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Project-Based Learning for The21st Century


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Project-Based Learning for The21st Century

  1. 1. PBL for the 21 st century
  2. 2. BIE: Who We Are  BIE is dedicated to improving 21st Century teaching and learning by creating and disseminating knowledge, products, and practices for effective Project Based Learning  Non-profit located near San Francisco  Workshops and partners in over 30 states and 6 countries    PBL Handbook and PBL Toolkit series, and project based curriculum units for high school Economics and U.S. Government
  3. 3. PBL Double Session Today 9:30 PBL What & Why; Generate ideas and review sample projects for global education 11:00 Planning & Managing your project; Driving Questions; assessment; classroom tips
  4. 4. Your ideal grad – begin with the end in mind Title Here
  5. 5. Begin with the end in mind Critical thinker/problem-solver Knowledge of science, history, literature, languages, etc. Appreciates diversity Time management Global awareness Strong work ethic Technology literacy Respectful & Caring Communication skills Organized Works independently and Reading/writing/math skills collaboratively Responsible Healthy lifestyle
  6. 6. Everybody is saying the same thing  Partnership for 21st Century Skills  enGauge 21st Century Skills  Tony Wagner’s Seven Survival Skills for the 21st Century  OECD Framework for Key Competencies
  7. 7. And remember  Career-tech skills / 21st century skills / habits of success need to be developed while building students’ content knowledge  To stay engaged in school, students need to care about learning – by being given meaningful work  Relationships count – more personalized teaching should lead to more rigorous work
  8. 8. Sample PBL Unit Geography Course Culminating Project: “Travel Website” (From the National Academy Foundation/Pearson Education) Read and discuss with 1-2 partners: How could this project improve student engagement and outcomes?
  9. 9. Why PBL? A summary  Motivates students to learn  Improves retention of knowledge  Teaches applied learning / 21st century skills  Connects school to real world  Makes school more meaningful = fewer disengaged students
  10. 10. Activity-based teaching vs. PBL Activity-based teaching PBL Enjoyable; active, hands-on Engaging (emotionally and learning intellectually); “heads-on” Focused on theme, concept, Driving question, problem or time period, novel, topic, challenge culture, textbook chapter “we do projects” = curricular Project organizes curriculum add-on (“dessert”) & instruction (“main course”) Assessment = product Product and process School world Real world
  11. 11. Essential elements of PBL A project, in PBL:  is organized around an open-ended Driving Question, problem, or challenge  creates a need to know essential content & skills  requires inquiry to learn and/or create something new  results in a publicly presented product or performance  allows student voice & choice  requires critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration and various forms of communication
  12. 12. Activity-based teaching vs. PBL Is it PBL?  Perform scenes from Macbeth and make collages of symbols that represent major characters.  Listen to different sounds. Make a graph. Identify features of common sounds that are disturbing to the ear.  Write a research report on a Renaissance artist, build a model of a device from a da Vinci drawing, and create a TV news video about a major event of the time.  Play various card and dice games to determine the probability of winning.
  13. 13. From activities & “doing projects” to PBL From… To… Perform scenes from Explore universal themes in MacBeth and make MacBeth by writing and collages of symbols performing key scenes in that represent major modern English, in modern characters. settings.
  14. 14. From activities & “doing projects” to PBL From… To… Listen to different Identify five sound sounds. Make a graph. pollution problems in the Identify features of community. Form task common sounds that forces to study the are disturbing to the ear. problems and recommend solutions.
  15. 15. From activities & “doing projects” to PBL From… To… Write a research report Study various developments on a Renaissance artist, build a model of a device during the time period to from a da Vinci drawing, support and present an and create a TV news answer to the question, “Was video about a major the Renaissance a rebirth or a event of the time. whole new baby?”
  16. 16. From activities & “doing projects” to PBL From… To… Plan a “Probability Booth” for Play various card and the annual PTA fundraising dice games to determine Carnival, with activities whose odds of winning would attract the odds of winning. lots of players. Determine how much money it would cost to play, how much winners receive, and how much profit you expect.
  17. 17. “yeah, but …”  It’s not standards-based  I can’t cover enough material  My students aren’t ready  It’s loud and messy  I can’t use traditional teaching tools  There’s no individual accountability  I don’t have time and support
  18. 18. Designing & implementing a project Getting Started Planning & Preparing Reflect & Perfect Managing
  19. 19. Designing & implementing a project • Develop an idea Getting • Specify learning goals Started • Decide on the scope • Write a Driving Question Planning & Preparing Reflect & Perfect Managing
  20. 20. Pathways to Project Ideas Real-world 21st Century practice Skills Community needs Standards Project Idea Current issues & Curriculum events materials Your file Student interests cabinet
  21. 21. Developing an idea: what will students do? Write a proposal Recommend a solution Develop a plan Conduct a campaign Design a website Produce a play Publish a magazine Invent a device Build a model Debate an issue Create art Make a multimedia presentation make it authentic!
  22. 22. Your turn Read the handout “Ideas for PBL: Places to Start the Wheels Turning” Discuss with 1-3 others how you could adapt ideas from this list – or think of your own potential projects
  23. 23. Specifying learning goals Content standards:  Choose “power standards” (not too many) 21st century skills:  Collaboration, presentation, and critical thinking in all projects  Some skills may be explicitly taught & assessed; others may only be “encouraged”
  24. 24. Scope of a Project Limited Ambitious Duration 10-15 contact hours 40+ contact hours Breadth One subject; 1-2 power Interdisciplinary; 3-4 standards power standards Technology Basic Extensive Setting Classroom Community/World Who’s Involved One teacher Several teachers, outside experts, community Audience Classroom Experts, community, world, web Student Autonomy Teacher-defined; tightly Co-defined and managed managed
  25. 25. Why have a Driving Question? For teachers: For students: • Guides planning • Creates interest and/or the feeling of challenge • Captures & communicates the • Reminds them “Why purpose of the project we’re doing this today” • Initiates and focuses • Guides project work inquiry
  26. 26. A Driving Question is...  Provocative or challenging  Understandable to students  Open-ended; multiple possible answers  Answerable (but not in a simple way)  Linked to important content in the discipline
  27. 27. A Driving Question can be...  Abstract “When is war justified?” “Should we genetically modify organisms?” “What makes someone a hero?”  Concrete “How can we design the best networking plan for a business?” “How can we use geometry to design holes for a miniature golf course?”  Localized “How could global warming affect our community?” “Can we capture the spirit of our city in art, music and poetry?”  Activated “How can we plan an effective campaign to prevent water pollution in the lake?” “How can we design a website for teenagers about books they like?”
  28. 28. Refining a DQ From “simple right answer” to more complex, local, and actively problem-solving: What are the characteristics of healthy soil? Is our soil healthy enough to support a vegetable garden?
  29. 29. Refining a DQ From abstract to concrete and challenging: How do architects use geometry? How can we design a theatre that meets specifications with the greatest number of seats?
  30. 30. Refining a DQ: From “too big” to answerable: How has technology affected world history? Does technology make war more or less humane?
  31. 31. Refining a DQ: From “sounds like a teacher” to student-friendly: How does the author use voice and perspective in The House on Mango Street to reflect on his childhood and community? How can childhood memories show who we are today?
  32. 32. Your turn Working in table groups (no more than 3-5 per group) use the handout to select, refine or create a Driving Question. Report Out Your group’s ideas/observations
  33. 33. A protocol for refining a Driving Question 1. Is it “student-friendly”? 2. Is it open-ended and does it require a complex answer, instead of one “right answer” or a simple yes or no? 3. To answer it, will my students need to learn important content knowledge and use 21st century skills? 4. Does it allow me to create a local context for the topic(s) under study or have students solve an authentic / real problem? (Optional, but recommended if possible)
  34. 34. Project planning form
  35. 35. Planning & preparing for a project Getting Started Planning & Preparing Reflect & • Entry event Perfect • Culminating products & presentations • Teaching & learning activities • Student groups Managing • Project calendar/checkpoints
  36. 36. Sample entry event Task: Read the “Entry Document” – the entry event for a sample project. Imagine you were a student: what would you “need to know” in order to do the task presented?
  37. 37. Many ways to engage students & begin inquiry • Field trip • Provocative reading • Guest speaker • Startling statistics • Film, video, • Puzzling problem website • Piece of real or mock • Lively discussion correspondence • Simulation or • Song, poem, art activity
  38. 38. Culminating Products and Presentations • Mix of individual and group products • Make products as authentic as possible • Public audience ups the stakes = higher quality • Require students to share presentation duties • Give audience members a role
  39. 39. Culminating Products and Presentations • Avoid death-by-repetitive-presentations: – Varied answers to DQ or solutions to problem – Differentiate point of view / roles – Same DQ but use varied texts, places, times, people, cultures, etc. – Choice of products / ways to present answer to DQ
  40. 40. Group Work in PBL • Teacher chooses group members • Heterogeneous groups • Create a set of expectations for group work (e.g., collaboration rubric) and assess/grade it • Group contracts (with a firing clause) • Teach students project management skills: dividing tasks, managing time, setting deadlines • Regular check-ins
  41. 41. Planning when to teach what (sample: entrepreneurship project) Knowledge, Skills Already Taught Before Taught During Needed for Product Learned Project Project (Business Plan) Format of business X plan Interviewing skills X Editing skills X Excel X Projecting budgets X
  42. 42. Project planning form
  43. 43. Project planning form
  44. 44. Managing a project Getting Started Planning & Reflect Preparing & Perfect • Building a culture of inquiry & independence • Beginning the inquiry process • Managing group collaboration • Keeping track of student work Managing • Coaching the inquiry process • Facilitating presentations to an audience
  45. 45. Best practices in assessment  Create rich descriptors of criteria for your rubrics  Provide students with assessment criteria from the start  Provide exemplars of quality work  Use formative assessments to give timely feedback  Capture process as well as product (e.g., work folders) And, as a school...  Use common, calibrated rubrics; establish school-wide criteria for grades
  46. 46. A critical balance Summative Group Tasks Self & Peer Evaluation Balanced PBL Process Focused Content Focused Assessment (21st Century Skills) Teacher Evaluation Individual Assignments Formative
  47. 47. Rubrics in PBL • A rubric for each major product in project • Separate rubrics (or rows) for content knowledge/skills and 21st century skills • Checklists and rubrics – there is a big difference
  48. 48. Grading in PBL  Give a grade for each product, not one grade for the whole project  Mix of individual and group grades  Separate grades for content and 21st century skills
  49. 49. Disaggregating data Work Ethic Written Critical Content Communi- Thinking Knowledge cation Nick 12/25 22/25 21/25 18/25 Pope Rick 25/25 15/25 18/25 25/25 Lopez
  50. 50. Ways to assess process in PBL 21st century skill Assessment method (a.k.a. Habits of (along with a rubric) Success) collaboration self report: journal, log, survey peer report: survey or written reflection teacher notes: observation checklist, meetings with leaders project management task lists daily/weekly goal sheets time logs written explanation & reflection problem-solving journal, log, written explanation & reflection
  51. 51. 21st century skill assessment in PBL: collaboration 1. Think about a recent time when you worked in a collaborative team 2. Share stories with 1-2 others 3. Score yourself on the collaboration rubric
  52. 52. For further information John Larmer Director of Product Development David Ross Director of Professional Development 415-883-0122