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Insulation Technologies and Materials


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Insulation technologies and materials
Shpresa KOTAJI from PU-Europe

Published in: Technology, Business
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Insulation Technologies and Materials

  1. 1. Insulation Technologies and MaterialsIEA - Building Envelope Technologies and Policies Workshop Thursday 17 & Friday 18 November 2011, Paris Shpresa Kotaji, Huntsman Environmental Affairs Manager Oliver Loebel, PU Europe Secretary General
  2. 2. Buildings represent the biggest energy saving potentialEstimated energy saving potential (%) 2020 24% 25% Residential buildings 53% ! Commercial buildings Manufacturing industry Transport 23% 28% Source: COM(2006)545 final, 2006
  3. 3. Strategies for building energy savingTrias Energetica: the most sustainable energy is saved energy 1 Reduce the demand for energy by avoiding heat losses and implementing energy-saving measures 2 Use sustainable sources of energy instead of finite fossil fuels 3 Produce and use fossil energy as efficiently as possible
  4. 4. How to reduce building energy demand ? Housing Commercial buildings Many buildings e.g. deep-plan air-conditioned offices will have higher ventilation/cooling energy compared to heating
  5. 5. 4 Steps to Low Energy Buildings 1. 2. 3. 4. Orientation Insulation + Controlled Efficient Compact Airtightness ventilation lighting + appliances heat reclaimed from ventilation air Typical modern Airtight house with house, 1 ac/h at MHVR to achieve natural pressure 0.5 ac/h,70% eff (2000 Standard) (LowHeat Standard) A+++ Sun Rose Percentage of solar energy from different Ventilation directions (45o inclined plane) - London heat lossSource: XCO2 - Insulation guide for Sustainability
  6. 6. How building insulation works Un-insulated wall Insulated wall Low density material Fibrous with complex solid paths reduces Convection conductionConduction Cellular Radiation Air gaps with Cellular or fibrous reflective and structure of trapped low-emissivity gas pockets reduces surfaces block convection. radiation Inside Outside Inside Outside
  7. 7. The types of insulation materials and heat loss rate Classification of insulation materials Fibrous Cellular Mineral ‘inorganic’ The key equation relating U-value (heat loss rate) to lambda (thermal Oil-derived conductivity) and thickness (d)‘organic synthetic’ Plant / animal ‘organic natural’ W/m · K W/m2 · K m Note: highly approximate, issues like thermal bridging must be considered
  8. 8. The importance of building insulation
  9. 9. 4 steps to insulation solution selection In new build and renovation
  10. 10. 1. Design for low thermal conductivityInsulation thickness at same U-value 1. Target low U-value designs 2. Consider any thickness Polyurethane restriction (especially in renovation)
  11. 11. Step 2. Choose fit for purpose solutions and quality products Typical Pitched Walkable Walls Ground applications roofs flat roofs floor Choice might be restricted due to • climate/exposure Polyurethane     – Wind, flood, rain … EPS     • mechanical properties requirements – Walkability XPS     • thickness restriction Glass wool     Quality and performance testing Stone wool     • Prefer material with certified declared thermal properties according to Cellulose     standards (e.g. CE marking, ASTM…) Hemp     Ensure insulation can be applied Ensure right ancillary materials are used to secure proper function Choose quality product with certified declared properties
  12. 12. Step 3. Design for durability and low failure risk Installation risks: all materials are vulnerable to poor installation leaving gaps or physical deterioration (compression). Good workmanship is essential Condensation: can reduce thermal resistance and damage building fabric Vapour permeability Air movement at surface: presents risk of can cause convection heat condensation loss Leakiness - air Ageing: any degradation escaping carries to material or to thermal heat away resistance from quoted values over the lifetime, including settlement or compression Inside Outside Ensure proper installation Ensure proper detailing to avoid premature performances losses
  13. 13. Step 4. Design for reduced building embodied environmental impacts 1°optimise building 2°reduced embodied impact if that does energy-in-use not compromise in-use performance AP Energy use Cool continental Acidification Energy use Temperate Oceanic Energy use Temperate Mediterranean Construction materials POCP Insulation materials Photochemical energy ozone formation EP Eutrophication ODP Ozone depletion GWP Normalized to EU citizen Global warming 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Normalised environmental impact EU citizen Designing for low energy  Insulation choice itself has increases the relative limited impact on the embodied impact, but… building embodied impacts
  14. 14. New trend - prefabricated elements/units 2 2
  15. 15. Highly insulated low energy housestoday’s technologies, available across the regions
  16. 16. Conclusions Almost half of our energy is used in buildings Today’s high performance insulation and thermal design can dramatically reduce heat losses – solutions are already available and applied across all regions, both in new build and renovation The choice of the most appropriate insulation product has to be decided on a case-by-case basis as it largely depends on the building type and design and climate zone The following principles must be respected when specifying insulation products for low energy buildings:  Firstly design the building for low thermal losses  Then, choose insulation products and solutions fit for the applications  and, following this, ensure the longevity of the thermal performance over the lifetime of the building through choosing quality materials with certified performance levels.  Finally, the environmental performance of suitable insulation products should be determined using an overall life cycle methodology There is an increasing trend to develop factory-made durable high quality building envelope elements combining high insulation level, high air- tightness and fast erection speed
  17. 17. Thank you for your attentionWhile all the information and recommendations in this publication are to the best of our knowledge, information and belief accurate at the date ofpublication, nothing herein is to be construed as a warranty, express or otherwise. In all cases, it is the responsibility of the user to determine theapplicability of such information.