and others. In the area of health, culture influences the meaning given to symptoms, the diagnosis of those symptoms, the expectations regarding the course of the related disease or illness, the desirability and efficacy of treatments or remedies, and the prognosis. Language and culture are closely intertwined .
The Core Values of the Code of Ethics for Health Care Interpreters From these three core values stem: 9 Ethical principles and 32 Standards of practice
Ethical principles 1. The interpreter treats as confidential , within the treating team, all information learned in the performance of their professional duties, while observing relevant requirements regarding disclosure. 2. The interpreter strives to render the message accurately , conveying the content an spirit of the original message, taking into consideration its cultural context . 3. The interpreter strives to maintain impartiality and refrains from counseling, advising or projecting personal biases or beliefs.
Ethical principles 4. The interpreter maintains the boundaries of the professional role , refraining from personal involvement. 5. The interpreter continually strives to develop awareness of her/his own and other (including biomedical) cultures encountered in the performance of their professional duties. 6. The interpreter treats all parties with respect .
Ethical principles 7. When the patient’s health, well-being, or dignity is at risk, the interpreter may be justified in acting as an advocate . Advocacy is understood as an action taken on behalf of an individual that goes beyond facilitating communication, with the intention of supporting good health outcomes. Advocacy must be undertaken only after careful and thoughtful analysis of the situation and if other less intrusive actions have not resolved the problem.
Ethical principles 8. The interpreter strives to continually further his/her knowledge and skills . 9. The interpreter must at all times act in a professional and ethical manner.
Code of Ethics in Healthcare Interpreting <ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Impartiality and Conflicts of Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations of Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol and Demeanor </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance and Improvement of Skills and Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate Representation of Credentials </li></ul><ul><li>Point out Impediments to Compliance </li></ul>Code of Ethics in Judicial Interpreting <ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Impartiality </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for all parties involved </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Professional development </li></ul><ul><li>Act in a professional and ethical manner </li></ul>