Dahlberg Rosenbusch Early Language Learning Essentials

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Dahlberg Rosenbusch Early Language Learning Essentials

  1. 2. Elementary School Program Models: Defining the Essentials Marcia Rosenbusch and Carol Ann Dahlberg National Chinese Language Conference May 1, 2009
  2. 3. A new job! ? But…?!?
  3. 5. Our profession in the past…. Sputnik October 4, 1957 Wake-up call for Math Sciences Languages (especially Russian!)
  4. 6. Our profession in the past…. Program Success...
  5. 7. Our profession in the past…. Program Failure... <ul><li>Lack of qualified teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate goals </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of articulation </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate instruction and/or delivery </li></ul>
  6. 8. National Standards: Students <ul><li>Standards for Foreign Language Education: Preparing for the 21 st Century </li></ul><ul><li>The Vision… </li></ul><ul><li>All students can be successful language and culture learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Language and culture education is part of the core curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>(p. 7) </li></ul>
  7. 9. National Standards: Teachers FL Teacher Candidates ACTFL/NCATE Program Standards for the Preparation of FL Teachers, 2002 ACTFL/NCATE Beginning FL Teachers Standards for Licensing Beginning FL Teachers, 2002 INTASC Accomplished FL Teachers World Languages Other than English Standards, 2001 NBPTS
  8. 10. <ul><li>September 11, 2001 </li></ul>
  9. 11. “ Planning for Success: Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs” • Scheduling the foreign language too infrequently and/or in class sessions that are too short.
  10. 12. “… accomplishment of such content standards required students to be enrolled in elementary programs that meet from 3-5 days per week for no less than 30-40 minutes per class. 3-5 days per week 30-40 minutes per class
  11. 13. “ Planning for Success: Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs” • Planning schedules and workloads that lead to teacher burnout.
  12. 14. Many Additional Responsibilities of a Language Focus (FLES) Teacher: • interacting with numerous classroom teachers • developing curriculum and materials • communicating with parents and community • building public relations
  13. 15. Many Additional Responsibilities of an Immersion Teacher: • responsibility for content areas and language development • developing curriculum and materials • communicating with parents and community • building public relations
  14. 16. “ Planning for Success: Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs” • Launching an early language program without sufficient planning --not enough time --not enough involvement of the rest of the school community
  15. 17. “ Planning for Success: Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs” • Treating foreign languages differently from other academic subjects.
  16. 18. “ Planning for Success: Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs” • Implementing an entire new program in every grade level at the same time. 1 K 2 3 4 5 6
  17. 19. “ Planning for Success: Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs” • Leaving critical articulation issues to be dealt with later.
  18. 20. “ Planning for Success: Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs” • Planning and scheduling the foreign language curriculum in isolation from the general curriculum.
  19. 21. “ Planning for Success: Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs” • Relying on English for communication in the foreign language classroom. What is this in Chinese?
  20. 22. “ Planning for Success: Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs” • Making a language choice based on popularity, without attention to other important factors.
  21. 23. “ Planning for Success: Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs” • Ignoring the needs of students who enter the program in later grades.
  22. 24. “ Planning for Success: Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs” • Hiring teachers for the program who do not have both language and teaching skills.
  23. 25. What advice would you give to Mary Sunshine now? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
  24. 27. What Matters Most? <ul><li>Time allotted for the program/classes </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of program and instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity of the program </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher effectiveness </li></ul>
  25. 28. Time + Intensity of Instruction => (Potential) Rate of Language Acquisition and Learning Time = number of minutes hours years spent learning and acquiring language
  26. 29. Time + Intensity of Instruction => (Potential) Rate of Language Acquisition and Learning <ul><li>Intensity of Instruction = </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency and Duration of Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Time on Task during instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent use of target language during instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Substance, Relevance, and Challenge of language experience (Cognitively Engaging, Intrinsically Interesting, Culturally Connected) </li></ul>
  27. 30. PLUS
  28. 31. Uninterrupted study of the same language across grade levels and institutions Continuity:
  29. 32. Teachers who are: Teacher Effectiveness: • well-prepared • enthusiastic and dedicated • knowledgeable about students • knowledgeable about language and culture • knowledgeable about best practices in world language education.
  30. 33. What are the goals of our programs? Proficiency!
  31. 34. Superior Proficiency Inverted Pyramid LOW LOW LOW MID MID MID HIGH HIGH HIGH Novice Advanced Intermediate Can support opinion, hypothesize, discuss topics concretely and abstractly, and handle a linguistically unfamiliar situation Novice Can communicate minimally with formulaic and rote utterances, lists and phrases Intermediate Can create with language, ask and answer simple questions on familiar topics, and handle a simple situation or transaction Advanced Can narrate and describe in all major time frames and handle a situation with a complication Survive and cope in the country Limited work ability Satisfy most work requirements
  32. 35. ACTFL Performance Guidelines for K-12 Learners
  33. 36. Adapted from Languages and Children: Making the Match, 4th Edition, 2010 Language, Culture, and Curriculum Content are essential elements of every curriculum model. The focus changes as time and intensity increase across the continuum. Minimum 90-120 min. Weekly Maximum Full Day Full Immersion Intensity and Time Continuum of Intensity and Focus for Early Language Programs Leading to Proficiency Immersion: 50-100%/day Content in TL Content Focus Content Language Culture Language Focus Language Content Culture
  34. 37. Adapted from Languages and Children: Making the Match, 4th Edition, 2010 Minimum 90-120 min. Weekly Maximum Full Day Full Immersion Intensity and Time Less than Minimum Programs with less intensity: • less than 30-40 minutes daily, and/or • less than three times per week • may not be able to meet the performance goals of the Standards for Chinese Language Learning and K-12 Performance Guidelines. Continuum of Intensity and Focus for Early Language Programs Leading to Proficiency Immersion: 50-100%/day Content in TL Exploratory will Content Focus Content Language Culture Language Focus Language Content Culture
  35. 38. Program Types Offered by Elementary Schools With Language Programs (Private, Public) (2008) Private From the Center for Applied Linguistics, National K-12 Foreign Language Survey (2009). Draft data. I m m e r s i o n 2 % 4 2 % I m m e r s i o n 1 3 % 4 8 % Public LANGUAGE FOCUS LANGUAGE FOCUS (FLES) (FLES) LESS than minimum LESS than minimum 5 6 % E XPLORATORY 3 9 % E XPLORATORY
  36. 39. What Matters Most? Time allotted for the program/classes Intensity of program and instruction Continuity of the program Teacher effectiveness
  37. 40. Shared Goals among Early Language Programs Leading to Proficiency: <ul><li>To become functionally proficient in the new language </li></ul><ul><li>To acquire an understanding of and appreciation for other cultures </li></ul><ul><li>To master subject content taught in the foreign language </li></ul>Achievement of the goals will vary depending on how much time is allocated for the program.
  38. 41. Total/Full Immersion Content -Focus Programs • Usually all L1 speakers • Literacy taught in L2 • Introduction of L2 instruction in Grade 2 or 3; time increases to 50-50 or 40-60 50-100% in TL Subject matter taught in TL Characteristics Time Content Language Culture
  39. 42. Dual Language Content -Focus Programs Characteristics Time • Students are both L1 and L2 native speakers • Literacy may be presented in both languages • Each group has peer models in their target language • Each group learns content in native language At least 50% in TL Subject matter taught in TL Content Language Culture
  40. 43. Partial Immersion Content -Focus Programs Characteristics Time • Usually all learners are English (L1) speakers • TL and classroom teacher often work as a team, seeing two groups of children • Literacy may begin in both languages (exceptions) Approximately 50% in TL Subject matter taught in FL Content Language Culture
  41. 44. Language -Focus Programs (FLES) Characteristics Time • Focus is on language learning, with the integration of culture and content • Students study a single language throughout the program sequence 5-15% at least 30-40 minutes per day at least 3-5 days per week language per se Language Content Culture
  42. 45. “ Sampler” Programs: Exploratory Characteristics Time • Sampling of one or more languages • Motivation to language study • Cultural and linguistic awareness • Sometimes taught mostly in English Frequent and regular sessions over a short period of time OR Short and/or infrequent sessions over an extended period of time
  43. 47. “ Remember, these are samples--not supper!”
  44. 48. Questions??
  45. 49. Elementary School Program Models: Defining the Essentials Marcia Rosenbusch mrosenbu@iastate.edu Carol Ann Dahlberg [email_address]

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