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IEA Building Envelope Technologies and Policies Workshop,
                    Paris, 17/11/2011

  Insulation Technologies and Materials
  Technologies, Systems and Tools in the U.S.


                       Stephen Selkowitz
                Building Technologies Department
                Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

                       Content Provided by
                   Marc LaFrance, USDOE
            Andre Desjarlais, Theresa Stovall, ORNL
Envelope Impacts on Building Energy Consumption
 Buildings consume 40% of total U.S. energy
    • 71% of electricity and 54% of natural gas
 Envelope Does Not Directly Consume Energy
 •  Allocating Impact on End Use Energy is a Challenge




                                                         42%




                                                         39%
DOE Opaque Building Envelope Materials and Systems
7 Program R&D Areas
                      DD&D Portfolio
Materials, Components, Processes
   –   Insulation Materials
   –   Phase Change Materials
   –   Air Barriers
   –   Moisture Research
Building Systems
   – Cool Roofs
   – Roof and Attic Systems
Cross-cutting Fundamental R&D
   – Enabling Technologies:
        • Performance simulation, measurement
        • Education, Training
Insulating Materials:
      New Vacuum Insulation Panel Research
• New Insulation Requirements require “thicker”
  insulation;
  – Poses design and installation challenges
• Research Challenges- Insulation with higher R/cm
• Vacuum Insulation is “again” of interest
• Long History; Development issues
  •   Durability and protection
  •   Aging prediction techniques
  •   Seal and barrier permeability
  •   Innovative edge geometries
  •   Cost reductions
Interest in Building Applications in Europe
• Historic retrofit
   • Under heated floors, Exterior sheathing
• New buildings
   • Integrated wall systems
Gas Filled Panel (GFP) Insulation
• Spin off from High-R Windows R&D
• “Airliner” insulated shipping container




                                            6
 m2-K/W   for 25mm: .9        1.6
Phase Change Energy Research
                    A New Look at an “old” technology
 Goals
•Advance fundamental science of PCMs as applied to building envelopes
   •Develop new test methods
    •Apply advanced analysis techniques
• Support US industry in their efforts to reduce costs of PCM building products
• Nearing economic and dimensional limits on traditional envelope measures
• Proactively manage interactions with variable environment: Take advantage of
 diurnal variations in ambient conditions
•Explore Energy vs Temperature/Comfort and Peak impacts
•Explore impacts on peak cooling demand and other time-dependent issues
   • Cooling system sizing issues
   • Time of day- utility pricing
Parametric Evaluation: Phoenix, Az
• Total energy flux THROUGH the wall very nearly the same whether there is PCM in the wall or not.
• Wall energy savings (~8%) are almost entirely due to SHIFTING the interior COOLING LOAD to the
  cooler part of the day when the air conditioner operates more efficiently.
• Wall economic savings (~30%) are greater than energy savings when time-of-day pricing is available
• Optimization of PCM properties, internal distribution, and amount has to consider wall orientation,
  thermostat set point, savings goals
• Latest discovery: Savings are greater when consider interactions between insulation and framing


      Temp (C) 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48
                                                                                       25




                                                                                       20
                                                      No PCM




                                                               Cooling Reduction (%)
                                                                                                                   Annual Peak
                                                                                                                   Annual Elec. Use
                                                                                       15                          Annual Load



                        2”×6” Stud                                                     10
                                                      PCM




                                                                                        5




                                                                                        0
                                                                                            0   2            4            6           8
                                                                                                                     2
       Hot summer afternoon                                                                         Mass of PCM (kg/m )
Future Plans for PCM Project
• Determine optimal amount and placement of PCM taking hysteresis and 2-
  D thermal bridging into account.
• Continue dynamic test method development
• Examine attic applications (greater temperature swings, better retrofit
  opportunities)
• Continue to work with partners on building projects to develop low-cost
  PCM
• Continue to support efforts to improve modeling and apply to Energy Plus
Air Barriers for
               Residential and Commercial Buildings
• Air leakage: 20 - 30% of conditioning loads (Huang, 1998)
• Lack of comprehensive research                                                         Fluid-applied
                                                                                         non-foaming
         –     Energy conservation
         –     Durability of building materials
         –     Means to meet 2009 and 2012 IECC
         –     Retrofit of existing buildings
                                                                           Interior      Self-adhered

• Field and laboratory tests
         – Quantify air barrier benefits
         – Identify major sources of air leakage                    Mechanically        Non-insulating
                                                                     fastened            boardstock
         – Evaluate sealing mechanisms
         – Benchmark simulation tools

10   Managed by UT-Battelle                        Spray-applied foam    Insulating   Sealers w/ backup
     for the U.S. Department of Energy
                                                                        boardstock        structure
Recently Completed Work

•     Complete Phase 1 at Syracuse NET Facility
                                                                                  Field tests
•     Begin Phase 2 at Syracuse NET facility
•     Continue characterization of air barriers
                                                                                  Lab tests
•     Plan sub-assembly tests


                     Syracuse NET Facility                          Laboratory Setups




             Phase 1 wall panels            Phase 2 wall panels   Material test       Sub-assembly test


11   Managed by UT-Battelle
     for the U.S. Department of Energy
Tasks for FY12 (Pending Funding)
1. Finalize Industry Collaborative Plan
2. Monitor Phase 2 at NET Facility
          – Collect and analyze data
3. Finish air barrier characterizations
          – Issue reports to manufacturers
4. Begin sub-assembly tests
                                                                  MFEL chamber

5. Coordinate Multi-Functional Envelope Laboratory
   Chamber
          – FY10 funded facility upgrade
          – Supports air barrier and moisture research programs

12   Managed by UT-Battelle
     for the U.S. Department of Energy
Moisture Engineering and Metal Buildings
     • Challenge
              – Moisture is increasingly a durability issue in “efficient” wall sections as
                more insulation, vapor barriers are added
              – Must produce materials and installation guides that result in durable,
                “dry”, wall and roof sections without mold and rot
     • Tasks
              – Validate the WUFI software against the measured Charleston, SC field
                data for at least 2 wall systems
              – Measure hygrothermal properties of ten construction materials
              – Enhance the WUFI-ORNL software by including the temperature
                dependencies of the thermal conductivity; hold workshops
              – Report summarizing the thermal performance of metal building roofs


     • Partnership: ORNL with Fraunhofer IBP, U. Minnesota, NREL

13   Managed by UT-Battelle
     for the U.S. Department of Energy
Measure Hygrothermal Properties
                                              Number of                     Percent Complete
Material                                      Products           ASTM        ASTM         ASTM     Liquid
                                                                  E 96       C 1498       C 1699   Uptake
Liquid applied non-foaming membrane                 8             70           95           80     100
Non-insulating boardstock                           1             80          100           40     100
Insulating boardstock                               1             25           40           40     100
Mechanically fastened membrane                      5             80          100           40     100
Self-adhered membrane                               3             80          100           75     100
Spray-applied foam                                  3             25           70           40     100
Air sealers with back-up structure                  1             25           40           40     100
Total                                              22             64           89           59     100

ASTM E 96 – 05: Water vapor transmission of materials
ASTM C 1498 – 04a: Hygroscopic sorption isotherms of building materials
ASTM C 1699 – 08: Moisture retention curves of porous building materials using pressure plates
Protocol for Hygrothermal Modeling Validation




                         S. Carolina
                         NET Facility



                              EIFS on 2x4@16“,
                              no Vapor Barrier
Cool Roofs: Key Tasks and Milestones
 • Issues
           – What happens to thermal performance as roof surface
             “ages”
           – What are mechanisms for change in surface properties
           – Develop accelerated methods to assess these impacts

 • Field study on microbial species
                     • Species identified
                     • Sampling protocol tested on roof facilities at 3 locations

 • Protocol development on white reflective and cool
   color roofs
           •     Chamber controls solar radiation, temperature, humidity, wetting cycle acquired
                 to perform exposure testing
           •     Specimens loaded with dust and inoculated with microbes will be inserted in
                 chamber and evaluated


16   Managed by UT-Battelle
     for the U.S. Department of Energy
Load Chamber for Simulating and Accelerating Roof
              Contamination Rate

                      • Chamber built for accommodating a
                        sample size up to 15” in dia. or
                        multiple samples of smaller area
                        size
                      • Real-time monitoring capability for
                        contaminant loading
                      • Easy access to sample for
                        reflectance measurement and
                        loading verification
                      • Design for loading dry and or wet
                        contaminants
Loading and Reflectance Reduction Rates
               2.5

                 2
                                                                                                    • Hi-fidelity simulation of
                                                        R² = 0.9048
               1.5                                                                                    atmospheric dust loading using
Dirt Mass, g




                 1                                                                                    real-world test dusts, e.g., Arizona
               0.5                                                                                    test dust(ISO 12103-1 standard)
                 0
                                 0.0                20.0        40.0         60.0     80.0          • Total surface reflectance
               -0.5
                                                  Loading Duration from To, min                       measurement tested on Arizona
                                                                                                      test dust Mass loading function
                                         0.050

                                         0.000
                                                                                                      linear (R2>0.9) following deposition
                                         -0.050
                                                  0.0        20.0         40.0      60.0     80.0
                                                                                                      theory
                 Reflectance Reduction




                                                                                                    • Reflectance reduction also linear
                                         -0.100

                                         -0.150

                                         -0.200
                                                                      R² = 0.9807
                                                                                                      following dust load (R2 > 0.98)
                                         -0.250

                                         -0.300

                                         -0.350
                                                            Loading Duration from To, min
CA Topographic Map
                                               Field Exposure Sites




19   Managed by UT-Battelle
     for the U.S. Department of Energy
Next Generation of Roof and Attic Systems
• How do materials and components perform as a system?
• Validate tools with field data to extend results to all climates
• Field study on attic ventilation (NET Facility Charleston SC)
       • Data acquisition active
       • Tracer gas analyses of attics complete
       • Sensitivity study of attic ventilation (in progress)
• Roof and attic design guidelines
    • Hot climate design guides
    • Cold climate designs
    • Lab testing of radiant barriers
    • Field test on thermochromic surface
NET Measurement Facility Charleston, SC

Polyicynene                     Cool                                      Deck                  Storm
                Triflex Non
Sealed 15-lb                    Shingles                                  Armor                 Guard
                breathable                   15-lb Low Perm


           2            3         4            5     6    1           7




                                                                                         Fascia
               Sealed       Non-Breathable         ASV        1/300          1/300      1/150




                              • Field Study on Attic Ventilation                  Radiant Barrier
                                                                                  facing into attic
                             • Dearth of Research on Ventilation
                            • Diverse Opinions on its Effectiveness
                              • Results are empirical and dated
AtticSim/EnergyPlus Estimated Energy Savings

     Effect of leaky and poorly insulated ducts predominate loss
Performance Evaluation of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using LSCS
    Attic 1   Oriented Strand Board (OSB) without radiant barrier (RB), ε = 0.89
    Attic 2   OSB with perforated foil faced Radiant Barrier, ε = 0.03
    Attic 3   Radiant Barrier stapled to rafters, ε = 0.02
    Attic 4   Spray applied low-e paint on roof deck and rafters, ε = 0.23




                                          The test attic had fiberglass batt insulation on the floor
                                          Summer daytime condition: climate chamber air temperature
                                         38°C, roof exterior surface temperature 60°C
                                          Winter Night condition: climate chamber air temperature 0°C

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Insulation Technologies and Materials: Technologies, Systems and Tools in the U.S.

  • 1. IEA Building Envelope Technologies and Policies Workshop, Paris, 17/11/2011 Insulation Technologies and Materials Technologies, Systems and Tools in the U.S. Stephen Selkowitz Building Technologies Department Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Content Provided by Marc LaFrance, USDOE Andre Desjarlais, Theresa Stovall, ORNL
  • 2. Envelope Impacts on Building Energy Consumption Buildings consume 40% of total U.S. energy • 71% of electricity and 54% of natural gas Envelope Does Not Directly Consume Energy • Allocating Impact on End Use Energy is a Challenge 42% 39%
  • 3. DOE Opaque Building Envelope Materials and Systems
  • 4. 7 Program R&D Areas DD&D Portfolio Materials, Components, Processes – Insulation Materials – Phase Change Materials – Air Barriers – Moisture Research Building Systems – Cool Roofs – Roof and Attic Systems Cross-cutting Fundamental R&D – Enabling Technologies: • Performance simulation, measurement • Education, Training
  • 5. Insulating Materials: New Vacuum Insulation Panel Research • New Insulation Requirements require “thicker” insulation; – Poses design and installation challenges • Research Challenges- Insulation with higher R/cm • Vacuum Insulation is “again” of interest • Long History; Development issues • Durability and protection • Aging prediction techniques • Seal and barrier permeability • Innovative edge geometries • Cost reductions
  • 6. Interest in Building Applications in Europe • Historic retrofit • Under heated floors, Exterior sheathing • New buildings • Integrated wall systems
  • 7. Gas Filled Panel (GFP) Insulation • Spin off from High-R Windows R&D • “Airliner” insulated shipping container 6 m2-K/W for 25mm: .9 1.6
  • 8. Phase Change Energy Research A New Look at an “old” technology Goals •Advance fundamental science of PCMs as applied to building envelopes •Develop new test methods •Apply advanced analysis techniques • Support US industry in their efforts to reduce costs of PCM building products • Nearing economic and dimensional limits on traditional envelope measures • Proactively manage interactions with variable environment: Take advantage of diurnal variations in ambient conditions •Explore Energy vs Temperature/Comfort and Peak impacts •Explore impacts on peak cooling demand and other time-dependent issues • Cooling system sizing issues • Time of day- utility pricing
  • 9. Parametric Evaluation: Phoenix, Az • Total energy flux THROUGH the wall very nearly the same whether there is PCM in the wall or not. • Wall energy savings (~8%) are almost entirely due to SHIFTING the interior COOLING LOAD to the cooler part of the day when the air conditioner operates more efficiently. • Wall economic savings (~30%) are greater than energy savings when time-of-day pricing is available • Optimization of PCM properties, internal distribution, and amount has to consider wall orientation, thermostat set point, savings goals • Latest discovery: Savings are greater when consider interactions between insulation and framing Temp (C) 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 25 20 No PCM Cooling Reduction (%) Annual Peak Annual Elec. Use 15 Annual Load 2”×6” Stud 10 PCM 5 0 0 2 4 6 8 2 Hot summer afternoon Mass of PCM (kg/m )
  • 10. Future Plans for PCM Project • Determine optimal amount and placement of PCM taking hysteresis and 2- D thermal bridging into account. • Continue dynamic test method development • Examine attic applications (greater temperature swings, better retrofit opportunities) • Continue to work with partners on building projects to develop low-cost PCM • Continue to support efforts to improve modeling and apply to Energy Plus
  • 11. Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings • Air leakage: 20 - 30% of conditioning loads (Huang, 1998) • Lack of comprehensive research Fluid-applied non-foaming – Energy conservation – Durability of building materials – Means to meet 2009 and 2012 IECC – Retrofit of existing buildings Interior Self-adhered • Field and laboratory tests – Quantify air barrier benefits – Identify major sources of air leakage Mechanically Non-insulating fastened boardstock – Evaluate sealing mechanisms – Benchmark simulation tools 10 Managed by UT-Battelle Spray-applied foam Insulating Sealers w/ backup for the U.S. Department of Energy boardstock structure
  • 12. Recently Completed Work • Complete Phase 1 at Syracuse NET Facility Field tests • Begin Phase 2 at Syracuse NET facility • Continue characterization of air barriers Lab tests • Plan sub-assembly tests Syracuse NET Facility Laboratory Setups Phase 1 wall panels Phase 2 wall panels Material test Sub-assembly test 11 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 13. Tasks for FY12 (Pending Funding) 1. Finalize Industry Collaborative Plan 2. Monitor Phase 2 at NET Facility – Collect and analyze data 3. Finish air barrier characterizations – Issue reports to manufacturers 4. Begin sub-assembly tests MFEL chamber 5. Coordinate Multi-Functional Envelope Laboratory Chamber – FY10 funded facility upgrade – Supports air barrier and moisture research programs 12 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 14. Moisture Engineering and Metal Buildings • Challenge – Moisture is increasingly a durability issue in “efficient” wall sections as more insulation, vapor barriers are added – Must produce materials and installation guides that result in durable, “dry”, wall and roof sections without mold and rot • Tasks – Validate the WUFI software against the measured Charleston, SC field data for at least 2 wall systems – Measure hygrothermal properties of ten construction materials – Enhance the WUFI-ORNL software by including the temperature dependencies of the thermal conductivity; hold workshops – Report summarizing the thermal performance of metal building roofs • Partnership: ORNL with Fraunhofer IBP, U. Minnesota, NREL 13 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 15. Measure Hygrothermal Properties Number of Percent Complete Material Products ASTM ASTM ASTM Liquid E 96 C 1498 C 1699 Uptake Liquid applied non-foaming membrane 8 70 95 80 100 Non-insulating boardstock 1 80 100 40 100 Insulating boardstock 1 25 40 40 100 Mechanically fastened membrane 5 80 100 40 100 Self-adhered membrane 3 80 100 75 100 Spray-applied foam 3 25 70 40 100 Air sealers with back-up structure 1 25 40 40 100 Total 22 64 89 59 100 ASTM E 96 – 05: Water vapor transmission of materials ASTM C 1498 – 04a: Hygroscopic sorption isotherms of building materials ASTM C 1699 – 08: Moisture retention curves of porous building materials using pressure plates
  • 16. Protocol for Hygrothermal Modeling Validation S. Carolina NET Facility EIFS on 2x4@16“, no Vapor Barrier
  • 17. Cool Roofs: Key Tasks and Milestones • Issues – What happens to thermal performance as roof surface “ages” – What are mechanisms for change in surface properties – Develop accelerated methods to assess these impacts • Field study on microbial species • Species identified • Sampling protocol tested on roof facilities at 3 locations • Protocol development on white reflective and cool color roofs • Chamber controls solar radiation, temperature, humidity, wetting cycle acquired to perform exposure testing • Specimens loaded with dust and inoculated with microbes will be inserted in chamber and evaluated 16 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 18. Load Chamber for Simulating and Accelerating Roof Contamination Rate • Chamber built for accommodating a sample size up to 15” in dia. or multiple samples of smaller area size • Real-time monitoring capability for contaminant loading • Easy access to sample for reflectance measurement and loading verification • Design for loading dry and or wet contaminants
  • 19. Loading and Reflectance Reduction Rates 2.5 2 • Hi-fidelity simulation of R² = 0.9048 1.5 atmospheric dust loading using Dirt Mass, g 1 real-world test dusts, e.g., Arizona 0.5 test dust(ISO 12103-1 standard) 0 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 • Total surface reflectance -0.5 Loading Duration from To, min measurement tested on Arizona test dust Mass loading function 0.050 0.000 linear (R2>0.9) following deposition -0.050 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 theory Reflectance Reduction • Reflectance reduction also linear -0.100 -0.150 -0.200 R² = 0.9807 following dust load (R2 > 0.98) -0.250 -0.300 -0.350 Loading Duration from To, min
  • 20. CA Topographic Map Field Exposure Sites 19 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 21. Next Generation of Roof and Attic Systems • How do materials and components perform as a system? • Validate tools with field data to extend results to all climates • Field study on attic ventilation (NET Facility Charleston SC) • Data acquisition active • Tracer gas analyses of attics complete • Sensitivity study of attic ventilation (in progress) • Roof and attic design guidelines • Hot climate design guides • Cold climate designs • Lab testing of radiant barriers • Field test on thermochromic surface
  • 22. NET Measurement Facility Charleston, SC Polyicynene Cool Deck Storm Triflex Non Sealed 15-lb Shingles Armor Guard breathable 15-lb Low Perm 2 3 4 5 6 1 7 Fascia Sealed Non-Breathable ASV 1/300 1/300 1/150 • Field Study on Attic Ventilation Radiant Barrier facing into attic • Dearth of Research on Ventilation • Diverse Opinions on its Effectiveness • Results are empirical and dated
  • 23. AtticSim/EnergyPlus Estimated Energy Savings Effect of leaky and poorly insulated ducts predominate loss
  • 24. Performance Evaluation of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using LSCS Attic 1 Oriented Strand Board (OSB) without radiant barrier (RB), ε = 0.89 Attic 2 OSB with perforated foil faced Radiant Barrier, ε = 0.03 Attic 3 Radiant Barrier stapled to rafters, ε = 0.02 Attic 4 Spray applied low-e paint on roof deck and rafters, ε = 0.23  The test attic had fiberglass batt insulation on the floor  Summer daytime condition: climate chamber air temperature 38°C, roof exterior surface temperature 60°C  Winter Night condition: climate chamber air temperature 0°C