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Spreading the Net:
    The Multiple Benefits of
       Energy Efficiency


                       Nina Campbell

                  IEA Energy Efficiency Week
                         14 March 2012




© OECD/IEA 2011
Contents
 Outline of our perspective on multiple benefits


 Summary of IEA work to date:
    Inventory of benefits explored: individual; sector-
     specific; national; international
    Initial observations
    Implications for the rebound effect


    What we could do long term


                                                           © OECD/IEA 2011
Multiple benefits of energy efficiency




                                         © OECD/IEA 2011
Levels of multiple benefits from energy
efficiency improvements




                                          © OECD/IEA 2011
Individual level
(individual, household, enterprise)
a. Health and social improvements
  e.g. as a result of improved heating and cooling and air quality in buildings;
  more efficient transport systems and power generation.

n Energy affordability and poverty alleviation
  e.g. the impact on reducing fuel poverty; improving quality of life;
  increasing access to energy and aggregate impacts for poverty alleviation.

n Consumer surplus (Increased disposable income)
  e.g. energy efficiency improvement at individual or firm level should
  reduce energy bills for the same energy services and free more disposable
  income.



                                                                           © OECD/IEA 2011
Sector-specific
a. Increased asset values
  e.g. Investors willing to pay a sales premium, tenants a rental premium, for
  property with better energy performance, particularly commercial.



d. Energy provider and infrastructure benefits
  e.g. Help energy providers in providing a better energy service to their
  customers, reducing operating costs and improving profit margins.


g. Industrial productivity and competitiveness
  e.g. reductions in resource use and pollution; improved production and
  capacity utilisation; less operation and maintenance




                                                                             © OECD/IEA 2011
National
a. Macroeconomic effects
  e.g. increases in GDP; improved trade balance; national competitiveness;
  and employment.

n Public budget impacts
  e.g. Reduced spending on public energy procurement; reduced fuel
       imports; less foreign currency reserves; reduced outlay on subsidies.

n Job creation
  e.g. energy efficiency work and increased disposable income can generate
  direct and indirect jobs in energy and other sectors.

n Energy security
  e.g. reduced energy demand can improve energy system security across
  the 4 dimensions of risk – fuel availability, accessibility, affordability, and
  social and environmental acceptability.                                     © OECD/IEA 2011
International level
a. Energy prices
   e.g. If energy demand is reduced significantly in several markets, energy
   prices can be reduced.

n Reduced GHG emissions
   e.g. when energy efficiency improvements result in reduced demand for
   fossil fuel energy.

n Resource management
   e.g. Reduce pressure on scare resources; manage supply constraints;
   reduce incentive to pursue technologies with environmental impacts.

g. Development goals
   e.g. eradicating poverty; increasing economic growth; improving
   environmental sustainability; and increasing access to energy.       © OECD/IEA 2011
The Rebound Effect
 Positive welfare or utility gains from energy efficiency can
  increase energy consumption = rebound effect
 Measurement methodology similar
 If primary objective of EE policy is economic development
  - Different interpretation of rebound effect?

Rebound      Consumer                       Producer
Effects      Income         Substitution    Output          Substitution
             Turning up                                     More energy
                            Buying a        Increasing
Direct       the heat,                                      use relative to
                            bigger house    production
             driving more                                   other factors
                                            Lower cost cars lead to more
Indirect     Taking a holiday
                                            transport consumption
             Lower prices for energy
                                           Increased productivity, higher
Macro-       services boost demand for all
                                           profits/dividends implies
economic     goods and services economy-
                                           investment in the economy
             wide; increased employment
                                                                         © OECD/IEA 2011
© OECD/IEA 2011
Initial observations
 Energy efficiency as a key contributor to green
  growth and recession buster
 Why are the wider outcomes from energy
  efficiency not measured?
 How can we measure the multiple benefits of
  energy efficiency improvements?
 Country contexts important




                                                © OECD/IEA 2011

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Spreading the Net: The Multiple Benefits of Energy Efficiency

  • 1. Spreading the Net: The Multiple Benefits of Energy Efficiency Nina Campbell IEA Energy Efficiency Week 14 March 2012 © OECD/IEA 2011
  • 2. Contents  Outline of our perspective on multiple benefits  Summary of IEA work to date:  Inventory of benefits explored: individual; sector- specific; national; international  Initial observations  Implications for the rebound effect  What we could do long term © OECD/IEA 2011
  • 3. Multiple benefits of energy efficiency © OECD/IEA 2011
  • 4. Levels of multiple benefits from energy efficiency improvements © OECD/IEA 2011
  • 5. Individual level (individual, household, enterprise) a. Health and social improvements e.g. as a result of improved heating and cooling and air quality in buildings; more efficient transport systems and power generation. n Energy affordability and poverty alleviation e.g. the impact on reducing fuel poverty; improving quality of life; increasing access to energy and aggregate impacts for poverty alleviation. n Consumer surplus (Increased disposable income) e.g. energy efficiency improvement at individual or firm level should reduce energy bills for the same energy services and free more disposable income. © OECD/IEA 2011
  • 6. Sector-specific a. Increased asset values e.g. Investors willing to pay a sales premium, tenants a rental premium, for property with better energy performance, particularly commercial. d. Energy provider and infrastructure benefits e.g. Help energy providers in providing a better energy service to their customers, reducing operating costs and improving profit margins. g. Industrial productivity and competitiveness e.g. reductions in resource use and pollution; improved production and capacity utilisation; less operation and maintenance © OECD/IEA 2011
  • 7. National a. Macroeconomic effects e.g. increases in GDP; improved trade balance; national competitiveness; and employment. n Public budget impacts e.g. Reduced spending on public energy procurement; reduced fuel imports; less foreign currency reserves; reduced outlay on subsidies. n Job creation e.g. energy efficiency work and increased disposable income can generate direct and indirect jobs in energy and other sectors. n Energy security e.g. reduced energy demand can improve energy system security across the 4 dimensions of risk – fuel availability, accessibility, affordability, and social and environmental acceptability. © OECD/IEA 2011
  • 8. International level a. Energy prices e.g. If energy demand is reduced significantly in several markets, energy prices can be reduced. n Reduced GHG emissions e.g. when energy efficiency improvements result in reduced demand for fossil fuel energy. n Resource management e.g. Reduce pressure on scare resources; manage supply constraints; reduce incentive to pursue technologies with environmental impacts. g. Development goals e.g. eradicating poverty; increasing economic growth; improving environmental sustainability; and increasing access to energy. © OECD/IEA 2011
  • 9. The Rebound Effect  Positive welfare or utility gains from energy efficiency can increase energy consumption = rebound effect  Measurement methodology similar  If primary objective of EE policy is economic development - Different interpretation of rebound effect? Rebound Consumer Producer Effects Income Substitution Output Substitution Turning up More energy Buying a Increasing Direct the heat, use relative to bigger house production driving more other factors Lower cost cars lead to more Indirect Taking a holiday transport consumption Lower prices for energy Increased productivity, higher Macro- services boost demand for all profits/dividends implies economic goods and services economy- investment in the economy wide; increased employment © OECD/IEA 2011
  • 11. Initial observations  Energy efficiency as a key contributor to green growth and recession buster  Why are the wider outcomes from energy efficiency not measured?  How can we measure the multiple benefits of energy efficiency improvements?  Country contexts important © OECD/IEA 2011