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China's Strategies for Expanding Secondary Education


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by Yang Jin

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China's Strategies for Expanding Secondary Education

  1. 1. China’s Strategies for Expanding Secondary Education YANG Jin UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning New Delhi, India 25th March 2008
  2. 2. Age School year 27 22 26 21 25 20 Ph.D 24 19 23 18 22 17 Master’s degree 21 16 20 15 19 14 18 13 本 科 Higher vocational ed. 17 12 16 11 15 10 General upper secondary ed. Vocational upper secondary ed. 14 9 13 8 12 7 General lower secondary ed. Vocational lower secondary ed. 11 6 10 5 9 4 8 3 7 2 6 1 Primary education 5 4 3 Pre-school ed. Bachelor’s degree The Education System in China
  3. 3. Major Data of the Education System in China (2007) 99.5%(net) 105,640,027 5,612,563 320,061 Primary ed. 44.6% 23,488,300 827,000 129,000 Pre-schooling ed. 98% 57,361,947 3,472,995 59,384 Lower secondary ed. 66.0% 44,811,583 2,279,620 31,140 Upper secondary ed. 23% 25,285,551 1,248,473 2,321 Higher ed. Rate of enrollment No. of students No. of teaching staff No. of schools
  4. 4. Major Strategies for Expanding Secondary Education in China Accessibility & Equity Quality & Accountability Relevance 1. Ensuring all pupils compete 9-year compulsory education 2. Accelerating the expansion of upper secondary education for meeting emerging social demands 4. Enhancing the overall quality of secondary education 3. Striking a balance between general and vocational education at upper secondary level
  5. 5. 1. Ensuring all pupils compete 9-year compulsory education <ul><li>In 1986, the National People’s Congress made the Law on Compulsory Education. </li></ul><ul><li>At end of 2007, some 2817 localities at the county level (98.5% among the total 2860 country level localities in China) achieved the goal of universalizing 9-year compulsory education. </li></ul><ul><li>The national retention rate from grade 1 to grade 3 of lower secondary education is 94.66%. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Strategic Policies (1-1): <ul><li>During 2004-2007, the central government has invested 10 billion RMB to establish 7700 boarding lower secondary schools in the rural areas of the western region. </li></ul><ul><li>Starting from 2007, a new project of the reconstruction of lower secondary schools will be implemented, another 10 billion RMB will be invested, mainly in the central region. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Percentage of Pupils at Boarding Schools at Lower Secondary Education in China (2006) 52.45 11.13 47.84 Western region 44.91 11.28 40.02 Central region 29.64 11.53 25.92 Eastern region 42.07 12.03 37.27 Country average Rural areas Urban areas Total
  8. 8. Strategic Policies (1-2): <ul><li>The new mechanism for financing compulsory education in rural areas, includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination of miscellaneous fees for rural students in the western since the spring semester of 2006, and in all the rural areas since the spring semester of 2007; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free textbooks to all rural students for autumn semester of 2007; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidy of school meals for students of the lower income families; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A cost sharing partnership between central and local governments (8:2 in the western region, and 6:4 in the middle region). </li></ul><ul><li>2006-2010, the central and local government increase 218.2 billion RMB. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Steady Increase of Lower Secondary Education Gross Enrolment Ratio in China(1990-2007)
  10. 10. 2. Accelerating the expansion of upper secondary education for meeting emerging social demands <ul><li>As a result of the universalization of compulsory education and a quick expansion of higher education, there has been a huge social demand for upper secondary education; </li></ul><ul><li>According to China’s 11th Five-year Plan of Education, in 2010, the gross enrolment ratio of upper secondary education will reach 80%. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Significant Increase of Upper Secondary Education Gross Enrolment Ratio in China(1990-2007)
  12. 12. Strategic Policies (2-1) : <ul><li>Encouraging the establishment of example general upper secondary schools; </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a multi-channel funding mechanism for general upper secondary education; </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Composition of Funding for General Upper Secondary Schools (2004-2005)
  14. 14. Strategic Policies (2-2) : <ul><li>Encouraging the establishment of private schools. From 1995 to 2005, the number of private general upper secondary schools has increased from 375 to 3175 . </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging local governments, schools as well as social organizations to provide grants to students of the lower income families. From 2008, China Education Foundation will provide 300 million RMB as grant for students. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 3. Striking a balance between general and vocational education at upper secondary level <ul><li>China’s rapid industrialization and development of the manufacturing sectors have generated huge demands for skilled workers; </li></ul><ul><li>China has become a “big” manufacturing country, but still remain rather “weak”. The productivity of a Chinese factory worker is only 1/23, 1/25, 1/18 of his/her American, Japanese and German counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s always been the government’s policy to balance the development of general and vocation education at the upper secondary level of education since 1985; </li></ul>
  16. 17. Strategic Policies (3): <ul><li>Enhancing capacities of vocational education. During 2006-2010, national government will invest 10 billion RMB in supporting the establishment of, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>county-level vocational schools; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skill training bases; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>example vocational schools and vocational colleges. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Providing grant to vocational students. From 2007, every vocational upper secondary education student from rural areas receives 1500 RMB governmental grant per year for living expenses or tuition fees. </li></ul>
  17. 18. 4. Enhancing the overall quality of secondary education <ul><ul><li>Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all ( EFA quality goal) ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has always been the government’s concern to develop quality-oriented education, and enhance quality of teaching/learning, and promote students’ all-rounded development. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Source: World Bank (1996) World Development Report 1996: from plan to market. Oxford University Press.
  19. 20. <ul><li>Chinese students outperformed their US counterparts in the areas of base-ten counting and place values, calculation and mental mathematics, simple and process-constrained problem solving, and flexible mathematics representation. </li></ul><ul><li>But Chinese students show no advantage in graphing, understanding tables,or open-process problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>---- Jian Wang & Emily Lin (2005) </li></ul>
  20. 21. Strategic Policies (4-1): <ul><li>Curriculum reform: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 2005, new curriculum has been implemented for all new enrollment in lower secondary education; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 2007, about 50% of general upper secondary school students use new curriculum; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New competence-based curriculum for over 700 subjects of 83 courses have been developed and implemented in the vocational track of upper secondary education; </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Some features of the new curricula of general secondary education <ul><li>Curriculum matter relates more to real life context; </li></ul><ul><li>More practical hands-on experiences; </li></ul><ul><li>More project-based inquiry learning; </li></ul><ul><li>Leave rooms for local and school based curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Offer more choices to students (optional modules) </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>From teacher-centred approach to student-centred approach </li></ul><ul><li>From the delivery of knowledge to foster the students’ creative competence </li></ul><ul><li>From paying attention of the commonalities of students to paying attention of the individualities of students </li></ul><ul><li>From a rigid and examination-oriented type of assessment to a formative and “value-added” assessment system </li></ul>Expected changes of teaching/learning pedagogy
  23. 24. <ul><li>Some evaluation has shown: </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum reform has removed fussy, difficult, deflected and obsolete contents, reduced complicated curriculum matters, added comprehensive courses such as science, art, practical activities </li></ul><ul><li>The learning styles of students have changed actively, their abilities for independent learning, participated learning and exploratory learning have been enhanced </li></ul>
  24. 25. The trends of teaching and learning reform of VET <ul><li>Concreted educational aims and goals of VET program </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalizing general education within VET </li></ul><ul><li>Actualization of vocational knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Actionalization of the teaching/learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification of curricula and teaching materials </li></ul><ul><li>Localization of management authority and responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Flexiblization of regulation and control </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization of quality assessment and assurance </li></ul>
  25. 26. Strategic Policies (4-2): <ul><li>Developing a system of on-the-job training of teachers, especially to enhance their competence of teaching; </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of tuition fees for students of teacher education programs of six normal universities under the remit of the MOE; </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging teachers in the urban areas to work in the rural areas for a certain period of time. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Implementing the Plan for Modern Distance Education in Primary and Secondary Schools in the Rural Areas (2004 -- 2007, 10 billion RMB Yuan. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>110,000 outreaching teaching sites----DVD players and sets of CD for instructional purposes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>384,000 primary schools---- facilities for watching satellite-transmitted education programs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>37,500 junior secondary schools---- computer classrooms. </li></ul></ul>Strategic Policies (4-3):
  27. 28. <ul><li>National Centre for Curriculum and Textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>(Beijing, 1990) </li></ul>Strategic Policies (4-4): Construction of National Monitoring and Evaluation System Ministry of Education National Monitoring Centre for Basic Education (Shanghai Academy of Educational Research, 2006) Office of the Project for Monitoring Compulsory Education (Beijing, 2002) National Assessment Centre for Quality of Basic Education (Beijing Normal University, 2007) National Inspectorate of Education Various evaluation programs in collaboration with World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO MOE’s Social Science Research Programs
  28. 29. <ul><li>PISA China Pilot Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizers: the National Educational Examination Authority (NEEA) and Beijing Normal University (BNU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborators: the PISA headquarter, the ASER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted by following all the PISA 2006 procedure strictly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A total 5,000 15-year-old students were drawn from Beijing, Tianjin and Shandong province. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>The Assessment of learner’ ability and interactive teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizers: UNICEF Beijing Office, Department of Basic Education of MOE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on national curricula standards of grade 3 and 6, SOLO taxonomy and theory of student’s cognitive development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To analyze students’ response to test of language, math, science and life skills and to know student attainment of knowledge, competence and educational objective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use casual model to analysis influence factors of students’ learning </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Reduce the gaps of the level of development between rural and urban areas, between different regions; </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonious development of both example schools (or key-point) schools and ordinary schools (a balance between the elite and the mass); </li></ul><ul><li>Demands for quality enhancement vis-a-vis traditional ideology and way of teaching/learning; </li></ul><ul><li>Financial constraints: China currently invests about 3% of GDP for Education, among the lowest in the world (The world average is 4.5% in 2005, for developing countries, 4.4%). The national government is making great efforts to increase that up to 4% in 2010 </li></ul>Overall Challenges (personal misgivings):
  31. 32. Average Class Size by Level of Education [China (2004), Other Countries (2002)] 36.3 25.1 Thailand 29.8 26.2 Sri Lanka 20.6 16.1 Russian Federation 51.6 39.7 Philippines 37.1 32.9 Malaysia 30.6 28.5 Jordan 40.0 40.0 India 43.5 40.9 Egypt 33.7 26.1 Brazil 23.7 21.8 OECD Country Mean 56.6 35.1 China Junior Secondary Ed. Primary Ed.
  32. 33. Dr Jin Yang Senior Programme Specialist UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning Feldbrunnenstr. 58 20148 Hamburg Germany Tel: +49(0)40 44 80 41 32 Fax: +49(0)40 410 77 23 [email_address] Many thanks!