Lengo langu ni kufanya
                                          Ndege wa Mbeya
ulimwengu ambamo                          ...
Shukrani Acknowledgments




   Tungependa kutoa shukrani zetu za dhati kwa Barbara Cervone wa Next
   Generation Press, M...
Waandishi Authors                 Yaliomo Table of Contents




    Iganzo Secondary School     Utangulizi . . . . . . . ....
Utangulizi Introduction
Utangulizi Introduction




   Sisi wanafunzi  tulishiriki kuandika kitabu hiki. Tu n a s om shule...
Utangulizi Introduction



                                                                                               ...
Kuhusu Ndege Bird Basics



    Kadiri idadi ya watu inavyozidi
    inaathiri mazingira kutokana na
    kuongezekwa makazi...
Utafiti Our Research




                                                                                         Maeneo y...
Pia eneo hilo lina maua, foto kiafi, na ndege wa aina nne tofauti. Eneo
     la tano liko kwenye mwanzo wa mlima. Eneo hil...
Frequency of Bird Species
                                                                                                ...
Kuhusu Maelezo About the guide                                                             Utangulizi Introduction
       ...
Utangulizi Introduction
      Milvus migrans                                    Columba arquatrix                     Utan...
Utangulizi Introduction
      Hirundo rustica                                    Pycnonotus barbatus                      ...
Utangulizi Introduction
      Nectariniidae (Family)                                                                Utangu...
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Fresh takes on a Flat world-2

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Fresh takes on a Flat world-2

  1. 1. Lengo langu ni kufanya Ndege wa Mbeya ulimwengu ambamo Kitabu ambacho kimeandikwa tunsweza kuishi kwa na wanachama wa amani na vitu vyote asilia. Roots & Shoots Mbeya, Tanzania My mission is to create a world where we can live in harmony with nature. – Jane Goodall, Founder, Roots & Shoots Birds of Mbeya a field guide written by Roots & Shoots members in Mbeya Town
  2. 2. Shukrani Acknowledgments Tungependa kutoa shukrani zetu za dhati kwa Barbara Cervone wa Next Generation Press, Marekani; Gazelle Safari Company ya Mbeya Tanzania; mra ti bu wa Roots & Shoots Mkoa wa Mbeya Peter Mwamala, mw a n achama Leonard Bwake, walimu ndugu na marafiki pamoja na wanachama wote wa Roots & Shots mkoa wa Mbeya waliosaidia kufanikisha uandaaji wa kijitabu hiki. – Waandishi We would like to give our thanks to Ba rb a ra Cervone at What Ki d s Can Do; the Shinnyo-en Foundation in the United States; Gazelle Safari Company in Mbeya, Tanzania; Carl Cervone of Technoserve; the regional coordinator of Roots & Shoots in Mbeya, Peter Mwamala, and volunteer Leon a rd Bwake . And thank you to our dear teach ers , fri en d s , and all Roots & Shoots mem bers in Mbeya Regi on who hel ped wri te this book. – The Authors
  3. 3. Waandishi Authors Yaliomo Table of Contents Iganzo Secondary School Utangulizi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Agustine Elihudi Introduction Ande Matthew Mazingira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Ilomba Secondary School About Mbeya Abdulbhary Bashiru Kuhusu Ndege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Kasiana Mbeyela Bird Basics Esperansa Mfikwa Devotha Ndunguru Utafiti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Our Research Ivumwe Secondary School Saimoni Adam Shitalima Maelezo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Shani Musa About the Guide Ibrahim Mwampyate Itende Secondary School Betha Ezekiel Nasibu Mbwiga Emanuel Mwakasumi Meta Secondary School Said Hamis Sospeter Kansapa Emmanueli Esadi Mrutu Sangu Secondary School Lulasamu Daudi Levocatus D Manego Beatrice Andrew Mwakyembe Kively J. Njombo Editor Genevieve Edens Roots & Shoots volunteer
  4. 4. Utangulizi Introduction Utangulizi Introduction Sisi wanafunzi tulishiriki kuandika kitabu hiki. Tu n a s om shule za a sekon d a ri mbalimbali kwenye viwango vya O na A, kuanzia umri wa miaka h adi . Tunaishi Mbeya, Tanzania na sisi sote ni wanachama wa Roo t s Shoo t s . Roots Shoots ni progra mu inay- o husika na el i mu ya mazingi ra , jamii na wanyama kwa vijana kuanzia shu l e za msingi mpaka chuo kikuu. Pia Roots Shoots hutoa nafasi kwa vijana kukaa pamoja na kutafakari, kujifunza na kuel ewa mazingi ra na u husiano wa viu m be vya asili na jamii. Kwa namna hii Roots Shoo t s Wanachama waona kikundi cha inawasaidia vijana kuchukua hatua ngedere kwenye msitu. za kuboresha dunia kwa bi n ad a mu , Group members spot a troop of wanyama na mazingi ra . monkeys moving through the forest. The nineteen students who participated in writing this book are between the ages of sixteen and twenty-two. We live in Mbeya, Tanzania, where we study at different schools in both Ordinary (regular secondary) and Advanced (advanced secondary) levels. We are all mem bers of Roots Shoo t s . Roots Shoots is the Jane Good a ll Institute’s global, environmental, and humanitarian program for young people, with members from nursery school to university and beyond. Its mission is to fo s ter re s pect and compassion for all living things , to prom o te understanding of all cultu res and bel i efs, and to inspire each indivi dual to take acti on to make the world a better place for the envi ron m ent, animals, and the human community.
  5. 5. Utangulizi Introduction Maeneo tulioyofanyia utafiti ni yafuatavyo: Loleza, Ivumwe, na Songwe. Vitu tulivyoviona huko ni mapango, vilima, mito, majimoto, chemchem, misitu, na mashamba. Baadhi ya mimea tuliyoona ni mahindi, maharage na ngano, pamoja na miti milingoti, pine, maembe, na miti ya asili. Pia tuliona maua mengi, majani, na majani marefu (ferns). Baadhi ya mifugo tulioona ni mbuzi, kondoo, punda, ng’ombe, na mabwawa ya samaki. Pia tuliona wanyama pori kama nyoka, panzi, vipepeo, na ngedere. The areas where we did research are Loleza, Ivumwe and Songwe. There we saw caves, mountains, rivers , hot springs, w a ter sources, forests, gra s s- land, and agri c u l tu re. Plants in these areas inclu de corn , be a n s , and wh e a t ; there are exotic tree species like eucalyptus, pine, and mango, and also native trees like acacia. There are also many flowers, grasses, and ferns. Some animals that we saw, besides birds, are domestic animals like goats, sheep, donkeys, and cows. We also saw snakes, bugs like grasshoppers Barabara kubwa Mbeya mjini. and butterflies, and a troop of vervet monkeys. A main street in downtown Mbeya. Mbeya Mjini iko kwenye Bonde la Ufa. Baadhi ya milima huku ni Mlima Mbeya na Mlima Loleza kwa upande wa Kaskazini, na Mlima Ugali kwa upande wa Maghari bi . Ba adhi ya mito inaanzia milimani na mito mingi n e huwa na maji kwenye kipindi cha mvua. Kwa mfano, mto wa Nzovwe unaanzia kwenye milima, na mto wa Meta hutegemea mvua na ch em ch em . Masika huku Mbeya huanzia mwezi wa kumi na moja na kuendelea hadi wa mwezi wa nne; wakati wa kiangazi unaanzia mwezi wa tano na kuendel e a hadi mwezi wa kumi. Pia, kuna kipindi cha baridi huanzia mwezi wa sita na kwisha mwezi wa nane. Katika kipindi hichi, ubaridi unaweza kufikia hata kiwango cha joto selsiusi kwa siku. Mbeya Town is loc a ted on the Rift Va ll ey. Mountains su ch as Mount Mbeya and Mount Loleza to the nort h , and Mount Ugali to the west, su rround the city. Many rivers run thro u gh town, s ome that start in the mountains and others that are ra i n - fedand on ly exist du ring the ra i ny season . For example, the source for River Nzovwe is at Mt Mbeya, while the River Meta is seasonal Chini ya Mlima Loleza. Maua haya yavutia with the rains. The ra i ny season starts in Novem ber and lasts until Apri l . The songosori wengi. dry season lasts from May to October. The cold season lasts from June to Study spot below Loleza's peak. The orange August, wh en the tem pera tu res drop, but it does not get cold enough to free ze. flowers here attract many sunbirds.
  6. 6. Kuhusu Ndege Bird Basics Kadiri idadi ya watu inavyozidi inaathiri mazingira kutokana na kuongezekwa makazi na shughuli kama ujenzi, ufugaji, kilimo, uchomaji wa mkaa, na shughuli nyingine za nyumbani. Idadi ya ndege huko imekuwa ikipungua Kuna aina za ndege katika nchi ya Tanzania. Mkoani Mbeya kuna ndege kutokana na ongezeko la wa aina thelathini na tatu (33) walioonekana katika muda wa utafiti wetu. binadamu ambao huharibu mazingira kwa kukata miti kwa Mara nyingi ndege wanajitokeza katika kipindi cha masika kwa kuwa ni ajili ya mkaa, ujenzi na kilimo. Pia Tuliona viota vingi vya ndege korobindo kwenye kipindi ambacho ndege wanazaliana. Ndege kama mayera huwa ana tabia matawi ya mti huu, Songwe. uwindaji wa ndege kwa ajili ya ya kuhamahama kwa kufuatana na majira . Ma ra nyi n gi ndege hawa wana- We saw dozens of weavers’ nests hanging uchawi umeongezeka, kwa mfano, from the branches of this tree in Songwe. hama kutoka nchi za mbali na kuingia nchini Tanzania hasa kwenye wakati uaji wa bundi. Vilevile, makelele wa masika. Katika kipindi hiki ndege hawa hujipatia chakula mbalimbali kutokana na watu, magari, muziki na vitu vingine vimekuwa kero kwa kama samaki, panzi, na panya. ndege. Hivyo, mambo mengi yamelazimisha ndege kuhama eneo hilo. Tuliweza kuwatazama vizuri ndege hawa kwa kutumia hadubini. Hivyo Mbeya’s expanding human populati on has affected the natu ral envi ronment ilikuwa rahisi sana kuwaona kwa sura na rangi. Ndege hawa hutofautiana in many ways , e s pec i a lly thro u gh activi ties like con s tru cti on , farming, live- kwa namna nyingi, kama sauti, maumbile, na vyakula wanavyokula. stock keep i n g,c ut ting trees for firewood and charcoal produ cti on , and other Unapowatazama ndege unashauriwa kukaa kimya ili wasishtuke. Vilevile domestic activities. The number of birds has noticeably decreased as their unapofanya uchunguzi wa ndege ni bora upange muda maalum wa habitats are altered by the deforestation that comes with increased popu- kuwatazama katika eneo moja na kisha uende sehemu nyingine ili uweze lation. Also bird hunting – and killing owls because of belief in witchcraft kuwatazama ndege wa aina mbalimbali. – has risen tremendously. Noise pollution from people, cars, and music has disturbed birds, too. For these reasons, many birds have left the area. There are different bird species in Tanzania. During our research in Mbeya, we identified of these. Some birds are only found in Tanzania during the rainy season, which is the period with the largest number of birds present. In Mbeya, birds like Watu wengi wachunga herons come during the rainy season and then leave during the dry season mifugo wao kwenye to far away countries in Europe and elsewhere, following their food. In the Mlima Loleza. dry season, they can’t find things like fish and grasshoppers as easily. Many people graze their livestock on the slopes of Mount Loleza. While birdwatching, it is good to use binoculars in order to see clearly the birds’ details and colors. There are also other ways to identify them, for example by their calls, their shape, and the food they eat. When you are birdwatching, you are advised to stay quiet so the birds do not fly away. Also when you are surveying birds, it is good to set a designated length of time in one spot and then another, in order to see different kinds of birds.
  7. 7. Utafiti Our Research Maeneo ya utafiti Tulifanya utafiti wetu katika sehemu tatu: Loleza, Ivumwe na Songwe. Loleza iko pembeni kidogo na jiji la Mbeya na ni eneo lenye milima, mashamba na misitu. Milima hii ina misitu ya kupandikizwa pamoja na ya asili, na pia ni chanzo cha maji kwa jiji la Mbeya. Eneo la juu tu l i pofanya ut a f i tini seh emu wazi na yenye maja n i . Huku tu l ipata ndege wa aina ch ache. Eneo la pili tulipata ndege wen gi lakini walikuwa wa aina tatu tu. Sehemu hii ina maua na majani marefu (ferns), na iko karibu na chemchem ya maji. Pia eneo hili liko karibu na msitu wa miti mirefu na mifupi. Eneo la tatu liliko bondeni , lina miti mirefu na mimea ya aina tof a uti. Seh emu hii ni baridi kiasi kutokana na kivuli Wanachama wanatumia hadubini kwa mara ya kwanza. cha miti. Huku kulikuwa na aina tofauti tofauti za ndege ambao wengine Group members use binoculars for the first time. hawakuweko kwenye sehemu nyingine yoyote (kwa mfano Schalow’s Turaco). Eneo la nne ni seh emu iliyoko bon deni yenye uwazi, majani marefu na miti mifupi. Kwa kuangalia sura ya ndege unaweza kugundua anachokula. Kwa mfano, mdomo ukiwa mrefu unamaanisha kwamba ndege huyu anapendelea Study Areas kula chakula cha aina ya asali na wadudu wapatikanao kwenye maua, na We conducted research in three areas: Loleza, Ivumwe and Songwe. pia nyama na samaki, kama songosori, mayela, na wengine. Ndege wenye Loleza is on the outskirts of downtown Mbeya; it is a mountainous area midomo mifupi hupendelea kula vyakula vya nafaka. Kwa mfano, ndege with farms, forest, and grassland. Mount Loleza has two kinds of forest: wanaoitwa Passeriformes (jina la oda la kisayansi) ni kama dundulusi, tree plantations of pine forest and natural forest with native trees that jokolilo na chekechea; ndege hawa wanafanana kwa maumbile, wana are preserved to protect water sources for Mbeya Town. midomo na miguu mifupi, wana rangi tofauti, vyakula vyao vinafanana, na pia wanafanana kwa mikia, huwa wanamikia mipana na mifupi. The first spot wh ere we did research was an open area with grasses and brush, where we saw only few birds. The second spot included open grass- By simply observing a bird, it is possible to discover many things about it. land bel ow us and flowering bushes and short trees above. Here we saw many For example, the shape of its beak can tell you what it eats. If it has a long, birds, but only a few species. The third spot, which is in the eastern valley, is a curved beak, it eats nectar and insects and it will like to be in areas with forest with tall trees and bushes. This area was cold because the sun does not many flowers. Birds with short beaks, like those in the order passeriformes reach through the canopy. We saw several different bird species that on ly (such as finches, bulbuls and mannikins), eat seeds and are similar in were iden ti f i ed in this spo t , like Schalow’s Turaco. The fourth spot is further appearance and behavior. up in the va ll ey wh ere the forest meets the open grassland.
  8. 8. Pia eneo hilo lina maua, foto kiafi, na ndege wa aina nne tofauti. Eneo la tano liko kwenye mwanzo wa mlima. Eneo hili lina mashamba na miti michache kama vile milingoti na miti ya maua na majani. Ndege waliopatikana huku walikuwa wa aina sita tofauti. Eneo la sita liliko kwenye mwanzo wa mlima pia. Eneo hili lina ndege wa aina tano tofauti; lina miti ya maua na matunda iliyozunguka eneo la nyasi. Kando yake ni eneo la maji. Sehemu ya pili tulikofanya utafiti ilikuwa Ivumwe; huku kuna vyanzo vya maji ya mto Nzovwe; limezungukwa na makazi ya watu na mashamba kwa shughuli za kilimo. Eneo liko kwenye upande wa kusini-mashariki kutoka jiji la Mbeya. Tulifanya utafiti kwenye maeneo mawili: Eneo la kwanza liko mwanzoni kwa chanzo cha maji na lina aina tofauti za mimea ambayo ni miti yenye miba, maua, na mipogoro. Eneo lina maji na ndege wengi wa aina tofauti. Pembeni na mito kuna miti iliyopandwa na isiyofyonza maji mengi. In this area, there are flowers; we saw four different bird species here. The fifth spot, at the foot of the mountain, is cultivation and grassland with scattered trees, including eucalyptus. There were six kinds of Mji mzima waonekana kwenye njia ya kupanda kileleni Loleza. birds here. The sixth spot was also at the foot of the mountain. This The entire city is visible from the path we used to reach Mount Loleza. space was an open field surrounded by flower and fruit trees, pine, and eucaplyptus. There was also a river nearby; we saw six different species. E n eo la pili liko kando na bara b a ra , pia kuna mahali ambako maji ya n a k u- sanywa na kusambazwa kwa sehemu tofauti jijini Mbeya. Eneo hili ni Ivumwe, southeast of Mbeya Town center, was the second area where chepechepe, lina mikokwa, mitete na mimea mingine tofauti. Ndege wap- we conducted research at the source of the River Nzovwe. The place is atikanao katika eneo hili ni wa aina tofauti. surrounded by human settlement and cultivation. We did surveys in two spots. The first spot was right at the river’s source. Surrounding the The second spot is close to a large road, where the river water is collected water are plants like flowers and Ana trees. Along the banks of the river and dispersed to different parts of Mbeya Town. This spot is a wetland are exotic tree species that do not absorb much water. Here we saw large area, with a tree called mkokwa, species of reeds, and other plants. We saw flocks of birds and several species. several different bird species here.
  9. 9. Frequency of Bird Species 8 7 Sehemu ya tatu ni Songwe iliyoko magharibi kutoka jiji la Mbeya. Eneo 6 la kwanza liko kingoni na mto, lina nyasi ndefu mitete na miti ya aina 5 tofauti. Ndege wachache wanaonekana huku kwa sababu ya uhaba wa 4 chakula. Maji ya moto na ya baridi yanapatikana. Eneo la pili lina maji na 3 miti mirefu na mifupi pamoja na nyasi fupi ziotazo juu ya maji. Miti hii 2 ni ya miba na matunda; pem beni kuna pango la asili. N dege wanaoonekana 1 huku ni wa aina nane tofauti. 0 Namna Tulifanya utafiti kwa kutumia namna moja ambavyo tulikaa kwenye seh emu fulani na kuhesabu ndege kwa muda wa dakika ishirini tu. Tuliandika kila aina ya ndege tuliyemuona na jumla ya idadi ya ndege tuliowaona katika kila sehemu. Tulifanya utafiti kuanzia tarehe -- hadi tarehe - Matokeo - na hata siku za jumapili. Tulichagua sehemu za kutembelea kuwa na Matokeo yalikuwa kama yafuatavyo: ndege wanaoonekana kwa wengi ni ndege wengi na mazingira yanayotofautiana. Baada ya utafiti, tulitunza jokolilo, songosori, dundulusi, kunguru, na chekechea. Ndege wanaopatikana kumbukumbu kwenye ngamizi. kwa uchache ni sele, mile, duwai, magugu, turaco na olive pigeon. Ndege kama dundulusi, jokolili na njiwa pori pamoja na aina tofauti ya ndege The third spot where we conducted research was Songwe, west of Mbeya wanaokula mbegu walionekana kwenye manen eo ya mashamba. Songosori Town. The first spot is on the banks of a river, close to the hotsprings, peke yake alionekana kwenye maen eo ya miti ya maua. Kwenye maen eo ya with tall reeds and different tree species. We saw few bird species because miti mingi ndege wanaopatikana ni kunguru, jokolilo, shalow’s turaco, of a scarc i tyof food there. The second spot has water, trees andbu s h e s , and songosori, njiwa pori, na lead colored flycatcher. short grasses that grow on water. Th ere are fruit trees and a large cave. We identified eight species of birds there. Results The most common species we ob s erved in our research areas were Common Methods Bulbul, Sunbirds, Red-Billed Firefinch, Pied Crow, and Black and White Our point-count surveys were taken over twenty-minute periods in each Mannikins. The least common bird species were Hammerkop, Widow- spot. We recorded every species of bird that we saw, as well as the total bird, Schalow’s Turaco and Olive Pigeon. Areas of cultivation had a fairly nu m ber of indivi dual bi rds spo t ted. All data was taken on Su n d ay mornings high diversity of species of seed-eating birds, including Common Bulbul between June , and July , . We chose spots for a range of and Mannikin. In areas with flowering bushes and trees we saw mosly habitats and favored those with a large number of birds at first sight. Sunbirds. In forested areas were mainly birds that we identified in only We recorded all our data in the computer to create charts and graphs. one spot, for example Schalow’s Turaco and Lead Colored Flycatcher.
  10. 10. Kuhusu Maelezo About the guide Utangulizi Introduction Scopus umbretta Ciraetus cinereus Maelezo haya yanahusika na ndege wa aina walioko Mbeya Mjini na Vijijini. Ba adhi ya ndege , kama Kunguru, ni wa kawaida, na wengine, kama Shorobo Kibwenzi, wanaonekana Kwa kili ndege pia, kuna alama ya Tai Mwekundu mara moja moja. mchoro mdogo inayoonyesha Brown Snake Eagle urahisi wa kumuona: kwa mfano, Kwa kila ndege, yameandikwa Ni ndege wanaokula nyama, tai tuliwaona Kunguru wengi, hivyo majina matatu: jina la kisayansi, huyu ana rangi ya kahawia wilimz- jina la Kiingereza, na jina la ndege huyu anaonyeshwa na Sele ima na rangi ya kijivu chini ya michoro mitatu; tulimuona Fundichama k i enyeji. Pen gine hili jina la tatu ni mabawa pindi arukapo. Pia ana Fundichama moja, hivyo ana Hammerkop la Kiswahili na mara nyi n gine hili kichwa kipara na macho ya njano alama ya mchoro mmoja tu. jina linatokea lugha ya kabila kama Ana rangi ya kahawia, kichwa yaliyofanana na ya bundi. Tai huyu Kisafwa au Kinyakyusa. Hiyo mich oro yo te ilich orwa na chenye umbo la nyundo, mdomo wa kahawia ana mdomo mfupi wanafunzi Abdulbhary Bashiru, mrefu, miguu mirefu mpaka uliojikunja mweusi. Mkiani ana fio The guide that follows includes nyembamba za rangi ya kijivu. Au g u s tine Elihudi, na Emmanuel cm. Hupatikana maeneo yenye species of birds that are present Miguu yake ina rangi ya kijivu iliy- Mwakasumi. mabwawa, mito, mabwawa ya in Mbeya Town and its outskirts. opauka. samaki na maeneo yenye maji. Some, like the Pied Crow, are Sele wanakula samaki na vyura. very common, while others, like A hunting bird, this eagle is brown, Schalow’s Tu raco, are less often seen . The bird icons indicate how likely with gray under its wings, visible This large ( cm) brown bird has you are to see the bi rd according to when it flies. It has a baldhead and a distinctive hammer-shape head, Each entry includes at least three our data: for example, P i ed Crows yellow eyes that look like an owl’s. a long beak and long legs. It prefers names: the scientific name, the a re very com m on so they have Its short, sharp beak is black. Most areas with swamps, rivers, fish- English name, and the name that three bird icon s ; we on ly ob s erved often you will see it circling above ponds, and all places with water – people use in Mbeya Town. This one Ha m m erkop, so we gave it on ly valleys. although some have been known is sometimes Swahili, and other one bird icon . to inhabit urban areas of Mbeya. times the local dialects Kisafwa Stu dents Abdulbhary Ba s h i ru , Hammerkops eat fish and frogs. or Kinyakusa (in which case we also include the Swahili name for Au g u s tine Elihudi, and Emmanu el clarification.) Mwakasumi created the illu s tra- ti ons in pen , pencil, and waterco l or.
  11. 11. Utangulizi Introduction Milvus migrans Columba arquatrix Utangulizi Introduction Streptopelia decipens Turaco schalowi Mwewe Black Kite Kuna aina tof a uti za mwewe lakini Kuyu Jichonjano hakuna kati ya aina hizo mwenye Njiwa Mweusi African Mourning Dove Shorobo Kibwenzi rangi nyeusi. M wewe wa madagasca Olive Pigeon Njiwa hawa waporini wana kichwa Schalow’s Turaco na jangwa la Sa h a ra wana ra n gi Njiwa hawa wana rangi ya kijivu cha kijivu na mgongo wa kaki. Ndege hawa wana kichwa chenye ya kahawi a , maen eo ya kifuani na iliyo na madoa meupe. Mdomo Macho yake ya njano yamezun- manyoya marefu (panki) ya kijani mkiani wana ra n gi ya kutu . Wo te wenye rangi ya njano na ni wa kati. gukwa na rangi nyekundu iliyo na madoa meupe nyuma. Macho wana miguu mifupi ya nja n o. Macho yaliyozungukwa na mduara pauka. Njiwa hawa wanapatikana yake ya mezungukwa na rangi Wakati wa kuruka mbawa zake wanjano. Miguu pia ni ya njano. maeneo ya nyanda za chini, nyekundu ambapo chini yake kuna zinaten geneza kona kwenda nyuma. Sehemu zingine za mwili kuanzia maeneo yenye michanga, vijijini. ufito wa rangi nyeupe. Mabawa Ndege hawa wanaishi mijini, vij i- kifuani. Ni weusi sehemu zote za Njiwa hawa wanataga mayai maw- yana rangi ya kijani na bluu kwa jini, na pia maen eo ya savanna. mwili Hupendelea kula matunda. ili kwenye viota vilivyo jengwa mbali. Mkia wake mrefu una rangi M wewe wanakula panya, mijusi, Pa hupendelea sehemu zenye miti kwenye maeneo yoliyo jificha. ya bluu ya kiza. samaki na wadu du wakubwa. mirefu. Wanakula nafaka na wadudu. These birds have a head with a Th ere are different kinds of kites This pigeon is green with black These doves have a gray head, a large green crest and a wh i te throa t . but the one found in Mbeya is a speckles. Its medium-sized beak tan-colored back, and a pale pink Red ri n gs su rround their eye s , wi t h Bl ack Ki te , com m on ly found from and feet are yellow, and yellow breast. A red ring surrounds their a bl ack stri pe undern e a t h . Th e Mad a gascar to the Sa h a ra De s ert. It rings surround its eyes. Its breast yellow eyes. They live in lowlands Tu raco’s wi n gs are green , and blu e is actu a lly brown , with ru s t - co l ored is black. It eats fruit and spends and villages. The females lay two at the tips. Its long tail is dark blue. breast and wi n gs and yellow legs. most of its time in the tree canopy. eggs and the nests they build are It lives in forests in the tree canopy While in fligh t , the tips of its wi n gs in hidden areas. These doves eat and eats mostly fru i t s . s tretch back . These bi rds live in insects and crops. u rban areas, in vi ll a ges, and also in open areas. Ki tes eat mice, lizards, fish, and large bugs.
  12. 12. Utangulizi Introduction Hirundo rustica Pycnonotus barbatus Utangulizi heuglini Cossypha Introduction Prinia subflava Jokolilo Magamaga Bawa-Kahawia Mbayuwayu Shore Tako-Jeupe Tawny-Flanked Prinia Barn Swallow Common Bulbul Nya n ti ti ana mkia mwembamba Kuanzia kichwa, shingo, mgongo Ana kichwa cheusi, kifua kahawi a , mref u . Ana ra n gi ya kij ivu na na mkia ni rangi nyeusi. Sehemu za chini ya mkia ni nja n o. Ana ukubwa kahawi a , ra n gi nyeup seh emu za juu za mbawa ni nyeusi. Sehemu za kati, s a uti: “jok-lilo, jok-lilo.” chini, m acho mekundu , na panki chini za mbawa, na kifua na tumbo An a pen delea mahali pa misituni, nyusi kichwani. Hu p a tikana katika ni nyeupe. Mdomo ni mfupi na bustani, makazi ya watu, s eh emu Kurumbiza Michirizimeupe kingo za misitu, m a jani maref u , mweusi. Hupendelea maeneo ya zenya maji kama mito. Chakula White Browned Robin Chat vi chakani na maen eo ya kisavana mvua. Wanakula wadudu. Kiota chake ni matunda na mbegu zake N dege hawa wana ukubwa ukati , p a m oja na maen eo ya ch emichemi hutengenezwa kwenye nyumba za vilevile mapera, songwa, na tu m bo ora n ge na mbawa gray. na kwenye bustani. Huten geneza binadamu waliohama magofu ya mang’ang’a; anakula pia nafaka Kichwa ya ke ni nyeusi, na juu ya kiota kilicho bonyea kwa juu kwa nyumba pangoni. Hupatikana kwa kama vile mpunga, mahindi, ulezi, m acho ana seh emu cheupe. Wa n a- kutumia majani katika vi chaka misimu pale mvua inapoanza. nk. Kwa kawaida hut a ga mayai p a tikana kwa mahali pa bustani, vyenye majani maref u . Pia hut a ga mawili hadi matatu. Baba na Mama pem be zoni ya misitu, na mahali ya mayai 3-4. Hu pen delea kula The top of this bi rd’s head , b ack , husaidiana katika kulea wato to. m i to. Wanakula wadu du na mbeg u . and long tail are blu e - bl ack . In matunda, nafaka kama mpunga , flight, the wh i te of its wi n gs , throa t , A med ium sized brown bird wi t h This medium-sized bird has an uwel e , ulezi, mtama na mahindi. and breast are vi s i bl e . Its dark be a k bl ack head, creamy breast, and orange breast and a bl ack head with This prinia has a long tail. It is gray is short. Ba rn swall ows eat insect s . yell ow vent under the tail. Its son g a white stri pe. Its wi n gs are dark with brown on its back and has a Swallows build their nests in houses “jok-lilo, jok-lilo” gives it its name gray. It is found in many habitats, black crest and a white breast. It that have been left em pty and in in Mbeya. Found in ga rden s , including gardens, forest edges, and appears at forest edges, in tall grass, caves. Th ey occur in large flocks forests, human habi t a ti on, and near along rivers . It eats insects and seeds. in savanna areas and near springs and are most com m on du ring the w a ter. Bu l buls eat fruit and seed s and in gardens. It builds nests out ra i ny season ; t h ey migra te nort h and also crops like ri ce, m i ll et and of long grasses and lays three to du ring the dry season. corn . Usu a lly the female lays two four eggs. It likes to eat fruits, and to three eggs ; male and female take crops like rice, millet and sorghum. tu rns bri n ging food to the ch i cks.
  13. 13. Utangulizi Introduction Nectariniidae (Family) Utangulizi Introduction Chozi Sunbirds Chozi Mweusi Ni ndege wa umbo dogo (13 to Chozi Mikufumiwili Amethyst Sunbird 14 cm), hupatikana sehemu zenye Eastern Double Collared Juu ya kishwa ni kijani ya kung’aa; maua, misituni, kando ya mito au Sunbird ya ziwa, na sehemu za kilimo. chini ya shingo ni zambalau; sehemu zingine zote ni nyeusi. Ana kichwa shingo; s eh emu za juu Wanakula asali za maua na wadu du, za mbawa ni kijani; ndani ya mbawa kwa hiyo wana mdomo mrefu ulio The Amethyst Sunbird is mainly ni nja n o ; kifua ni nyekundu, k a ti ya pinda na mweu s i . Sa uti ni “pssipssi” black, except the top of the head is kifua na hsingo ni zambalao. Chozi Tumbonjano Hupendelea maeneo yenye miti irridescent green and under the This bird has a green head, neck, Variable Sunbird mifupi na maua mengi. Huten- throat it is purple. geneza kiota chenye mdomo mrefu and wings; under the wings it is Sehemu za juu ya kichwa ni kijani; mfano wa kibuyu. yellow; under the green throat is a kifua ni zambalau; tumbo ni njano, purple ring and a red upper breast. mkia na mbawa ni kahawia. These small birds ( to cm) live in places with flowers, in forests, This sunbird has a green head and near rivers, and at high altitudes. purple throat. Its breast is yellow They eat nectar and insects, and and its wings and tail are brown. live in areas with many flowers. They have many calls, including one that goes, “pssi-pssi.” Sunbirds build their nest in the shape of a Chozi Neli gourd with a long entrance. Males Malachite Sunbird Chozi Gunda of this family are very colorful, Ana kichwa cha nja n o, m b k ijani ya Scarlet Chested Sunbird while females are tan, brown, and cream, and difficult to identify. kiung’aa, mgon go- kahawi a ; chini ya Juu ya kichwa na chini ya mdomo mbawa ni njano; tumbo ni kijani. ni kijani; kifua ni chekundu; The Ma l achite Su n bird has a yell ow sehemu zingine zote ni nyeusi. head, irridescent green wings, a This bird is mainly bl ack , except brown back, yell ow under the wi n gs , for the top of the head, wh i ch is and a yellow breast. i rride s cent green , and its red throa t .

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