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11 heart failure


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11 heart failure

  1. 1. Heart Failure Department of Cardiology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital Deng-feng Geng
  2. 2. Heart failure is the pathological process in which the systolic or/and diastolic function of the heart is impaired, and as a result, cardiac output decreases and is unable to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Definition
  3. 3. Prevalence <ul><li>5 million Americans have heart failure. </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 new cases diagnosed each year in US </li></ul><ul><li>HF is the reason for at least 20% of all hospital admissions among persons older than 65. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Prevalence <ul><li>The prevalence of heart failure rises from below 1% in individuals below 60 years to nearly 10% in those over age 80 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptomatic HF has a worse prognosis than the majority of cancers,with one-year mortality of approximately 45%. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pathophysiology <ul><li>Systolic functions of the heart is governed by four major determinants: </li></ul><ul><li>The contractile state of the myocardium </li></ul><ul><li>The preload of the ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>The afterload applied to the ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>The heart rate </li></ul>
  6. 6. Etiological causes <ul><li>Dysfunction of myocardium </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardial damage: </li></ul><ul><li>myocardial infarction; </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiomyopathy; </li></ul><ul><li>Myocarditis </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>ischemia and hypoxia; </li></ul><ul><li>beriberi </li></ul>
  7. 7. Etiological causes <ul><li>Overload for myocardium </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure overload (afterload) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension, aortic stenosis; </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Volume overload (preload) </li></ul><ul><li>Mitral regurgitation </li></ul><ul><li>Restriction of cardiac dilation </li></ul><ul><li>Pericardial effusion </li></ul>
  8. 8. The precipitating causes <ul><li>Infection </li></ul><ul><li>especially, lung infection </li></ul><ul><li>Arrhythmia </li></ul><ul><li>Tachycardia: atrial fibrillation </li></ul><ul><li>Bradycardia </li></ul>
  9. 9. The precipitating causes <ul><li>Excessive physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy and delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Anemia </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Administration of inappropriate drug </li></ul><ul><li>Medication noncompliance </li></ul><ul><li>Excess fluid intake </li></ul><ul><li>thyrotoxicosis </li></ul>The precipitating causes
  11. 11. Pathophysiological Mechanisms
  12. 12. Pathophysiological Mechanisms
  13. 13. Pathophysiological Mechanisms
  14. 15. Ventricular Remodeling <ul><li>Ventricular remodeling is the process by which mechanical, neurohormonal, and possibly genetic factors alter ventricular size, shape, and function. </li></ul><ul><li>Remodeling occures in several clinical conditions, including myocardial infarction, hypertension and cardiomyopathy. </li></ul><ul><li>Its hallmarks include hypertrophy, loss of myocytes, and increased interstitial fibrosis. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Mitral regurgitation <ul><li>A potential deleterious outcome of remodeling </li></ul><ul><li>As the LV dilates and the heart assumes a more globular shape, the geometric relation between the papillary muscles and the mitral leaflets changes, causing MR. </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of MR results in an increasing volume overload on the overburdened LV that further contributes to remodeling, the progression of disease, and symptoms. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Ventricular Remodeling Ventricular remodeling after acute infarction Ventricular remodeling in diastolic and systolic heart failure Initial infarct Expansion of infarct (hours to days) Global remodeling (days to months) Normal heart Hypertrophied heart (diastolic heart failure) Dilated heart (systolic heart failure)
  17. 18. Clinical classification According to the course of disease Acute HF Chronic HF According to the cardiac output (CO)   Low-output HF   High-output HF According to the location of heart failure Left -side heart failure (LHF) Right-side heart failure (RHF) Biventricular failure (whole heart failure) According to the function impaired Systolic failure Diastolic failure
  18. 19. Chronic Heart Failure
  19. 20. Left ventricular failure Pulmonary congestion + low cardiac output
  20. 21. LV failure--Symptom <ul><li>Dyspnea </li></ul><ul><li>Exhausted dyspnea </li></ul><ul><li>Orthopnea </li></ul><ul><li>Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea </li></ul><ul><li>Acute pulmonary edema </li></ul>
  21. 22. LV failure--Symptom <ul><li>Cough </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Symptom of urinary system </li></ul>
  22. 23. LV failure--Sign <ul><li>Cardiac sign </li></ul><ul><li>Enlargement of LV </li></ul><ul><li>gallop rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Systolic murmur in apex </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary sign </li></ul><ul><li>Dry rales </li></ul><ul><li>Moist rales </li></ul>
  23. 24. Right ventricular failure <ul><li>Symptom of gastro-intestinal </li></ul><ul><li>Symptom of Renal </li></ul><ul><li>Pain in hepatic area </li></ul><ul><li>Dyspnea </li></ul>
  24. 25. RV failure--Sign <ul><li>Hepatojugular reflux </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatomegaly </li></ul><ul><li>Edema </li></ul><ul><li>pleural fluid and ascites </li></ul>
  25. 26. Biventricular Failure LV failure + RV failure
  26. 27. What Are The Symptoms of Heart Failure? <ul><li>Think FACES ... </li></ul><ul><li>F atigue </li></ul><ul><li>A ctivities limited </li></ul><ul><li>C hest congestion </li></ul><ul><li>E dema or ankle swelling </li></ul><ul><li>S hortness of breath </li></ul>
  27. 28. What Are The Symptoms of Heart Failure?
  28. 29. What Are The Symptoms of Heart Failure?
  29. 30. JVP = jugular venous pressure
  30. 31. Edema
  31. 32. Ascites
  32. 33. HF—lab test Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) >100 pg/ml Heart failure
  33. 34. Normal Heart Failure
  34. 35. Pulmonary edema Butterfly sign
  35. 36. Swan-Ganz catheter
  36. 37. NYHA Classification of heart failure <ul><li>Class I: No limitation of physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Class II: Slight limitation of physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Class III: Marked limitation of physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Class IV: Unable to carry out physical activity without discomfort </li></ul>
  37. 38. 6 minutes walk test (6MWT) <ul><li>6MWT<150 m Serious cardiac dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>6MWT 150~425 m Moderate cardiac dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>6MWT 426~550 m Mild cardiac dysfunction </li></ul>
  38. 39. Four stages of heart failure <ul><li>Stage A: Asymptomatic with no heart damage but have risk factors for heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>Stage B: Asymptomatic but have signs of structural heart damage </li></ul><ul><li>Stage C: Have symptoms and heart damage </li></ul><ul><li>Stage D: Endstage disease </li></ul><ul><li>ACC/AHA guidelines, 2001 </li></ul>
  39. 42. Treatment Strategies of HF
  40. 43. Treatment Strategies of HF <ul><li>etiology therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of etiology causes </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of precipitating causes </li></ul><ul><li>Improve life-style </li></ul>
  41. 44. Treatment Strategies of HF <ul><li>Lessen cardiac load </li></ul><ul><li>Rest </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation of salt intake </li></ul><ul><li>Water intake </li></ul><ul><li>Diuretics </li></ul>
  42. 45. Diuretics <ul><li>Indicated in patients with symptoms of heart failure who have evidence of fluid retention </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance response to other drugs in heart failure such as beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy initiated with low doses followed by increments in dosage until urine output increases and weight decreases by 0.5-1kg daily </li></ul>
  43. 46. Diuretics in HF <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Improves symptoms of congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Can improve cardiac output </li></ul><ul><li>Improved neurohormonal milieu </li></ul><ul><li>No inherit nephrotoxicity </li></ul><ul><li>limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive volume depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolyte disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Unknow effects on mortality </li></ul><ul><li>ototoxicity </li></ul>
  44. 47. positive inotropic agents <ul><li>Digitalis </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine and Dobutamine </li></ul><ul><li>Milrinone </li></ul>
  45. 48. Digitalis <ul><li>Enhances LV function, normalizes baroreceptor-mediated reflexes and increases cardiac output at rest and during exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended to improve clinical status of patients with heart failure due to LV dysfunction and should be used in conjunction with diuretics, ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers </li></ul><ul><li>Also recommended in patients with heart failure who have atrial fibrillation </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse effects include cardiac arrhythmias, GI symptoms and neurological complaints (eg. visual disturbances, confusion) </li></ul>
  46. 49. Digitalis <ul><li>Use with caution: </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy </li></ul><ul><li>Mitral stenosis with sinus rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>constrictive pericarditis </li></ul><ul><li>High degree AVB </li></ul><ul><li>AMI within 24 hours </li></ul>
  47. 50. ACE Inhibitors: clinical benefits <ul><li>Increases exercise capacity improves </li></ul><ul><li>functional class </li></ul><ul><li>attenuation of LV remodeling post MI </li></ul><ul><li>decrease in the progression of chronic </li></ul><ul><li>HF </li></ul><ul><li>decreased hospitalization </li></ul><ul><li>enhanced quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>improved survival </li></ul>
  48. 51. ACE Inhibitor <ul><li>All patients with symptomatic heart failure and those in functional class I with significantly reduced left ventricular function should be treated with an ACE inhibitor, unless contraindicated or not tolerated </li></ul><ul><li>ACE inhibitors should be continued indefinitely </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to titrate to the dosage regimen used in the clinical trials … in the absence of symptoms or adverse effects on end-organ perfusion </li></ul>
  49. 52. Effects of SNS Activation in Heart Failure <ul><li>Dysfunction/death of cardiac </li></ul><ul><li>myocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Provokes myocardial ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>Provokes arrhythmias </li></ul><ul><li>Impairs cardiac performance </li></ul>
  50. 53. Beta-adrenergic receptor bloker <ul><li>Dry weight </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate with low dosage </li></ul><ul><li>Titration to target dosage </li></ul><ul><li>Metoprolol </li></ul><ul><li>Bisoprolol </li></ul><ul><li>Carvedilol </li></ul>
  51. 54. <ul><li>Aldosterone antagonist: </li></ul><ul><li>RALES, serious HF </li></ul><ul><li>Angiotensin receptor blocker: substitute, not replace </li></ul>Treatment Strategies of HF
  52. 55. Summary of drug treatment for CHF
  53. 57. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) <ul><li>CRT device: </li></ul><ul><li>Patients with NYHA Class Ⅲ/Ⅳ </li></ul><ul><li>Sympotomatic despite optimal medical therapy </li></ul><ul><li>QRS ≥ 130 msec </li></ul><ul><li>LVEF ≤ 35% </li></ul><ul><li>CRT plus ICD: </li></ul><ul><li>Same as above with ICD indication </li></ul>
  54. 58. The Donkey Analogy Ventricular dysfunction limits a patient’s ability to perform the routine activities of daily living…
  55. 59. Diuretics, ACE inhibitors Reduce the number of sacks on the wagon
  56. 60. Beta-blockers Limit donkey’s speed, thus saving energy
  57. 61. digitalis Like the carrot placed in front of the donkey
  58. 62. CRT/CRT-D Increase the donkey’s (heart) efficiency
  59. 63. Heart failure: More than just drugs. <ul><li>Dietary counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Patient education </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Medication compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive follow-up </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden death assessment </li></ul>
  60. 64. Take home message <ul><li>Heart failure is clinical diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>ACEI should be titrated to highest dose tolerable </li></ul><ul><li>Beta-blockers should be used universally but must titrated slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Spironolactone should be used in NYHA Ⅲ/Ⅳ patients </li></ul><ul><li>Digoxin can be used to reduce morbidity </li></ul><ul><li>Role of ARB remains to be determined in patient intolerating ACEI </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive therapy or patient education is the key to reduction of burden </li></ul>
  61. 65. Questions to determine therapeutic strategy in patients presenting with HF <ul><li>Is heart failure present? </li></ul><ul><li>What caused the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What precipitated deterioration? </li></ul><ul><li>How severe is the heart failure? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the prognosis? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the best acute therapeutic strategy? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the best chronic therapeutic strategy? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the initiating/precipitating problem be cured, and can the state of HF be attenuated? </li></ul>
  62. 66. CHF with preserved systolic function (Diastolic HF) <ul><li>Differential Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong Dx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inaccurate measurement of LVEF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary valvular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictive (infiltrative) cardiomyopathies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pericardial constriction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic/reversible LV systolic dysfunction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High output failure (AVF, Thyroid, anemia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrial myxoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diastolic dysfunction </li></ul></ul>
  63. 67. Diastolic HF vs Systolic HF
  64. 68. Diastolic HF vs Systolic HF
  65. 69. CHF with preserved systolic function (Diastolic HF) <ul><li>Treatment of etiology causes </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation of myocardium </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse LV hypertrophy:ACEI, beta-blocker </li></ul><ul><li>Lower preload:Diuretics, Nitrates </li></ul><ul><li>Maintainance sinus rhythm </li></ul>
  66. 70. Acute Heart Failure <ul><li>Typical causes of acute HF </li></ul><ul><li>Acute myocardial infarction or severe ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>Exacerbation of chronic HF </li></ul><ul><li>Acute volume overload of left ventricle (valvular regurgitation) </li></ul><ul><li>Mitral stenosis </li></ul>
  67. 71. Acute Heart Failure <ul><li>Clinical findings: </li></ul><ul><li>Severe dyspnea </li></ul><ul><li>pink and frothy sputum </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanosis </li></ul><ul><li>Orthopnea </li></ul><ul><li>Moist Rales, wheezing </li></ul>
  68. 72. Acute Heart Failure <ul><li>Body position: a sitting position with legs dangling over the side of the bed </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen delivered by mask </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noninvasive pressure support ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>morphine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing venous capacitance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowering left atrial pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relieving anxiety </li></ul></ul>
  69. 73. Acute Heart Failure <ul><li>Diuretics: venodilation prior to the onset of diuresis </li></ul><ul><li>Vasodilator:Nitroprusside, Nitroglycerin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing LV filling pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digitalis </li></ul><ul><li>aminophylline </li></ul>
  70. 74. Thank you for your attention !