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IEA Building Envelope Technologies and Policies Workshop,
                    Paris, 17/11/2011

High Performance Windows and Glazings
  Technologies, Systems and Tools in the U.S.



                    Stephen Selkowitz
               Windows and Daylighting Group
                Building Technologies Department
               Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Business and Policy Context
• Severe downturn in Construction Markets
• Future energy costs unclear, policy on carbon??
• Continued Globalization of Markets
   – Investment, China, ….
• “Technologies” reaching inflection points
   – E.g. Double glazing  Triple: new factory investment
   – New technologies: “smart glass”
   – Shift from “Components” to focus on “Integrated Systems”
• Updates to Mandatory Codes and Standards
• Updates to Voluntary Programs: e.g LEED, EnergyStar
• New State, Federal Energy Savings Requirements
   – E.g. California: “all new buildings net-zero by 2030”
• New Performance Disclosure requirements like EPBD
   – City, State now; will likely spread; How is Envelope Assessed?
                                                                      1
Windows Overview
• Context (1 Quad = 1015Btu = 1.05x 109 GJ; US Energy Use = ~100 Quads)
    –   Windows are a 4-5 Quad/yr energy cost (~$50B/yr) -- and opportunity
    –   Vision: change windows from net loss to net supply
    –   Highly “visible” component- window selection is “complex”
    –   Long-Lived Component- one chance to make the right decision!

           Window-Related Energy Consumption
                         (Quads)
                       Residential   Commercial
             Heating      1.65          0.96
             Cooling      1.02          0.52        Daylight: +1 Q
              Total       2.67          1.48

• Needs
    – Comprehensive program: spans materials science to specific product R&D
      to systems integration
    – Research – Development – Demonstration – Deployment
    – All Climates, All Building Types, New and Retrofit
    – Significant Industry Collaboration and Cost Share
    – Measurable impact on technology, products, energy savings
Fenestration Impacts on Building Energy Consumption
     Buildings consume 40% of total U.S. energy
        • 71% of electricity and 54% of natural gas
     Windows Do Not Directly Consume Energy
     • Allocating Impact on End Use Energy is a Challenge




                                                            42%




                                                            57%
Broad Scope RDD&D Portfolio
R&D Breadth Reflects Diverse Markets,
 Diverse Efficiency Opportunities
• Markets: New  retrofit
• Building Type: Residential  Commercial
• R&D Scope: Short term  Long Term
   – Full spectrum: Research, Development, Demonstration
       • “Valley of Death” for Innovation and Technology Development
   – Supports Short-term Deployment programs
   – Fill the “innovation pipeline” for longer term success
• R&D  Deployment
   – Federal Deployment Programs – DOE, other agencies
   – State and Regional Programs
   – Utilities, NGOs, Private programs
Efficiency Policies for Windows
   Volume Purchases

                                                        Tax Credits/
                                          Voluntary    Utility Rebates




                                                      Building Codes



                                                      Nat’l Fenestration
          R&D / Production Engineering                 Rating Council
                                                       Building America;
These Activities at Federal, State and Local Levels    Commercial Bldg
                                                         Partnerships      5
Broad Scope RDD&D Portfolio
Diverse Technical Program Areas needed to
  Capture Savings
•   Reduce thermal losses
•   Manage dynamic solar gain and glare
•   Control and redirect daylight
•   Air flow and Natural Ventilation

• Components  Integrated, automated façade systems
• Enabling technologies for performance simulation and
  measurement
Integrated R&D Strategy: e.g. Electrochromic Devices




                                                  Invent
                           Characterize         Integrated
                             Coating             Window
                           Performance                       Assess
Mg2Ni Alloy Structure
                                                             Human
          Mg2Ni                                              Factors
  Invent New
   Materials


                                          Assess
                                          Savings

   Invent
 Innovative                                 Invent/Test
Manufacturing                                Integrated
  Process                                     Systems
Program Vision: “Zero-Energy Window”
Energy Losers --> Neutral --> Net Suppliers
   • Heating climates
      – Reduce heat losses so that ambient solar
         energy balances and exceeds loss
      – Need lower heat loss technologies
   • Cooling climates
      – Reduce cooling loads
      – Static control -> dynamic control
   • All climates
      – Replace electric lighting with daylight
   • Electricity supply options
      – Photovoltaics-building skin as power
         source
Residential Window Savings Potentials

Advanced Window Energy Savings in Homes
           Scenari o             Energy Savings over Current Stock
                               Heat, quads Cool, quads Total, quads
   Sales (Business as usual)      0.49         0.37           0.86
   Energy Star (Low-e)            0.69         0.43           1.12
   Dynamic Low-e                  0.74         0.75           1.49
   Triple Pane Low-e              1.20         0.44           1.64
   Mixed Triple, Dynamic          1.22         0.55           1.77
   High-R Superwindow             1.41         0.44           1.85
   High-R Dynamic                 1.50         0.75           2.25

 Windows account for 1.65Q heating; 1.02Q Cooling = 2.67Q

 Conclusion: ideal windows save 80% of total current window energy use
Commercial Building Window Potentials

                                   Cost
                                   $20B




                  Saves
                  $15B
Successes in U.S. Window Markets
       (Example: Improved Insulating Properties in Residential market)

• 1973: Typical Window:
   – clear, single glazed,
   – double or storm window in north,
   – Uaverage = 4.8 W/m2-K

• 2003: Typical Window:
   –    95% double glazed
   –    50% have a low-E coating
   –    30-65% energy savings vs. 1973
   –    Uaverage = 2.5 W/m2-K

• 2030: Future Window:
   – Zero net energy use (typical)
         • Net winter gain; 80% cooling savings
   – Uaverage = .6 W/m2-K
   –    Dynamic solar control
Insulating Windows Can Become Energy Producers

     In cold climates, solar gain can exceed losses through
                    highly insulating windows

Annual
Heating
              Single Glaze: U = 6.2
Energy
Balance
                     Double Glaze: U = 2.8

                       Double, Low “e” U = 1.9 -2.1 (Energy Star)
                                      Window U = .6 – 1.2 (Triple or Vacuum)

  - Loss                                                 Window U < .6


  + Gain

           1973 1980 1990 2000                    2010                   2020
Savings from Better Windows
 Annual Heating Cost simulated for a heating climate

                      Single Glazed w/Storm, $1310

                          Double Glazed, $1218

                          Double w/Low-E, $1120

                      House with no windows, $1000


                           “SuperWindow”, $960
Energy Star Program Enhancements
•   Energy Star has helped push better technology to mainstream markets
•   Complex program because of regional dependence
•   Codes and Standards have surpassed EnergyStar- needs to be tightened
     –   Market share is saturating in some markets- 2010 Tax Credits helped
     –   Incremental or disruptive changes re: product lineups
     –   “Most Efficient” alternative?– top 5%
•   New Options?: Promote Window Coverings/Solar Shading Attachments
•   Dynamic/Operable systems
     –   How to credit operator impacts




                                                                               14
Transforming Markets Toward Highly Insulating Windows
   • Three panes or two panes and suspended film
   • Substantially outperform ENERGY STAR criteria
   • Present market share only around 2-3%

                                                                              21 °C



                                                                              18 °C



                                                                              15 °C



                                                                              12 °C



                                                                              9 °C



                                                                              6 °C



                                                                              3 °C

                                                       Triple Glazed Low-e,
                                 Double Glazed Low-e                          0 °C
                                                              Krypton
Integrated Program to Reduce Price of High Performance WIndows


           Building America demonstrations/ production housing

                    High-performance specs in LEED for Homes & NGBS

              Production Engineering RFP – 50% Cost Share


                           Technology Procurement/Volume Purchases –
                           Multifamily/Public Housing/Condo, Builders, etc


                Develop advanced
                                        Utility programs for advanced windows
                 utility program
                       specs

             ENERGY STAR spec revision                               New ENERGY STAR /
                                                                          Phase II




                                                                                         16
Insulating Windows: Building Systems Optimization

     A highly-insulating building envelope not only saves substantial energy… but can
                        allow for up-front savings in HVAC system costs.
 •    High-performance windows are a critical link in the Building Envelope

     Windows Area: 30 m2
     Incremental Cost                                                         Reduced Duct
     for R .9 Windows: *$50/m2                                                Savings: $450
     Total Cost: $1500

Cost: $1500
Savings: $1000
Total: $500
6-12 yr simple payback
                                                                              Reduced HVAC
 *Consumer price premiums are
 $20-$40 per sq m, but wholesale base
                                                                              Savings: $550
 cost to builders may he lower               200 m2 Home
                                                                                              17
Integrated R&D Program
                         Advanced Facades and Daylighting:
                         Program Goals:                                               Application:
                         Net Zero Energy Balance for New and Retrofit                 All climates
                                                                                      All Building types
                         Enhanced View and Thermal Comfort
                                                                                      New-Replacement-Retrofit
                         Reliable, cost effective operations
                         Tools to design, optimize, specify, control                       Program Activities:
                         Adoption/diffusion throughout industry                            Simulation
Advanced                                                                                   Optimization
Technologies:                                                                              Lab test
Sensors;                                                                                   Field Test
Controls;
                                                                                           Demonstrations
Hi R windows,
Cool coatings;                                                                             Standards
Switchable coatings;
Automated Shading;
Daylight-redirecting
Operable windows,
                                                                                            Partners
                                                                                            Manufacturers
                                                                                            Owners
                                          Business Case                                     Architects
                                                                        Decision Tools      Engineers
                Human Factors:            Manufacturing                 Books, Guides
                Thermal comfort           Installation                                      Specifiers
                                          Commissioning
                                                                        Websites            Code officials
                Visual comfort
                Satisfaction              Reliability                   Simulation Tools    Contractors
                Performance               Cost                          Testbeds            Utilities
Comparative Shading System Performance
Smart Coatings for Windows
         Need Dynamic Control of Window Properties
           To Balance Cooling, Daylighting, Glare
• Flexible, optimized control of
  solar gain and daylight                            “OFF”
• Passive control
   – Photochromic - light sensitive
   – Thermochromic - heat sensitive

• Active control
   – Liquid Crystal
   – Suspended particle display (SPD)

   – Electrochromic                             “ON”

• Active control preferred; but
  requires wiring windows for power
  and control
Progress with Electrochromic Windows
Early manufactured products in buildings now;
 New production facilities on-line in 2012 with
      larger, better quality at lower cost.




                                                  21
New Technology for Daylighting
•   Two Strategies for Increased Energy Savings
     –   Better glare control
     –   Deeper daylight penetration


•   Conventional Options for Directional Control
     –   glass block
     –   fritted glass
     –   diffusers
     –   shading systems

•   New Options
     –   Special blinds
     –   Prismatic glazings
     –   Holographic materials
     –   Laser cut panels
     –   Light pipes
     –   Fiber optics
     –   Nanotech- dynamic coatings


•   Challenges
     –   Fabrication at affordable cost
     –   Durability, lifetime
     –   Characterize them - how do they perform?
2010+: New Program Directions

• Expansion from residential to commercial research
  – New R&D focus on daylighting since Lighting is major commercial load.
    Daylighting issues:
       •   Lighting/cooling load tradeoffs
       •   Manage intensity, control glare
       •   Understand occupant behavior
       •   Sensors, controls, systems integration
  – NFRC program for rating commercial products
  – New tools, websites for Commercial e.g. COMFEN
• Expansion from “New” markets to “Retrofit”
  –   Different companies and new market pathways
  –   New systems: Windows  Attachments
  –   “Attachments” = blinds, shades, shutters, storm windows,….
  –   “How do they perform?”
  –   International Collaboration: ESSO- European Solar Shading Organization
Major New Program Directions
• New Investment in Technology R&D
  – “High R” windows; Electrochromic glass and Automated Shading
  – New activity, interest, opportunity in Daylight control
• More Aggressive Partner Engagement in Deployment
  – Tighter building codes and standards, tax incentives,…
  – New Update for EnergyStar (may require triples in 2013)= Technology
    drivers
  – Utility programs as partners, voluntary programs as market drivers
  – New Market Pull from LEED and Green/Sustainable Design
• New, Enhanced “Tools” for decision making
  –   Product Design: WINDOW, THERM, Optics, etc
  –   Façade Design: COMFEN
  –   Daylighting: Radiance
  –   Whole Building Design: EnergyPlus with new GUI
Glazing and Façade Decision Support Tools
  Download http://windows.lbl.gov/software/ FY10 ~ 37,000 Downloads


                                                            Optics              THERM
                IGDB                                         (Window              (Window
                (Specular                                      Glass)              Frame)
                Glass Data
                Source)




                CGDB
                (Complex                                      WINDOW
                                                             (Whole Window)
                Glazing Data
                Base)




    Radiance
Lighting /Daylighting
                                         COMFEN                               RESFEN
                                          (Whole Building                     (Whole Building
                                           Commercial)                          Residential)



                        Commercial Windows Website Efficient Windows Website
                                Design /Simulation Tools
Tools Support R&D and Deployment

How are Tools Used?               R&D: New Product Design
• Design of new products
• Guidelines for Product
  Selection
• Energy Star Compliance
  and Analysis
• NFRC Ratings




                           Product Selection
                              Guidelines
   Energy Star Map                                    NFRC
                                                      Label
Glazing/Shading/Daylighting Measurement and Validation
                                           •   Façade/daylighting test facility
                                           •   Integrated Systems testbeds
                                           •   Mobile Thermal Test Facility
                                           •   IR Thermography chamber

                                           •   Large integrating sphere
                                           •   Optics laboratory
                                           •   Scanning Goniophotometer
                                           •   HDR Imaging
                                           •   Field Data Collection systems
                                           •   Commissioning systems
                                           •   Virtual Building Controls Testbed
                                           •   Daylighting controls laboratory
Next Steps? Collaboration?
• Enhanced deployment of Proven technology
    – Mandatory and voluntary programs
    – Ratings and Labels: Properties  Performance
    – Financing, Education, Training,…..
• Collaboration and Harmonization in a Global Era
    – Standards- ongoing issues- ASTM, ISO, CEN, ASHRAE, Green buildings
    – Collaborative R&D: IEA BCS/ SH&C Annexes, Tasks
• Collaborative R&D for Pre-competitive Topics? IP Challenges?
• Sharing Best Practice
    – Technology --- > Systems, Building Practice
    – Design Construction  Operations
    – Measured Data
• Example: Solar Shading collaboration
• Examples: Windows and Integrated Building Systems
    – Extracting best performance
    – Measuring impacts  System Tradeoffs, e.g. better windows  smaller HVAC

                                                                                 28
U.S.: New Window Retrofit Initiative
•   Context
     – New Construction: Slow stock turnover; worse with recession
          •   Renovation/Additions adds “new” windows
     – Window Retrofit/Replacement rarely done for “payback”
     – Large, thriving, fragmented industry – “window attachments”
          •   Focus is privacy, fashion, comfort…….. sometimes Energy
     – Global interest- Europe is driver, established markets
          •   External Shading is Common practice without AC
          •   Collaboration with European Solar Shading Organization
          •   Potenial IEA Annex?
     – Lack of “accurate” tools to characterize products and performance
          • Utilities cannot launch incentive programs if they can’t estimate savings
•   Opportunity
     – Harness latent industry interest to focus on energy efficiency
     – Dual program: “Applications Now”/”Innovation tomorrow”
•   Needs/Scope
     – “Applications Now”
          •   Tools, guides to characterize products; select best/better solutions (smart phone)
          •   Channel, marketing program
     – “Innovation Tomorrow”
          •   New materials
          •   Automated control/integration
Exploring Intelligent Control Systems
   Maximum performance requires full
    integration with building systems
System Integration: Investment Tradeoffs


                           Office Eq.
                Heating                  $          $
                            Peak
                            Cooling     Chiller
               Cooling      Load        Size      Onsite
                                                   Power
                                        Energy, Generation
               Lighting     Lighting    Peak
                            Design      Electric  Central
                            Strategy    Demand Power
                                                 Generation
     $            $
Initial Cost Annual Cost      $          $
                                                    $
Accurate, Objective Performance Data LBNL’s National User Testbed Facility

  Commercial Building Integrated Systems
  testbeds: Envelope, Lighting, Plug Load, HVAC
  interactions (w/ and w/o occupants)




                                                  5 New Façade Testbed Facilities

                                                  •Multiple comparative experiments
                                                  •Interface with public and private test sites
                                                  •Link and share experimental data sources
                                                  •Objective, “third party” data

                                                  •What works? How well? Why? Why Not?
                                                  •Integrated building systems performance
                                                  •Occupant behavior and energy impacts
                                                  •Validation of design tools
Construction: 2012
Operations: 2013

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High Performance Windows and Glazings: Technologies, Systems and Tools in the U.S.

  • 1. IEA Building Envelope Technologies and Policies Workshop, Paris, 17/11/2011 High Performance Windows and Glazings Technologies, Systems and Tools in the U.S. Stephen Selkowitz Windows and Daylighting Group Building Technologies Department Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • 2. Business and Policy Context • Severe downturn in Construction Markets • Future energy costs unclear, policy on carbon?? • Continued Globalization of Markets – Investment, China, …. • “Technologies” reaching inflection points – E.g. Double glazing  Triple: new factory investment – New technologies: “smart glass” – Shift from “Components” to focus on “Integrated Systems” • Updates to Mandatory Codes and Standards • Updates to Voluntary Programs: e.g LEED, EnergyStar • New State, Federal Energy Savings Requirements – E.g. California: “all new buildings net-zero by 2030” • New Performance Disclosure requirements like EPBD – City, State now; will likely spread; How is Envelope Assessed? 1
  • 3. Windows Overview • Context (1 Quad = 1015Btu = 1.05x 109 GJ; US Energy Use = ~100 Quads) – Windows are a 4-5 Quad/yr energy cost (~$50B/yr) -- and opportunity – Vision: change windows from net loss to net supply – Highly “visible” component- window selection is “complex” – Long-Lived Component- one chance to make the right decision! Window-Related Energy Consumption (Quads) Residential Commercial Heating 1.65 0.96 Cooling 1.02 0.52 Daylight: +1 Q Total 2.67 1.48 • Needs – Comprehensive program: spans materials science to specific product R&D to systems integration – Research – Development – Demonstration – Deployment – All Climates, All Building Types, New and Retrofit – Significant Industry Collaboration and Cost Share – Measurable impact on technology, products, energy savings
  • 4. Fenestration Impacts on Building Energy Consumption Buildings consume 40% of total U.S. energy • 71% of electricity and 54% of natural gas Windows Do Not Directly Consume Energy • Allocating Impact on End Use Energy is a Challenge 42% 57%
  • 5. Broad Scope RDD&D Portfolio R&D Breadth Reflects Diverse Markets, Diverse Efficiency Opportunities • Markets: New  retrofit • Building Type: Residential  Commercial • R&D Scope: Short term  Long Term – Full spectrum: Research, Development, Demonstration • “Valley of Death” for Innovation and Technology Development – Supports Short-term Deployment programs – Fill the “innovation pipeline” for longer term success • R&D  Deployment – Federal Deployment Programs – DOE, other agencies – State and Regional Programs – Utilities, NGOs, Private programs
  • 6. Efficiency Policies for Windows Volume Purchases Tax Credits/ Voluntary Utility Rebates Building Codes Nat’l Fenestration R&D / Production Engineering Rating Council Building America; These Activities at Federal, State and Local Levels Commercial Bldg Partnerships 5
  • 7. Broad Scope RDD&D Portfolio Diverse Technical Program Areas needed to Capture Savings • Reduce thermal losses • Manage dynamic solar gain and glare • Control and redirect daylight • Air flow and Natural Ventilation • Components  Integrated, automated façade systems • Enabling technologies for performance simulation and measurement
  • 8. Integrated R&D Strategy: e.g. Electrochromic Devices Invent Characterize Integrated Coating Window Performance Assess Mg2Ni Alloy Structure Human Mg2Ni Factors Invent New Materials Assess Savings Invent Innovative Invent/Test Manufacturing Integrated Process Systems
  • 9. Program Vision: “Zero-Energy Window” Energy Losers --> Neutral --> Net Suppliers • Heating climates – Reduce heat losses so that ambient solar energy balances and exceeds loss – Need lower heat loss technologies • Cooling climates – Reduce cooling loads – Static control -> dynamic control • All climates – Replace electric lighting with daylight • Electricity supply options – Photovoltaics-building skin as power source
  • 10. Residential Window Savings Potentials Advanced Window Energy Savings in Homes Scenari o Energy Savings over Current Stock Heat, quads Cool, quads Total, quads Sales (Business as usual) 0.49 0.37 0.86 Energy Star (Low-e) 0.69 0.43 1.12 Dynamic Low-e 0.74 0.75 1.49 Triple Pane Low-e 1.20 0.44 1.64 Mixed Triple, Dynamic 1.22 0.55 1.77 High-R Superwindow 1.41 0.44 1.85 High-R Dynamic 1.50 0.75 2.25 Windows account for 1.65Q heating; 1.02Q Cooling = 2.67Q Conclusion: ideal windows save 80% of total current window energy use
  • 11. Commercial Building Window Potentials Cost $20B Saves $15B
  • 12. Successes in U.S. Window Markets (Example: Improved Insulating Properties in Residential market) • 1973: Typical Window: – clear, single glazed, – double or storm window in north, – Uaverage = 4.8 W/m2-K • 2003: Typical Window: – 95% double glazed – 50% have a low-E coating – 30-65% energy savings vs. 1973 – Uaverage = 2.5 W/m2-K • 2030: Future Window: – Zero net energy use (typical) • Net winter gain; 80% cooling savings – Uaverage = .6 W/m2-K – Dynamic solar control
  • 13. Insulating Windows Can Become Energy Producers In cold climates, solar gain can exceed losses through highly insulating windows Annual Heating Single Glaze: U = 6.2 Energy Balance Double Glaze: U = 2.8 Double, Low “e” U = 1.9 -2.1 (Energy Star) Window U = .6 – 1.2 (Triple or Vacuum) - Loss Window U < .6 + Gain 1973 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
  • 14. Savings from Better Windows Annual Heating Cost simulated for a heating climate Single Glazed w/Storm, $1310 Double Glazed, $1218 Double w/Low-E, $1120 House with no windows, $1000 “SuperWindow”, $960
  • 15. Energy Star Program Enhancements • Energy Star has helped push better technology to mainstream markets • Complex program because of regional dependence • Codes and Standards have surpassed EnergyStar- needs to be tightened – Market share is saturating in some markets- 2010 Tax Credits helped – Incremental or disruptive changes re: product lineups – “Most Efficient” alternative?– top 5% • New Options?: Promote Window Coverings/Solar Shading Attachments • Dynamic/Operable systems – How to credit operator impacts 14
  • 16. Transforming Markets Toward Highly Insulating Windows • Three panes or two panes and suspended film • Substantially outperform ENERGY STAR criteria • Present market share only around 2-3% 21 °C 18 °C 15 °C 12 °C 9 °C 6 °C 3 °C Triple Glazed Low-e, Double Glazed Low-e 0 °C Krypton
  • 17. Integrated Program to Reduce Price of High Performance WIndows Building America demonstrations/ production housing High-performance specs in LEED for Homes & NGBS Production Engineering RFP – 50% Cost Share Technology Procurement/Volume Purchases – Multifamily/Public Housing/Condo, Builders, etc Develop advanced Utility programs for advanced windows utility program specs ENERGY STAR spec revision New ENERGY STAR / Phase II 16
  • 18. Insulating Windows: Building Systems Optimization A highly-insulating building envelope not only saves substantial energy… but can allow for up-front savings in HVAC system costs. • High-performance windows are a critical link in the Building Envelope Windows Area: 30 m2 Incremental Cost Reduced Duct for R .9 Windows: *$50/m2 Savings: $450 Total Cost: $1500 Cost: $1500 Savings: $1000 Total: $500 6-12 yr simple payback Reduced HVAC *Consumer price premiums are $20-$40 per sq m, but wholesale base Savings: $550 cost to builders may he lower 200 m2 Home 17
  • 19. Integrated R&D Program Advanced Facades and Daylighting: Program Goals: Application: Net Zero Energy Balance for New and Retrofit All climates All Building types Enhanced View and Thermal Comfort New-Replacement-Retrofit Reliable, cost effective operations Tools to design, optimize, specify, control Program Activities: Adoption/diffusion throughout industry Simulation Advanced Optimization Technologies: Lab test Sensors; Field Test Controls; Demonstrations Hi R windows, Cool coatings; Standards Switchable coatings; Automated Shading; Daylight-redirecting Operable windows, Partners Manufacturers Owners Business Case Architects Decision Tools Engineers Human Factors: Manufacturing Books, Guides Thermal comfort Installation Specifiers Commissioning Websites Code officials Visual comfort Satisfaction Reliability Simulation Tools Contractors Performance Cost Testbeds Utilities
  • 21. Smart Coatings for Windows Need Dynamic Control of Window Properties To Balance Cooling, Daylighting, Glare • Flexible, optimized control of solar gain and daylight “OFF” • Passive control – Photochromic - light sensitive – Thermochromic - heat sensitive • Active control – Liquid Crystal – Suspended particle display (SPD) – Electrochromic “ON” • Active control preferred; but requires wiring windows for power and control
  • 22. Progress with Electrochromic Windows Early manufactured products in buildings now; New production facilities on-line in 2012 with larger, better quality at lower cost. 21
  • 23. New Technology for Daylighting • Two Strategies for Increased Energy Savings – Better glare control – Deeper daylight penetration • Conventional Options for Directional Control – glass block – fritted glass – diffusers – shading systems • New Options – Special blinds – Prismatic glazings – Holographic materials – Laser cut panels – Light pipes – Fiber optics – Nanotech- dynamic coatings • Challenges – Fabrication at affordable cost – Durability, lifetime – Characterize them - how do they perform?
  • 24. 2010+: New Program Directions • Expansion from residential to commercial research – New R&D focus on daylighting since Lighting is major commercial load. Daylighting issues: • Lighting/cooling load tradeoffs • Manage intensity, control glare • Understand occupant behavior • Sensors, controls, systems integration – NFRC program for rating commercial products – New tools, websites for Commercial e.g. COMFEN • Expansion from “New” markets to “Retrofit” – Different companies and new market pathways – New systems: Windows  Attachments – “Attachments” = blinds, shades, shutters, storm windows,…. – “How do they perform?” – International Collaboration: ESSO- European Solar Shading Organization
  • 25. Major New Program Directions • New Investment in Technology R&D – “High R” windows; Electrochromic glass and Automated Shading – New activity, interest, opportunity in Daylight control • More Aggressive Partner Engagement in Deployment – Tighter building codes and standards, tax incentives,… – New Update for EnergyStar (may require triples in 2013)= Technology drivers – Utility programs as partners, voluntary programs as market drivers – New Market Pull from LEED and Green/Sustainable Design • New, Enhanced “Tools” for decision making – Product Design: WINDOW, THERM, Optics, etc – Façade Design: COMFEN – Daylighting: Radiance – Whole Building Design: EnergyPlus with new GUI
  • 26. Glazing and Façade Decision Support Tools Download http://windows.lbl.gov/software/ FY10 ~ 37,000 Downloads Optics THERM IGDB (Window (Window (Specular Glass) Frame) Glass Data Source) CGDB (Complex WINDOW (Whole Window) Glazing Data Base) Radiance Lighting /Daylighting COMFEN RESFEN (Whole Building (Whole Building Commercial) Residential) Commercial Windows Website Efficient Windows Website Design /Simulation Tools
  • 27. Tools Support R&D and Deployment How are Tools Used? R&D: New Product Design • Design of new products • Guidelines for Product Selection • Energy Star Compliance and Analysis • NFRC Ratings Product Selection Guidelines Energy Star Map NFRC Label
  • 28. Glazing/Shading/Daylighting Measurement and Validation • Façade/daylighting test facility • Integrated Systems testbeds • Mobile Thermal Test Facility • IR Thermography chamber • Large integrating sphere • Optics laboratory • Scanning Goniophotometer • HDR Imaging • Field Data Collection systems • Commissioning systems • Virtual Building Controls Testbed • Daylighting controls laboratory
  • 29. Next Steps? Collaboration? • Enhanced deployment of Proven technology – Mandatory and voluntary programs – Ratings and Labels: Properties  Performance – Financing, Education, Training,….. • Collaboration and Harmonization in a Global Era – Standards- ongoing issues- ASTM, ISO, CEN, ASHRAE, Green buildings – Collaborative R&D: IEA BCS/ SH&C Annexes, Tasks • Collaborative R&D for Pre-competitive Topics? IP Challenges? • Sharing Best Practice – Technology --- > Systems, Building Practice – Design Construction  Operations – Measured Data • Example: Solar Shading collaboration • Examples: Windows and Integrated Building Systems – Extracting best performance – Measuring impacts  System Tradeoffs, e.g. better windows  smaller HVAC 28
  • 30. U.S.: New Window Retrofit Initiative • Context – New Construction: Slow stock turnover; worse with recession • Renovation/Additions adds “new” windows – Window Retrofit/Replacement rarely done for “payback” – Large, thriving, fragmented industry – “window attachments” • Focus is privacy, fashion, comfort…….. sometimes Energy – Global interest- Europe is driver, established markets • External Shading is Common practice without AC • Collaboration with European Solar Shading Organization • Potenial IEA Annex? – Lack of “accurate” tools to characterize products and performance • Utilities cannot launch incentive programs if they can’t estimate savings • Opportunity – Harness latent industry interest to focus on energy efficiency – Dual program: “Applications Now”/”Innovation tomorrow” • Needs/Scope – “Applications Now” • Tools, guides to characterize products; select best/better solutions (smart phone) • Channel, marketing program – “Innovation Tomorrow” • New materials • Automated control/integration
  • 31. Exploring Intelligent Control Systems Maximum performance requires full integration with building systems
  • 32. System Integration: Investment Tradeoffs Office Eq. Heating $ $ Peak Cooling Chiller Cooling Load Size Onsite Power Energy, Generation Lighting Lighting Peak Design Electric Central Strategy Demand Power Generation $ $ Initial Cost Annual Cost $ $ $
  • 33. Accurate, Objective Performance Data LBNL’s National User Testbed Facility Commercial Building Integrated Systems testbeds: Envelope, Lighting, Plug Load, HVAC interactions (w/ and w/o occupants) 5 New Façade Testbed Facilities •Multiple comparative experiments •Interface with public and private test sites •Link and share experimental data sources •Objective, “third party” data •What works? How well? Why? Why Not? •Integrated building systems performance •Occupant behavior and energy impacts •Validation of design tools Construction: 2012 Operations: 2013