The Book and The Charter of European Responsible Citizenship


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Promoting a responsible citizenship among university students. (Europe)
The project, financed by the European Union, initiated discussions last year with university students who shared ideas and approaches on two main issues: 1) how to build and promote active and responsible citizenship in Europe and 2) what should be their common elements. The project includes a survey, in order to deepen the level of awareness among the youth about key features of European citizenship.

The project were developed in five European cities with an interactive and participatory approach (London, Rome, San Sebastian, Warsaw and final event in Brussels). The students have analyzed and discussed on four topics in each international meeting: 1 - Cultural diversity, immigration and Solidarity, 2 - Basic values (with particular Attention to Those Transmitted and created by the media), 3 - Democracy and civic participation, Including overview on the European Parliamentary elections, 4 - Volunteering and intergenerational relations.

The results of the project was "The Charter of Responsible Citizenship" which was presented in the final event, Brussels (june 2010).

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The Book and The Charter of European Responsible Citizenship

  1. 1. Citizen2010B.indd 1 2-06-2010 9:46:21
  2. 2. Workshop in San Sebastiàn - Palacio MiramarCitizen2010B.indd 2 2-06-2010 9:46:26
  3. 3. Charter of the Responsible European Citizenship “Promoting a Responsible European Citizenship” Project funded by the EU programme “Europe for Citizens”, Action 2.3 Promoted by EUCA Project leader: Arces 3Citizen2010B.indd 3 2-06-2010 9:46:26
  4. 4. 4Citizen2010B.indd 4 2-06-2010 9:46:27
  5. 5. “Nous ne coalisons pas des États, nous unissons des hommes” Jean Monnet 5Citizen2010B.indd 5 2-06-2010 9:46:27
  6. 6. 6Citizen2010B.indd 6 2-06-2010 9:46:27
  7. 7. INDEX Prologue – Gian Luca Giovannucci, EUCA President p.8 Introduction – Josè Antonio Calvo, EUCA Vice-president p.12 A Perspective from the Social Research - Intermedia Consulting p.14 A Research about Responsible Citizenship p.22 The four workshops p.34 Charter of the Responsible European Citizenship p.38 Who are the projects partners? p.48 National students teams p.49 Notes p.50 Credits p.5 INDICE Prologo – Gian Luca Giovannucci, EUCA Presidente p.10 Introducción - Josè Antonio Calvo, EUCA Vice-president p.13 Perspectivas desde las investigaciones sociales – Intermedia Consulting p.16 Una investigación sobre Responsabilidad Ciudadana p.28 Carta de la Ciudadania Europea Responsable p.43 7Citizen2010B.indd 7 2-06-2010 9:46:27
  8. 8. Prologue “Europe will not be made all at once, or according to a single plan. It will be built from the concrete achievements which first create a de facto solidarity” (Robert Schuman, 9 May 1950) Recently an important American spectator, Richard Haass, President of the Council of Foreign Relations, affirmed that “Even before it began, the period in which Europe should have been the world power of the 21st Century appears to have drawn to a close”. Economical and political crisis: “the repeated refusal of the Lisbon Treaty dem  nstrates o that the idea of a united Europe is no longer at the centre of the collective imagination. The sluggish leadership of the European organisations is at the same time the cause and the result of this loss of impulse. Behind this detachment there is an objective reality: Europeans have never really been serious about the E.U”. “The loss of the centrality in Europe is reflected also in its shortcomings: the European project is collapsing”. A cruel analysis…that unfortunately has some foundation. On the other hand the same European Commission has acknowledged that the distance between citizens and a Eu- ropean Project is a serious problem. Even if this is not quite the place to analyze the core reasons for such a situation, we would like to demonstrate that a little light exists, through the results of a project called “Promoting a Responsible European Citizenship”, promoted by EUCA (European University College Association) and by partners of vari- ous countries of the E.U. The protagonists and persons responsible for the research of this project, which lasted one year, were in fact all young university students. Therefore youths used to study, to reflect and to debate often without those preconceptions that often send older adults off track. If you allow me, I shall highlight the fact that the team that developed the analy- sis and elaborated the Charter of Responsible European Citizenship is here present and is composed of students from College Universities(University Halls of Residence) from four European Countries(Great Britain, Spain, Poland and Italia). These university students are particularly fortunate, because they have been put into the best possible position in order to give value to their talents through a supplementary formative project that each and every College University contains. And so, all these youths are enthusiastic about Europe, to share with their fellow mem- bers of other countries of the Old Continent their thoughts and reflections, their ideas and why not- their fears too… Enthusiastic, without doubt, was the current climate in this breadth of this year’s work: enthusiasm in meeting colleagues from the countries 8Citizen2010B.indd 8 2-06-2010 9:46:28
  9. 9. involved in the project; exchanging opinions; discussing about possible solutions for the big themes of research (immigration, cultural differences, the role of the media, basic values, solidarity, voluntary work, civil and democratic participation); but also to simply stay together a few days, even though they were so few for those who have the thirst for acquaintances and knowledge. The light exists because it is now (and not in some distant future!)that those youths are protagonists of Europe that is going through a crisis of growth. Many commentators have remarked that after creating the Euro currency without creating political struc- tures at the same time, was a hazard for an authentic integration of the 27 states. It is most likely true, though only with hazards, has the dream of a United Europe and one in peace (after centuries of war, amongst two of the bloodiest in the last century) ever gone forward. Were they not hazards either the dream of Spinelli or the words of Schu- man? Or the European Community of Coal and Steel in 1951? Or the Treaty of Rome in 1957? It is important that these young people know their history well, their European history, so that they have the courage to go forward despite the difficulty that every dream must overcome in order to become a reality. An author once said “It is the actual possibility to realize a dream that makes life interesting Certainly, these youths do not represent all the young people in Europe. One could surely object that these youths represent an Elite who boast an academic formation that renders more complete their own path in a University College. But theirs is a very great mission, just like the snow peaked mountains that appear small and distant though melting and rendering fertile the valleys. Therefore as President of the European University College Association, I am proud to have followed and encouraged the work of these youngsters. The European Institutions must look and listen more to the youth and especially young university students. The University has always been a treasure of Europe. If there is an increased awareness, Europe will benefit. Through this Charter, so too is EUCA ready to play its part. Gian Luca Giovannucci President European University College Association (EUCA) 9Citizen2010B.indd 9 2-06-2010 9:46:28
  10. 10. Pròlogo Europa no podrá hacerse en una vez, ni será construida de golpe; surgirá de hechos concretos que generen sobre todo una solidaridad de hecho. (Robert Schuman, 9 mayo 1950) Recientemente un importante observador americano, Richard Haass, Presidente del Consejo de relaciones exteriores, ha afirmado che “el periodo en que Europa podía haber sido la potencia mundial del Siglo XXI parece haberse terminado antes de em- pezar”. Crisis económica, crisis política: “los repetidos rechazos del tratado de Lisboa demuestran que la idea de una Europa unida ha dejado de ser algo central en el imagi- nario colectivo. La apática clase dirigente de las organizaciones europeas es al mismo tiempo la causa y el resultado de esta pérdida de empuje. Detrás de esta desconexión hay una realidad objetiva: los europeos nunca se han comprometido de verdad con la UE”. “La pérdida de centralidad de Europa refleja también sus defectos: el proyecto europeo está colapsando.” Un análisis inmisericorde… que, desgraciadamente, tiene algún fundamento. De otra parte la misma Comisión Europea ha reconocido que el distanciamiento de los ciuda- danos del Proyecto Europeo es un problema serio. Y aunque, si bien no es esta la sede para analizar a fondo las razones de esta situación, queremos demostrar que existe una pequeña luz, mediante los resultados del proyecto Promoting a Responsible European Citizenship”, promovida por EUCA (European University College Association), y por algunos colaboradores de varios Países de la Unión Europea. Los protagonistas de este proyecto, que ha durado un año, y los autores de la investi- gación, del cual constituye el corazón, son de hecho jóvenes universitarios; muchachos por tanto habituados a estudiar, reflexionar, debatir, habitualmente sin aquellos pre- juicios que despistan a los más adultos; consiéntanme además subrayar que el equipo que ha desarrollado el análisis y elaborado la Carta de la Ciudadanía Europea Respons- able aquí presentada, está compuesto por estudiantes de Colegios Mayores (University Halls of Residence) de cuatro países europeos (Reino Unido España, Polonia e Italia), universitarios por ello especialmente afortunados, porque están en las mejores condi- ciones para valorar los propios talentos, a través del proyecto formativo extra que todo Colegio Mayor ofrece. Por tanto todos estos jóvenes son entusiastas de Europa, de compartir con coetáneos de otros países del viejo continente las propias reflexiones, las propias ideas y, porque no, 10Citizen2010B.indd 10 2-06-2010 9:46:28
  11. 11. los propios miedos… Entusiasta ha sido por otro lado el clima presente en el arco de este año de trabajo: entusiasmo de reunirse en los países implicados en el proyecto; de inter- cambiar opiniones; de discutir sobre posibles soluciones para los grandes temas objeto de la investigación (la inmigración y las diferencias culturales, el papel de los medios de comunicación y valores básicos, la solidaridad y el voluntariado, la participación civil y democrática); pero también de estar simplemente juntos algunas jornadas, que parecían siempre pocas a quienes tiene sed de conocimientos y de conocerse. La luz existe porque ellos son (no serán, si uno presta atención, ¡son ya ahora!) los pro- tagonistas de la Europa que está atravesando una crisis de crecimiento. Muchos analistas han hecho notar que la creación del euro, la moneda única europea, sin haber establecido al mismo tiempo las estructuras políticas para una integración autentica entre los 27 Estados Miembros ha sido una audacia. Probablemente es verdad, pero solo con audacias el sueño de una Europa Unida y en paz (tras siglos de guerras, de las cuales dos muy sangrientas en el siglo pasado) ha ido siempre para adelante. No parecían audaces el sueño de Spinelli y las palabras de Schuman? No era un atrevi- miento la Comunidad Europea del Carbón y del Acero de 1951? O los tratados de Roma de 1957? Es importante que estos jóvenes conozcan bien la historia, la propia historia europea, para que tengan el coraje de ir hacia delante, entre las dificultades que todo sueño tiene que superar si quiere llegar a ser real. “Es precisamente la posibilidad de realizar un sueño lo que hace la vida interesante” ha dicho un escritor. Ciertamente estos jóvenes no representan todos los jóvenes de Europa; incluso se puede objetar que constituyen una élite, que puede presumir de una formación académica que con frecuencia se completa a través de su paso por un colegio universitario. Quizá. Pero su misión es muy alta, como la de aquellas cimas nevadas de las montañas que, aunque parezcan pequeñas y lejanas, al fundirse fecundan los valles. Por tanto, como Presidente de la European University College Association estoy or- gulloso de haber seguido y animado el trabajo de estos chicos. Las instituciones europeas deben mirar y escuchar más a los jóvenes y especialmente a los jóvenes universitarios; la Universidad ha sido siempre una riqueza de Europa. Si esta atención crece, Europa saldrá ganando. También EUCA, mediante esta Carta, está preparada para hacer su parte. Gian Luca Giovannucci 11Citizen2010B.indd 11 2-06-2010 9:46:28
  12. 12. Introduction The project “Promoting a Responsible European Citizenship” was born with the inten- tion of proposing a model of European citizenship, which may bring Europe closer to civil society and further increasing the involvement of the citizens in the public life within a shared set of principles. This proposal is related to the development of an active European citizenship linked to the concept of “responsibility” and “social participation”, developed around four pillars: volunteering, democratic participation, interge  erational n dialogue, immigration. The results, which you can appreciate from reading this Charter, are the product of the reflection of students from University Halls of Residence of five EU countries. The final principles described in this Charter, and coming out from debates between students and civil society representatives, want therefore to contribute in the construction of the European Citizenship. The activities have been implemented in three steps, during one year of work: - Qualitative surveys and opinion polls at national level on the perceived values and principles of the responsible European citizenship; - Organisation of one thematic event in each partner country to share and discuss the findings of the polls (London, Rome, San Sebastian, Warsaw); - Redaction of the final “Charter of the responsible European citizenship”. As culture is actually shaped by media, specially digital environments like Internet and Social Networking Sites, and to ensure promotion and wide diffusion, the debate has also included a section on how new media (especially blogging and sharing, social networking sites and video games) could contribute to the spreading of the responsible European citizenship among citizens. We hope that this proposal of citizenship will allow identifying a shared European iden- tity and ownership, which may be built among shared principles of social and demo- cratic engagement. José Antonio CALVO Vice-President EUCA 12Citizen2010B.indd 12 2-06-2010 9:46:29
  13. 13. Introducción El proyecto “Promoting a Responsible European Citizenship” nació con el propósito de crear un modelo de Ciudadanía Europea que pudiera acercar Europa a la sociedad civil y proporcionar un incremento de la participación de los ciudadanos dentro de un con- junto compartido de principios. Este propósito está relacionado con el desarrollo de una ciudadanía europea activa, la cuál está conectada a su vez con el concepto de “respon- sabilidad” y “participación social”, basado en cuatros principios básicos: voluntariado, participación democrática, diálogo intergeneracional e inmigración. Los resultados, los cuales pueden ser observados tras la lectura de esta Carta, son el producto de lo manifestado por estudiantes residentes en Colegios Mayores de 5 países diferentes dentro de la Unión Europea. Los principios finales descritos en esta Carta, procedentes de distintos debates entre los estudiantes y representantes de la sociedad civil, quieren contribuir a la construcción de una Ciudadanía Europea. Las actividades han sido implementadas en tres pasos, a lo largo de un año de trabajo: - Encuestas de tipo cualitativo y paneles de opinión a nivel nacional sobre valores y principios percibidos en relación a ciudadanía europea responsable; - Organización de un evento temático por parte de cada uno de los socios del proyecto en sus respectivos países (Londres, Roma, San Sebastián y Varsovia). En ellos se ha discutido sobre las características y resultados observados en las encuestas; - Redacción final de la “Carta de Ciudadanía Europea Responsable”. Como la cultura está acaparada por los “mass media”, especialmente los entornos digitales como Internet y las redes sociales, y para asegurarnos una promoción y di- fusión relevante, el debate ha incluido una sección de cómo los nuevos vehículos de información (especialmente los blogs, páginas y redes sociales o webs de videojuegos) pueden contribuir a divulgar la ciudadanía europea responsable entre los ciudadanos. Esperamos que este empeño nos permita compartir una identidad propia, la cual debe ser construida a través de los principios compartidos de compromiso social y democrático. José Antonio CALVO Vicepresidente EUCA 13Citizen2010B.indd 13 2-06-2010 9:46:29
  14. 14. A Perspective from the Social Research In this world of competing claims about what is right and what is true, have confidence in the values with which you’ve been raised and educated. Be unafraid to speak your mind when those values are at stake. Hold firm to your faith and allow it to guide you on your journey. Stand as a lighthouse (Barack Obama, 2009). Helping young people create a bridge between themselves and public debate requires adult leaders who know both what’s going on in our teens’ lives and in the larger, social and political sphere (Lynda McDonnell, journalist, 2009). Young people are the future of Europe. Those of us who have participated in the project “A Responsible European Citizenship” believe that they are also the present. This re- quires that European leaders be familiar with the values of young people and know how to respect and promote them. For more than 10 months we have asked questions and listened to university students in Europe, with different backgrounds, with different points of view. They have been the protagonists: under the guidance of experts in social research techniques, they designed a questionnaire, and then analyzed and interpreted the answers. In short: they have asked their peers to become their spokesmen, using methods that allow them to overcome ideologya and create dialogue based on scientific data. All with one objective: to provide information to those who have the political, social and economic European Union in their hands. The decisions are effective when based on evidence analyzed objectively. Through research conducted in recent years we have seen that in order to implement effec- tive public policies (especially in areas of youth) it is necessary to explore the lifestyles and values of citizens your participation is necessary. In practice, there is a need to “connect” with them, to speak their language.  s Paul Lazarsfeld affirmed, we must learn to ask “why.” A Thus the project has attempted to explore the views of college students’ attitudes and aspirations regarding to European Citizenship, in order to know if they develop and can act as Responsible Citizens; to, through their direct participation in a European project, promote leadership and social responsibility among a particular group of students who share the college experience. We can summarize some of the results of the research in the following points: 14Citizen2010B.indd 14 2-06-2010 9:46:29
  15. 15. • Educate more people about the assets of the volunteer-related activities; • Further revalue the role of the family to educate and sustain values and responsible citizenship; • Promoting activities that encourage greater interaction between generations; • Increase awareness about the importance of interaction in civil life, keeping people not only informed, but expressing concern about development through citizen par- ticipation. Reynaldo Rivera and Manuel Villalobos  Intermedia Consulting  15Citizen2010B.indd 15 2-06-2010 9:46:29
  16. 16. Perspectivas desde las investigaciones sociales In this world of competing claims about what is right and what is true, have confidence in the values with which you’ve been raised and educated. Be unafraid to speak your mind when those values are at stake. Hold firm to your faith and allow it to guide you on your journey. Stand as a lighthouse (Barack Obama, 2009). Helping young people create a bridge between themselves and public debate requires adult leaders who know both what’s going on in our teens’ lives and in the larger, social and political sphere (Lynda McDonnell, journalist, 2009). Los jóvenes son el futuro de Europa. Los que hemos participado en el proyecto “Una Ciudadanía Europea Responsable” creemos que ellos pueden ser también el presente: para esto, es necesario que los líderes europeos conozcan sus valores, para respetarlos y promoverlos. Durante más de 10 meses nos hemos ocupado de hacer preguntas y escuchar a jóvenes universitarios europeos, de distintos orígenes, con diferentes puntos de vista. Ellos han sido los verdaderos protagonistas: con la guía de expertos en técnicas de investigación social han diseñado un cuestionario, seleccionado una muestra, analizado e interpretado las respuestas. En síntesis: han interrogado a sus pares para convertirse en sus portavoces, utilizando métodos que les permiten superar ideologías, entablando un diálogo a partir del len- guaje de los datos científicos. Y todo ello con un objetivo: brindar información a quienes tienen hoy en sus manos las decisiones políticas, sociales, económicas de la Unión Europea. Las decisiones son eficaces cuando se basan en evidencias analizadas con objetividad. A través de las investigaciones realizadas en los últimos años, hemos observado que para implementar políticas públicas eficaces (especialmente en áreas de juventud) es necesario explorar los estilos de vida y valores de los ciudadanos y contar con su par- ticipación. Para lograrlo es necesario “conectar” con ellos, hablar su mismo lenguaje. Como afirmaba Paul Lazarsfeld, aprender a preguntar “por qué”. Por ello el proyecto ha procurado explorar las opiniones de los estudiantes universitari- os sobre las actitudes y aspiraciones relacionadas con la ciudadanía europea; conocer si se desarrollan y actúan como ciudadanos responsables; para, a través de su participación directa en un proyecto europeo, promover el liderazgo social responsable entre un grupo concreto de estudiantes que comparten la experiencia de los colegios mayores. 16Citizen2010B.indd 16 2-06-2010 9:46:30
  17. 17. Podríamos resumir algunos de los resultados de la investigación en los siguientes pun- tos: • Concienciar aún más a los ciudadanos sobre los valores que poseen las actividades relacionadas con el voluntariado; • Revalorizar más el papel de la familia para educar en valores y sostener así una Ciudadanía Responsable; • Promover actividades que favorezcan una interacción mayor entre generaciones; • Sensibilizar mas sobre la importancia de interactuar en la vida civil, mantenién- dose, no solamente informados, sino manifestando su preocupación por el desar- rollo a través de la participación ciudadana. Reynaldo Rivera y Manuel Villalobos Intermedia Consulting  17Citizen2010B.indd 17 2-06-2010 9:46:30
  18. 18. Workshop in London - House of Commons Workshop in London - House of Commons 18Citizen2010B.indd 18 2-06-2010 9:46:34
  19. 19. Workshop in Rome - Visit at Quirinale Workshop in Rome - Senato della Repubblica 19Citizen2010B.indd 19 2-06-2010 9:46:38
  20. 20. Workshop in San Sebastiàn - Palacio Miramar Workshop in Warsaw - Town Hall 20Citizen2010B.indd 20 2-06-2010 9:46:42
  21. 21. Workshop in San Sebastiàn - Palacio Miramar Workshop in Warsaw - Town Hall 21Citizen2010B.indd 21 2-06-2010 9:46:45
  22. 22. A Research about Responsible Citizenship1 “Youth” has a significant importance for the population.  They are our future  soci- ety. Raising awareness and promoting active and responsible citizenship in this social group, will contribute to greater cohesion between the various civilizations that make up Europe and train the responsible parties who will lead the future Europe and help foster integration and development.  This project sought to interact and to reflect on common and essential elements for Responsible European citizenship through the following topics: 1 - Cultural diver- sity, immigration and Solidarity, 2 - Basic values (with particular Attention to Those Tran  mitted and created by the media), 3 - Democracy and civic participation, Includ- s ing overview on the European Parliamentary elections, 4 - Volunteering and intergen- erational relations. One of the tools used by the project was setting up a survey which asked about each of the four themes.  The objectives of the study are: 1) to explore the views of university students on at- titudes and aspirations relating to European citizenship. 2) whether the university students in Europe are developing and acting as responsible citizens. 3) to encourage political participation and socially responsible leadership among college students and young professionals. We present a short analysis of the results through the survey concerning the values and attitudes of young people2: INTELLECTUAL GENERATION RESPONSIBLE TO THE STUDIES Through the responses, we may say that the activity they spend more time, as an ave  age r weekday for a university student, is: 52.65% study more than 2 hours (of which 34.67% devote more than 3h of studies). 85.05% of the interviewees felt university studies as “important” or “very important” in their lives. And 59.51% identified as “important” or “very important” for a Responsible Citizenship studying ‘hard’, seeking to acquire knowledge, not power or money. 54.74% used mass media to obtain information about the state of the European Union and its projects, university professor are 18.50% ahead of the politicians 7.80%. To stay updated with politics and current affairs, 17.30% turn to university professors, so they have more ability to influence that politicians 9.34%. 22Citizen2010B.indd 22 2-06-2010 9:46:45
  23. 23. Another index which shows that European Union ministers can most effectively influ- ence students to build a Responsible European Citizenship by making personal visits to the Universities 19.05% followed by make personal visits to the University and Univer- sity Residences 17.98%3. Faced with important issues or decisions, only 23.06% of people would come “always” or “almost always” to university professors as a source of information, compared to 30.33% which is undefined and 42.81% who say they “never” or “almost never.” A GENERATION OF SOLIDARITY? LACK OF AWARENESS ON VOLUNTEERING Despite the importance given to leisure, 65.31% considered it “important” or “very important” to their lives, the amount of time dedicated is as follows. Once a week or more: 60.74% say they are with friends; 56.51% frequents the bars and discos and such places ; 56.82% do sport or go on excursion… 43.49% affirm that they do not any spend time on volunteerism (outreach programs, charity, etc.), and 35.54% “sometimes in a month or less frequently”. Through the re- sponses we could say that time devoted to volunteer work is low. However, items considered “important” or “very important” to live Responsible Citi- zenship are: support people who are worse off than themselves 49.85%, and be active in voluntary organizations 38.90%. On the other hand, it is surprising that the general feeling of support is high. When asked whether or not help others (regardless of favours from family, school and college) the response is relatively high, 58.16% said that se  e- v ral times a month. 33.85% consider voluntary organizations as “not important” or “extremely unimpor  ant” t to their lives, and 35.12% is not defined. This suggests that they do not take voluntary activity in their lives. On the other hand, young people recognized that religious leaders as the institution4 that encourages young people to give themselves to help others in volunteering 29.97%, the second social institution or most valued were friends 27.52% and 21.87% third parents. 23Citizen2010B.indd 23 2-06-2010 9:46:46
  24. 24. A GENERATION OF ASPIRATIONS FOR FAMILY VALUES AND FRIENDSHIP We could describe the family as the institution most valued by young people. When asked about the importance to their lives the family, 90.26% considered it “important” or “very important” for their life, followed by friends 88.72%. 85.83% placed the family as “Trusted” or “Complete Trust.” The second position were also friends with 79.90%. Faced with the question “ Which of the following people and institutions5 are helping you most to reach these goals through their messages, example and advice?” Parents were elected 8 times as the most valued, winning almost always half of the scores6. Be helpful 52.37%; be loyal in my commitments 59.57%; be sincere 55.90%; have my own personality so as to maintain my opinions 45.18%; not depend on circumstances and be strong when difficulties arise 56.88%; Choose the right person with whom to start a family 46.64%; If I get married, I want my marriage to last all my life 50.38%; to save money for the future 74.62%. Parents were also the institution most valued as a source for important issues or deci- sions7, 70.62% think that “always” or “almost always” turn to them, the second most valued were friends 67.93%. A POLITICAL GENERATION? DISTRUST 74.82% of young people showed “distrust” or “do not trust” politicians. 73% thinks the same value about political parties, the same happened for 51.94% to assess the coun- try’s Parliament. However, the values given to the United Nations is as follows: 35.59% of “normal trust and 34.02% of “trust” or “complete trust”. When judging the European Parliament, 37.41% showed a “normal trust,” while 29.66% chose the “distrust” or “do not trust” and 26.51% “trust” or “complete trust”. For Country’s parliament also 51.94% showed “distrust” or “do not trust”. We could say that there is greater confidence (moderate) to the European Institutions than the national. In the possibility to choose (if they have done or would do) any of the following actions8 24Citizen2010B.indd 24 2-06-2010 9:46:46
  25. 25. for trying to improve things in your country or help prevent things from going wrong: 62% choose not to participate actively in a group involved with political issues; 61.25% not would sign a petition or submit a proposal to the European Union representatives, or 60% would not participate in a lawful public demonstration. Finally, 58% choose not to participate in boycott of certain products. We could say that the level of interaction with the political action is low. Finally, on the question “How important is politics in your life?”, 40.47% considered it as “unimportant” or “not important”. When asked about the importance of different elements required to be a Responsible Citizen9, responded as “important” or “very im- portant”: Form your own opinion, independent of others, 74.17% - Voting in elections, 71.84% - Always obey the law, 64.3%. On the other hand, some confidence is shown in state government on issues concerning the economy. 51.27% is in “agreement” or “strongly agree” that government should take measures to reduce income gap. AN INTERACTIVE AND INFORMATIVE GENERATION CRITICAL SPIRIT, ARE INFORMED, BUT DO NOT TRUST Academics were critical with the media, 48.43% “distrust” or “do not trust” in media networks, and 41.28% chose the same value for the press. However, 50.87% will go to internet “always” or “almost always” as an information source about important issues or decisions. Also, 45.12% would go to the website of the European Union trying to improve things in their country, or help prevent things from going wrong. 54.74% think that the media is a fundamental “institution” to have infor- mation about the states of The European Union and its projects. It was also the most valued institution to cultivate interest in politics and Current. Young people feel that the sources of news and information10 are in the first place, online platforms (online newspapers, Google News or other digital source) 27.30%, followed by TV news channels 18.11% and 17.25% main newspapers. When asked about the importance of internet and digital entertainment in your life, 43.30% is defined as “important” or “very important. On an average weekday, 40.77% spent more than 1hr reading essays, scientific paper or books, journals. 37.96% dedicate more than 1hr in watching and reading news about politics and current affairs, and 34.37% between 30min and 1hr. 25Citizen2010B.indd 25 2-06-2010 9:46:46
  26. 26. A GENERATION OF RESPECT AND TOLERANCE PROUD AND DEFENDERS OF THEIR VALUES Through the responses, it is evident that the interviewees are tolerant towards immi- grants and understand their difficult situations in a new country. 60.83% considered good for the culture that come from other countries and regions to live in Europe, and 51.70% consider immigration as good for the economy. 46.61% call for more discre- tion, accept that it is good for education. A controversial topics could be the social cohe- sion which is said timidly 35.11% would be good and security, where there was no clear consensus or a clear opposition. Some values show respect and tolerance towards people “who have come to live in Europe from another region and race”, 62.16% would not mind having them as a leader, 51.76% would “agree” o “strongly agree” if he or she married a close relative. 45.41% did “not agree” in thinking that is better for a country if almost everyone shares the same customs and traditions. However, the following are considered “important” or “very important” attitudes on the part of the immigrants: to be respectful to the European cultural and religious heritage, 65.58%; to speak the official language, 60.54%; to be committed to the way of life and laws of the EU, 56.53%; to have good educational qualifications, 52.65%. Therefore the youth demands from the immigrants respect for the European cultural and religious heritage, the education, language and laws. Another interesting fact is: 45.81% “disagree” or “strongly disagree” that the communities of people who have come to live in the country be allowed to educate their children in their own separate schools, if they so wish. About definitions Also they “agree” that despite the distances and historical facts, there is a single back- ground.  54.69% was shown in “agree” or “strongly agree” that “Being European” means that I share with all other Europeans the same basic cultural sources, despite the fact that they come from vastly differing backgrounds. 63.34% are in “agreement” or “strongly agree” with: We must fully assume our national cultural identity, not only because it is the foundation of our own intellect and sen- siti  ity, but also because Europe’s rich cultural variety and its national roots are what v 26Citizen2010B.indd 26 2-06-2010 9:46:47
  27. 27. makes it unique. It is this huge cultural endowment, with all its diversity, that gives Europeans their European identity. 50.77% were of “agree” or “strongly agree” with this statement on Europe: The main cultural axis and roots of EU Culture are Greek Philosophy, Roman Law, Christianity- Enlightenment and the Scientific Spirit. 27Citizen2010B.indd 27 2-06-2010 9:46:47
  28. 28. Una investigación sobre Responsabilidad Ciudadana11 “La juventud” tiene una importancia significativa para la población. Aumentar la sen- sibilización y promoción de una ciudadanía activa y responsable en este grupo social, contribuirá a una mayor cohesión entre las distintas civilizaciones que conforman Eu- ropa, y capacitará a los responsables que liderarán el futuro de Europa, facilitando su integración y desarrollo.  Este proyecto pretende interactuar y hacer reflexionar sobre los elementos comunes y esenciales para vivir una ciudadanía europea responsable a través de los siguientes temas: 1 - La diversidad cultural, la inmigración y la solidaridad, 2 - Los valores funda- mentales (con especial atención a los valores transmitidos y creados por los medios de comunicación), 3 - Democracia y participación ciudadana, incluyendo visión general sobre las elecciones al Parlamento Europeo, 4 - El voluntariado y las relaciones inter- generacionales. Una de las herramientas utilizadas por el proyecto fue la creación de una encuesta que pregunta sobre cada uno de los cuatro temas.  Los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1) Explorar las opiniones de los estudiantes univer- sitarios sobre sus actitudes y aspiraciones relacionadas con la ciudadanía europea. 2) Examinar si los estudiantes universitarios en Europa se están desarrollando y actuando como ciudadanos responsables. 3) Fomentar la participación política y liderazgo social responsable entre los estudiantes universitarios y jóvenes profesionales.  Presentamos a continuación un breve análisis de los resultados extraidos a través de la encuesta valores y actitudes de los jóvenes12. UNA GENERACIÓN INTELECTUAL RESPONSABLES CON LOS ESTUDIOS A través de las respuestas, podríamos decir que la actividad en la que invierten más tiempo (como media de un día entre semana), un estudiante universitario, es el estudio: el 52,65% dice dedicar más de 2 horas (de las cuales 34,67% dedican más de 3 horas al estudio). El 85,05% ve los estudios universitarios como algo “importante” o “muy importante” en su vida. Un 59,51% identificó como “importante” o “muy importante” para una Ciudadanía Responsable estudiar “fuerte”, buscando la adquisición de cono- cimientos, no el poder o el dinero.  28Citizen2010B.indd 28 2-06-2010 9:46:47
  29. 29. El 54,74% utilizan los mass media como fuente para obtener información sobre el es- tado de la Unión Europea y sus proyectos; la segunda fuente son los profesores univer- sitarios con el 18,50%, por delante de los políticos 7,80%. Para mantenerse actualizado en política y temas de actualidad, el 17,30% afirmaba acudir a los profesores universi- tarios, podríamos afirmar por tanto que los profesores tiene una ligera capacidad supe- rior para influir que los políticos 9,34%.  Sin embargo, los ministros de la Unión podrían influir más eficazmente en los estu  i- d antes, para construir una Ciudadanía Europea Responsable, haciendo visitas perso  ales n a las Universidades 19,05%13 y realizando visitas personales a las Universidades y Resi- dencias universitarias 17,98%. Frente a las cuestiones o decisiones importantes, sólo 23,06% acudiría “siempre” o “casi  siempre “a los profesores universitarios como fuente de información, en com- paración con el 30,33% que no se definía, y un 42,81% que “nunca” o “casi nunca” acudiría a ellos.  ¿UNA GENERACIÓN SOLIDARIA?  FALTA DE CONCIENCIACIÓN HACIA EL VOLUNTARIADO  El 65,31% consideró el tiempo libre como “importante” o “muy importante”  en sus vidas pero, ¿en qué dedican el tiempo libre y cuánto tiempo? Una vez por semana o más: el 60,74% dice estar con los amigos; el 56,51% frecuenta bares y discotecas; el 56,82% práctica algún deporte o sale de excursión ...  Un 43,49% afirma no dedicar tiempo al voluntariado, y el 35,54% “alguna vez al mes o con menor frecuencia”. A través de las respuestas podríamos afirmar que el tiem- po dedicado al trabajo voluntario es bajo.  Sin embargo, los temas considerados “importantes” o “muy importante” para vivir una Ciudadanía Responsable fueron: apoyar a personas que están en peor situación que ellos mismos 49,85% y ser activo en organizaciones de voluntariado 38,90%. Por otra parte, se percibe un fuerte contraste entre el tiempo dedicado en realidad, y el sentimiento general de ayuda a los demás. Cuando se les preguntó acerca de la ayuda que ofrecen a otros (independientemente de los favores en la familia, la escuela y la universidad) la respuesta es relativamente elevada, el 58,16% dijo que varias veces al mes.  El 33,85% considera a las organizaciones voluntarias como “no importante” o “poco importante” para sus vidas, mientras un 35,12% no se definía. Se podría afirmar que no desarrollan actividades de voluntariado en sus vidas, aunque la estima por este tipo de 29Citizen2010B.indd 29 2-06-2010 9:46:47
  30. 30. actividades sea grande. Por otra parte, los jóvenes reconocen en los líderes religiosos una institución14 que les anima a darse a los demás para ayudar en el voluntariado 29,97%; la segunda institución más valorada fueron los amigos 27,52%, seguidos de los padres 21,87%.  UNA GENERACIÓN DE ASPIRACIONES HACIA LOS VALORES FAMILIARES Y LA AMISTAD Podríamos describir a la familia como la institución más valorada por la gente jo- ven. Cuando se les preguntó acerca de la importancia que tiene la familia para sus vidas, el 90,26% la consideró “importante” o “muy importante”, seguida esta institución por los amigos 88,72%. Por otro lado, el 85,83% sitúa a la familia como “de confianza” o “completa confianza”, y en segunda posición los amigos con un 79,90%.  Ante la pregunta “¿Cuál de las siguientes personas e instituciones15 te ayudan a alcanzar los siguientes objetivos (indicados más abajo) a través de sus mensajes, ejemplo y con- sejo? Los padres fueron elegidos 8 veces como los más valorados, ganando casi siempre la mitad de las puntuaciones16:  Ser servicial 52,37%; ser fiel en mis compromisos 59,57%; ser sincero 55,90%; tener mi propia personalidad y mis opiniones 45,18%; no depender de las circunstancias y ser fuerte cuando surgen dificultades 56,88%; elegir la persona adecuada con quien formar una familia 46,64%; querer ser fiel en el matrimonio durante toda la vida 50,38%; y por último, ahorrar dinero para el futuro 74,62%.  Los padres también eran la institución más valorada como fuente a la que acudir en caso de temas importantes o decisiones17, el 70,62% piensa que “siempre” o “casi siempre” acudiría a ellos. La segunda institución más valoradas fueron los amigos, 67,93%.  ¿UNA GENERACIÓN POLíTICA?  CIERTA DESCONFIANZA  El 74,82% de los jóvenes mostró “desconfianza” o “ninguna confianza” hacia los políti- cos. El 73% otorgó la misma calificación para los partidos y para el Parlamento de su País 51,94%.  Sin embargo, los valores atribuidos a las Naciones Unidas fueron para el 35,59% de “confianza normal”, y el 34,02% de “confianza” o “completa confianza”. Al juzgar al Parlamento Europeo, el 37,41% manifestaba una “confianza normal” y 26,51%” confi- 30Citizen2010B.indd 30 2-06-2010 9:46:48
  31. 31. anza “o “completa confianza”, mientras el 29,66% optó por la desconfianza” o “ninguna confianza”. Podríamos decir que hay una moderada confianza hacia a las instituciones europeas. Ante la posibilidad de elegir (si han hecho o harían) cualquiera de las siguientes ac- ciones18 para tratar de mejorar las cosas en su país o ayudar a prevenir que se cometan er- rores: el 62% optó por no participar activamente en un grupo involucrado en cue  tiones s políticas; el 61,25% no firmaría una petición o presentaría una propuesta a los represen- tantes de la Unión Europea; el 60% no participaría en una manifestación pública lícita; el 58% optaría por no participar en boicot a determinados productos. Podríamos afirmar que el nivel de interacción con la acción política es baja.  Acerca de la pregunta “¿Cómo es de importante la política en tu vida?” El 40,47% lo consideró  “sin importancia” o “ninguna importancia”.  Cuando se le preguntó acerca de la rel- evancia de los diferentes elementos necesarios para ser un Ciudadano Responsable19, respondieron como “importante” o “muy importante”: Formar tu propia opinión in- dependientemente de los demás 74,17% - Votar en las elecciones, 71,84% - Siempre obedecer a la ley, el 64,3%.  Por otra parte, se muestra cierta confianza hacia el gobierno estatal en las cuestiones rel- ativas a la economía. El 51,27% esta de “acuerdo” o “muy de acuerdo” que el gob  erno i debe tomar medidas  para reducir la diferencia de ingresos.  UNA GENERACIÓN INTERACTIVA E INFORMADA ESPÍRITU CRÍTICO, ESTÁN INFORMADOS, PERO NO CONFíAN Los académicos fueron críticos con los medios de comunicación, el 48,43% mostraba “desconfianza” o “ninguna confianza” hacia los media networks, y el 41,28% optó por el mismo valor para la prensa.  Sin embargo, el 50,87% se dirige a Internet “siempre” o “casi siempre” como fuente de información sobre  cuestiones importantes o decisiones. Además, un 45,12% afirma que visitaría la página web de la Unión Europea para mejorar las cosas en su país, o ayudar a prevenir que se cometan errores.  Un 54,74% piensa que los medios son una “institución” fundamental para estar infor- mado sobre los estados de la Unión Europea y sus proyectos. También fue la institución más valorada para cultivar el interés en la política y la actualidad. 31Citizen2010B.indd 31 2-06-2010 9:46:48
  32. 32. Las fuentes de noticias e información20 relevadas como las más importantes para los jóvenes fueron, en primer lugar las plataformas on-line (periódicos digitales, google News o otras fuentes digitales) 27,30%; seguidas de los canales de noticias en TV 18,11%; y los principales diarios 17,25%.  Cuando se les preguntó sobre la importancia de Internet y entretenimiento digital en sus vidas, el 43,30% lo definió como “importante” o “muy importante”.  El promedio de tiempo dedicado un día entre semana a leer ensayos, documentos científicos o libros, revistas (como Harvard Business Review, Pediatrics, etc.) es para el 40,77% más de 1 hora. Un 37,96% dedica más de 1 hora a ver y leer noticias sobre la política y asuntos de actualidad, y 34,37% entre 30 minutos y 1 hora.  UNA GENERACIÓN DE RESPETO Y TOLERANCIA ORGULLOSOS Y DEFENSORES DE SUS VALORES A través de las respuestas, podríamos constatar que los entrevistados son tolerantes ha- cia los inmigrantes y comprenden la dificil situación en su nuevo país. El 60,83% con- sidera bueno para la cultura  que vengan de otros países y regiones a vivir a Europa, y el 51,70% considera la inmigración buena para la economía. El 46,61% aceptaría que es bueno para la educación. Los temas controvertidos podrían ser la cohesión social en el que un 35,11% manifestó que sería bueno, y la seguridad, donde no había un consenso ni una clara oposición.  Algunos valores que podrían ser muestra de respeto y tolerancia hacia las personas “que han venido a vivir a Europa desde otra región y raza*”, son el hecho de que al 62,16% no le importaría tenerlas* como jefe, y el 51.76% se mostraba de “acuerdo” o “muy de acuerdo” si el o ella* se casa con algún pariente cercano. El 45,41% se mostró “no de acuerdo” en pensar que es mejor para un país si casi todos comparten las mi  mas s costumbres y tradiciones.   Sin embargo, consideran como “importante” o “muy importante” para los inmigrantes las siguientes actitudes: ser respetuoso con la herencia cultural y religiosa de Europa 65,58%; hablar la lengua oficial, 60,54%; que se comprometan con le modo de vida y las leyes de la UE, 56,53%; tener buen nivel educativo, 52,65%.  Por lo tanto, algunas de las demandas de la juventud hacia los inmigrantes son el respeto a la herencia cultural y religiosa de Europa, la educación, el lenguaje y las leyes. Otro hecho interesante es el siguiente: el 45,81% se mostraba “en desacuerdo” o “totalmente en desacuerdo” en que a las comunidades de personas que han venido a vivir al país se 32Citizen2010B.indd 32 2-06-2010 9:46:48
  33. 33. les permitia educar a sus hijos en sus escuelas por separado, si así lo desean.  Sobre definiciónes Se mostraban de acuerdo en que a pesar de las distancias y de los hechos hay un único fondo comun. El 54,69% estaba de “acuerdo” o “muy de acuerdo” en que “La europei- dad significa que comparto con todos los demás europeos las mismas fuentes culturales de base, a pesar del hecho de que provienen de muy diferentes orígenes”. El 63,34% está de “acuerdo” o “muy de acuerdo” con: “Debemos asumir plenamente nuestra identidad cultural nacional, no sólo porque es el fundamento de nuestro proprio intelecto y sensibilidad, sino también porque la rica variedad cultural de Europa y sus raíces nacionales hacen a esta única. Es esta riqueza cultural enorme, con toda su diver- sidad, la que ofrece a los europeos su Identidad Europea. El 50,77% estaban de “acuerdo” o “muy de acuerdo” con esta declaración sobre Eu- ropa: El eje principal y las raíces culturales de la Cultura de la UE son la filosofía griega, el derecho romano, el cristianismo, la Ilustración y el espíritu científico. 33Citizen2010B.indd 33 2-06-2010 9:46:48
  34. 34. “Cultural diversity, immigration and solidarity within the context of a responsible citizenship” Workshop in London, 25th November 2009 With the British Parliament as a backdrop and so much enthusiasm as a traveling com- panion, the “Promoting a responsible European citizenship” project could not have got off to a better start than with its debut in London on 25th November. In a beautiful room made available by the House of Commons and under the excellent organization of The Netherhall Educational Association (member of EUCA), discus- sions on immigration and solidarity were held with prestigious guests such as Austen Ivereigh, a journalist well known in the United Kingdom for his commitment on the issue of citizenship, and Sarah Lambert, European Commission representative in the British capital. At the centre of the event, however, were contributions made by EUCA students who presented the first results of the survey conducted through questionnaires among hundreds of university students across Europe. At the end of the workshop, the fifty participants were divided into groups and began to compare notes on complex subjects such as ethics and morality in the areas of migra- tion, human rights and social status, and cultural integration. The main ideas produced by the discussion were that: - despite the many complexities, it should still be accepted that there is a morally inher- ent right for people to move freely across borders; - on the part of the migrants, the acceptance of the rule of law and prevailing institutions is considered necessary. By virtue of being a human person, migrants have a right to welfare provision; - societies should aspire to integrate immigrants without applying additional coercion beyond a reasonable legal framework; - migrants should be seen as an opportunity to enhance the national cultural heritage – they will be able to contribute a great deal to the evolution of culture; - governments should stipulate minimum criteria for acquiring citizenship, such as lan- guage, historical knowledge, lack of criminal convictions, etc. 34Citizen2010B.indd 34 2-06-2010 9:46:49
  35. 35. “Basic values: Europe and media” Workshop in Rome – 25th January 2010 The Project became fully operational in Rome, with the second workshop. At the pres- tigious Sala Bologna of the Senate of the Italian Republic, the fifty plus students were able to tackle the difficult relationship between the media and Europe in the construction of a mature citizenship based on fundamental values. The reflections on the issue were presented by renowned speakers such as Giampiero Gramaglia, ex- director of ANSA and current Advisor for Communications of the Italian Institute of International affairs, experts in new media Berhard Warner and Luison Lassala, after being introduced by Senator Raffaele Calabrò. Also participating at the event were journalists and heads of Italian institutions from the world of university, colleges and ministries. To widen the experience, a small international delegation of EUCA was also received at Quirinale, on the same day, by Rocco Cangolesi, Head Diplomatic Councillor of the President of the Italian Republic, who then invited our Association to collaborate in future with the Head of State for projects on Europe that address young people . During the final part of the workshop, students worked together as usual to produce sug- gestions for the Final Charter. The main ideas that emerged were: - being a “responsible citizen means to have a pro-active approach based on the in- dividual and on their capabilities, to be curious (restless) and to be committed; the responsible citizen should also seek to create opportunities where ideas are exchanged with other members of the society; - it is very important being able to cast a critical eye on media contents and it could be useful, in order to help create responsible citizenship capabilities among the youth, to widen rules of good journalism, and so doing, prevent the risk of having less freedom of information; - the basic human values most relevant for the media are: sincerity, respectability, ap- propriateness, solidarity, and respect for basic freedoms; nonetheless, new media could be used to spread good things and to foster basic human values; - given the huge success of Model United Nations, Model European Parliament would be a dynamic, interactive platform for students to gain an understanding of the Euro- pean bureaucracy and political processes; -due to a lack of accessible and intelligible information on how European institutions work, seminar-style classes could be offered in universities across the EU; -increase the number of internship opportunities within the EU structure so young people can gain first-hand knowledge of how the system works, and feel “involved in Europe”. 35Citizen2010B.indd 35 2-06-2010 9:46:49
  36. 36. “Democracy and civic participation” Workshop in San Sebastiàn – 12th February 2010 The third workshop took place in San Sebastiàn, 12th February 2010, in the Basque re- gion. With a picturesque snowy landscape in the spendid frame of Palacio Miramar, an already well renowned headquarters of international summits, dozens of students com- ing from all the countries involved in the Project, discussed the subject of “Democracy and civic participation”. Speakers were present included Susana del Rìo, expert in the sector and heavily involved in the theme of European Citizenship, Alfonso Unceta, rec- tor of the Faculty of Political Sciences of the University of the Basque Territories and winner of the Euskoiker Award, for his accomplishments on social responsibility, Xavi- er Ezeizabarrena, a lawyer specialising in European studies and above all the themes of environment and democratic participation. The convention was introduced by Edurne Egaña Manterola, a Basque Politician. Also on this occasion the day was enriched with an institutional visit to the local Palacio della Diputaciòn and then concluded at Ayete, an EUCA college, with a evocative concert of classical music. The main ideas that came out of the final discussion were: -for true participation, there must be a deliberate contribution and adding of value to society at large. The participation must be willing, have a direction, purpose and a view to improvement of prevailing conditions; -the core values of citizens’ participation are: Equality of all men, freedom of speech and assembly, a right and opportunity to political action, a sense of responsibility and freedom of conscience; -to increase participation it is fundamental, from the social-economic point of view, to apply the same laws for everybody, and from the cultural point of view, to have a highly-educated society with special activities in schools and universities. Moreover, the legal system can increase participation, informing people on the importance of par- ticipation, supporting the traditions and local cultures; -voting is not the only instrument of control of the activities of government; other in- strument can be: to carry out unbiased polls more frequently and communicate them efficiently to the citizens, the introduction of specific courses regarding politics and the importance of civic participation, more inter-university debates and seminars and courses between them could enhance the behavior and consciousness of students and the possibilities they have to participate in the political system. 36Citizen2010B.indd 36 2-06-2010 9:46:49
  37. 37. “Volunteering and intergenerational relations” Workshop in Warsaw– 16th April 2010 Despite of the national mourning for the Smolensk tragedy and the volcanic ash cloud emergency, on Friday 16th April 2010, the Warsaw University of Technology hosted the fourth workshop of the Project. The theme of the event was “Volunteering and in- tergenerational relations”. During the morning the participants visited the Town Hall and met volunteering stakeholders including Dariusz Pietrowski, President of Asso- ciation of ‘Volunteer Centre’, Anna Piasecka, Representative of the foundation ‘World for YES’, Agata Cholewińska, Representative of the Educational Projects Department, International Cooperation and the Office of Teacher Education of the City Warsaw, Anna Repelewicz-Iwaniuk, Department of Social Welfare, Social Policy Office of the City Warsaw. After lunch at WUT, the students attended the workshop introduced by Profes- sor Włodzimierz Kurnik, Rector of Warsaw University of Technology and Professor Władysław Wieczorek, Vice-Rector for Student Affairs of WUT. The main speakers were Grzegorz Gruca, Member of the board of the foundation ‘Polish Humanitarian Organisation’, who drew a portrait of the Polish world of volunteering, and Jerzy Bara- nowski, Vice-President of the board of Association of Alumni and Friends of the War- saw University of Technology, Marcin Wójcik and Paweł Zbigniew Zaremba, Members of Folk Band of Song and Dance of WUT, and Michał Pisarski, Representative of As- sociation ‘Board of European Students of Technology’, who spoke about the intergen- erational relations politics in Poland. The workshop ended with the usual discussion in which students reached conclusions that: -volunteering has become a part of public life even if it is not an invention of our age but it is probably as old as mankind itself; government should recognize volunteer- ing as an important experience and also recognise the value of such activities from the professional point of view; - the best opportunity for students to set up volunteering schemes is taking part in stu- dents’ associations or organizations; young people want to listen young people rather than those who are older, so their work can be more effective; - states should raise awareness among people about the importance of and possibili- ties for volunteering, in particular regarding the European and international programs; States should promote the discussion and exchange of good practices about volunteer- ing between Member States; -the intergenerational barrier doesn’t exist, it is created by the stubborness of people who don’t want to learn from each other; volunteering among young and older people should be improved as a way to bring them closer, to promote the dialogue and to facili- tate the exchange of opinions between them. 37Citizen2010B.indd 37 2-06-2010 9:46:50
  38. 38. CHARTER OF THE RESPONSIBLE EUROPEAN CITIZENSHIP PREAMBLE Having regard to the European Convention on Human Rights; Having regard to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union; Whereas the Treaty establishes citizenship of the Union, which complements natio  al n citizenship of the respective Member States; Whereas responsibility goes hand in hand with knowledge; Whereas citizens shall be informed and possess a critical approach developed with a respect for personal liberty; Whereas that new generations are more conscious and used to cultural diversity than older, and youth want to bring up children to be even more accustomed, in terms of tolerance, respect and acceptance; Whereas the promotion of integration, cooperation, dialogue, volunteering and civic participation are fundamental for the creation of Europe and for the promotion of a Responsible Citizenship; Whereas 2010 is the European Year for combating poverty and social exclusion and 2011 will be the European Year of Volunteering; EUCA students propose the Charter of the Responsible European Citizenship: 38Citizen2010B.indd 38 2-06-2010 9:46:50
  39. 39. GENERAL PRINCIPLE ART. 1 Responsible Citizenship Being a “Responsible Citizen” means to be capable of measuring actions, facts and events with a deep involvement (in terms of interest and active participation) in all social issues. “A Responsible European Citizenship” is based on an integrated concept of citizenship, which has a critical eye, is tolerant and respectful of different cultures and traditions and open to dialogue, has attention for enviromental matters, is concerned and aware of the events which occur domestically and abroad, in search of peace and social cohesion development and well-being, recognizing the wisdom of preceding generations, taking care and acting in favour of the disadvantaged, not forgetting the importance of the fa  ily and schools in the education of basic values such as liberty, democracy, solidar- m ity, respect for human rights, for fundamental freedoms and for the role of law. CULTURAL DIVERSITY, IMMIGRATION AND SOLIDARITY ART. 2 Mutual understanding Societies should aspire to integrate immigrants without applying additional coercion beyond a reasonable legal framework. Migration is also contingent on the acceptance of the rule of law and prevailing institutions in the receiving country. Immigrants should be seen as an opportunity to enhance the national cultural heritage. They may contribute in providing a great deal of supplement to the evolution of cul- ture. ART. 3 Rights and duties Some minimum criteria for acquiring citizenship, such as basic knowledge of the lan- guage and the law and lack of criminal convictions, should be defined. The promotion of language courses and the diffusion of basic information about the States institutions, laws, way of life, religion, traditions should contribute to a better participation and integration of migrants in the society. ArRT. 4 Bilingual/multilingual teaching 39Citizen2010B.indd 39 2-06-2010 9:46:50
  40. 40. Bilingual/multilingual teaching in university courses and in the junior and senior years of high school should be increased. Learning languages can reduce the distances be- tween different nationalities and create an integrated Europe. BASIC VALUES AND MEDIA ART. 5 Principles of media Citizens have the right to make use of fair, trustworthy and honest sources of informa- tion; it is vital for a citizen to have concrete opportunities of formation /comparison, in order to train a clear conscience. ART. 6 Rules of good journalism A “European code of journalism ethics” should be consolidated and promoted to define minimum common standards for good journalism within the European Union (i.e. sin- cerity, respectability, appropriateness and respect for basic freedoms). ART. 7 European Interactive media Multilingual TV channels, European newspaper, on line European and other educative programs featuring news, discussion sessions, beyond the national and local media should be increased and strengthened. Better efficacity should be ensured to the existing common platforms for participation in the public debate and in civil society. DEMOCRATIC AND CIVIC PARTICIPATION ART. 8. Civic participation Civic participation is a deliberate contribution and adds value to society at large. Actions must be, in one way or another, aimed at impacting society as a whole. The participation should be intentional, should have a direction, a purpose and a view to improvement of prevailing conditions. Civic participation should see the involvement of families and educators in the institu- tional debate, considering their fundamental role as benchmarks, above all for youth, in the daily and in the all-life crucial decision-making, for the development of an effective 40Citizen2010B.indd 40 2-06-2010 9:46:50
  41. 41. participative democracy. ART. 9. Classes on European Citizenship Classes on European citizenship, European internships and meetings among peers, ad- dressed to civil society and educational institutions, should be organized. ART. 10 Model European Parliament Given the huge success of Model United Nations, a Model European Parliament (MEP) should be promoted. This should be a dynamic and interactive platform where stu- dents can gain an understanding of the European bureaucracy and political processes. It would also serve as another venue where young people from across Europe could meet and exchange ideas. ART. 11 European Union closer to civil society Talks, visits, lectures, meetings in universities, associations, university halls of resi- dence, local and national institutions about European Citizenship should be promoted. This would grow the awareness of EU policies and initiatives. Offers of Internships and jobs concerning EU to university students and young gra  u- d ates should be increased. ART. 12 Participation in Public Life Citizens should be better sensitize to the importance of civic participation. Citizens should adopt activities and build pressure groups that can dialogue with politics and that can bring institutions closer to them. Public Institutions should increase the participation by using surveys, public debates or speaking directly with citizens and listening what comes from below. 41Citizen2010B.indd 41 2-06-2010 9:46:51
  42. 42. VOLUNTEERING AND INTERGENERATIONAL RELATIONS ART. 13 Raise awareness on volunteering Efficient instruments for raising awareness about the importance of and possibilities for volunteering, in particular about the European and international programs, should be set up. Appropriate measures should be taken to grant volunteering a recognition also from the professional point of view. Discussion and exchange of good practices about volunteering between Member States should be increased. ART. 14 Learning together Joint volunteering activities among young and older people should be improved as a way to bring them closer, to promote the dialogue and to facilitate the exchange of opinions and knowledge between them. Young people should help older people in learning about new skills and should teach them how to use it in order to extend their active participation in society. Old people should share their memories and life experiences with young people, in order not to dispel the teaching of the past. 42Citizen2010B.indd 42 2-06-2010 9:46:51
  43. 43. CARTA DE LA CIUDADANÍA EUROPEA RESPONSABLE PREÁMBULO Teniendo presente el Convenio Europeo de Derechos Humanos; Teniendo presente la Carta de Derechos Fundamentales de la Unión Europea; Considerando el Tratado que establece la ciudadanía de la Unión, la cual, complementa a la ciudadanía nacional de los respectivos Estados miembros; Considerando que la responsabilidad va de la mano del conocimiento; Considerando que los ciudadanos deben estar informados, y tener un enfoque crítico desarrollado con un respeto a la libertad personal; Considerando que las nuevas generaciones son más conscientes y están más acostum- bradas a la diversidad cultural que los mayores, y que los jóvenes quieren educar a los niños a estar cada vez más acostumbrados, en términos de tolerancia, respeto y acept- ación; Considerando que el fomento de la integración, el diálogo, el voluntariado y la partici- pación ciudadana son fundamentales para la creación de una integración de Europa y para la promoción de una Ciudadanía Responsable; Considerando que el 2010 es el año Europeo de lucha contra la pobreza y la exclusión social y el 2011 será el Año Europeo del Voluntariado; Los estudiantes de EUCA proponen la Carta de la Ciudadanía Europea Responsable. 43Citizen2010B.indd 43 2-06-2010 9:46:51
  44. 44. PRINCIPIO GENERAL ART. 1. Ciudadanía Responsable Ser un “ciudadano responsable” significa ser capaz de medir las acciones, hechos y acontecimientos con una profunda participación (en términos de interés y de partici- pación activa) en todas las cuestiones sociales. “Una Ciudadanía Europea Responsable” se fundamenta sobre un concepto integrado de ciudadanía, la cual es tolerante y res- petuosa de las diferentes culturas y tradiciones y abierta al diálogo, atenta a los asuntos del medio ambiente, preocupada y consciente de los acontecimientos que suceden en el interior y en el extranjero, con ojo crítico, en busca de la paz, del desarrollo, de la cohesión social y del bienestar, reconocedora de la sabiduría de las generaciones ante- riores, sensibilizada y activa con los desfavorecidos, sin olvidar la importancia de la fa- milia y de las escuelas en la educación en valores básicos como la libertad, la demo  ra- c cia, la solidaridad, el respeto de los derechos humanos, de las libertades fundamentales y del papel de la ley. LA DIVERSIDAD CULTURAL, LA INMIGRACIÓN Y LA SOLIDARIDAD ART. 2. Comprensión mutua Las sociedades deben aspirar a integrar a los inmigrantes sin aplicar coacciones adicio- nales más allá de un marco jurídico razonable. El derecho a migrar también depende de la aceptación del Estado de Derecho y las instituciones vigentes en el país receptor por parte de los inmigrantes. Los inmigrantes deben ser vistos como una oportunidad para valorizar el patrimonio cultural nacional. Ellos serán capaces de proporcionar una gran cantidad de suplemento a la evolución de la cultura. ART. 3 Derechos y deberes Podrían definirse algunos criterios mínimos para adquirir la ciudadanía, como cono- cimientos básicos del idioma y la ley, la ausencia de condenas penales, etc. La promoción de cursos de idiomas, la difusión de información básica sobre las insti- tuciones de los Estados, las leyes, forma de vida, religión, tradiciones contribuirá a que los inmigrantes puedan participar mejor e integrarse en la sociedad. 44Citizen2010B.indd 44 2-06-2010 9:46:51
  45. 45. ART. 4 Bilingüismo / enseñanza multilingüe Debería fomentarse el bilingüismo y la enseñanza multilingüe en cursos universitarios, y en el penúltimo o último año de escuela secundaria. Aprender idiomas pueden reducir las distancias entre las distintas nacionalidades y crear una Europa integrada. VALORES FUNDAMENTALES Y MEDIOS DE COMUNICACIÓN ART. 5 Principios de los medios de comunicación Los ciudadanos tienen el derecho de hacer uso recto de confiables y honestas fuentes de información. Es vital para que un ciudadano pueda tener oportunidades concretas de formación / comparación, a fin de formar una conciencia tranquila. ART. 6 Reglas del buen periodismo Debe ser consolidado y promovido un “código europeo de ética periodística” con el fin de definir un mínimo de normas comunes para el buen periodismo en la Unión Europea (por ejemplo: la sinceridad, el respeto, la idoneidad y el respeto de las libertades fun- damentales). ART. 7 Medios europeos interactivos Deberían incrementarse y fortalecerse los canales de televisión multilingüe, prensa eu- ropea, Europa on line y otros programas educativos ofreciendo noticias y sesiones de discusión, más allá de los medios de comunicación nacionales y locales. Debería asegurarse una mejor eficacia sobre las plataformas comunes existentes, para la participación en el debate público y en la sociedad civil. 45Citizen2010B.indd 45 2-06-2010 9:46:52
  46. 46. DEMOCRÁTICA Y PARTICIPACIÓN CÍVICA ART. 8 Participación ciudadana La participación ciudadana es una contribución voluntaria y adición de valor para la sociedad en general. Las acciones deben ser, de una forma u otra, destinadas a impactar a la sociedad en su conjunto. La participación debe ser intencional, debe te  er una di- n rección, un propósito y un fin para mejorar las condiciones prevalecientes. La participación ciudadana debe comprender e involucrar a las familias y a los educa- dores en el debate institucional, teniendo en cuenta su papel fundamental como punto de referencia, sobre todo para los jóvenes, en la vida diaria y en la toma de decisiones cruciales, para desarrollar una efectiva y participativa democracia. ART. 9 Lecciones sobre Ciudadanía Europea Podrían organizarse clases, pasantías y reuniones sobre Ciudadanía Europea entre los compañeros, dirigidas a la sociedad civil y a las instituciones educativas. ART. 10 Modelo de Parlamento Europeo Dado el enorme éxito del Modelo de las Naciones Unidas, podría ser promovido el Modelo de Parlamento Europeo (MEP). Podría ser una plataforma dinámica e interac- tiva donde los estudiantes obtendrían una comprensión de la burocracia europea y los procesos políticos. También serviría como otro lugar donde jóvenes de toda Europa pudieran reunirse e intercambiar ideas. ART. 11 Instituciones de la UE en contacto directo con la sociedad civil Deberían ser promovidas charlas, visitas, conferencias, reuniones en las universidades, asociaciones, residencias universitarias, instituciones locales y nacionales sobre la ciu- dadanía europea. Esto provocaría un crecimiento del conocimiento y las iniciativas de las políticas comunitarias. Las ofertas de pasantías y puestos de trabajo relativas a la UE hacia los estudiantes uni- versitarios y jóvenes licenciados podrían incrementarse más. ART. 12 Participación en la vida pública Los ciudadanos deberían estar mejor sensibilizados sobre la importancia de la partici- 46Citizen2010B.indd 46 2-06-2010 9:46:52
  47. 47. pación. Los ciudadanos podrían adoptar actividades y desarrollar grupos de presión que pudieran dialogar con políticos, y que pudieran acercar más las instituciones a ellos. Las Instituciones Públicas podrían incrementar la participación mediante el uso de encuestas, debates públicos o hablando directamente con los ciudadanos y escuchán- doles. VOLUNTARIADO Y RELACIONES INTERGENERACIONALES ART. 13 Aumentar la concienciación sobre el voluntariado Deberían crearse iniciativas eficaces para concienciar más sobre la importancia y po- sibilidades de voluntariado, en particular, acerca de programas europeos e internacio- nales. Deberían tomarse medidas apropiadas para reconocer las tareas de voluntariado, tam- bién desde un punto de vista profesional. Podrían ser promovidas discusiones e intercambios de buenas prácticas sobre el volun- tariado entre los Estados miembros. ART. 14 Aprendiendo juntos El voluntariado coordinado entre jóvenes y mayores debería ser aumentado, como una manera de acortar las distancias, promover el diálogo, y facilitar el intercambio de opin- iones y conocimientos entre ellos. Los jóvenes deberían ayudar a las personas mayores en el aprendizaje de las nuevas tecnologías y enseñarles a usarlas con el objetivo de ampliar sus participación activa en la sociedad. Las personas mayores deben compartir sus memorias y experiencias de vida con los jóvenes, con el fin de no disipar las enseñanzas del pasado. 47Citizen2010B.indd 47 2-06-2010 9:46:52
  48. 48. Who are the project partners? University College ARCES Italy Collegiate hall of residence recognized by the Italian Ministry for the University and Research, based in Palermo and Catania. ARCES is the project leader. European University College Association (EUCA) Belgium Network of 193 European collegiate halls of residence based in Italy, Spain, UK and Poland. EUCA was the promoter of the project. Consejo de ColegioMayores (CCM) Spain Network of 145 Spanish collegiate halls of residence. CCM is a founding member of EUCA. Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) Poland Academic institution based in Warsaw with 13 halls of residence. It is a founding mem- ber of EUCA. Netherhall Educational Association (NEA) United Kingdom Collegiate hall of residence association based in Britain. It is a founding member of EUCA. Baltic Association for Education and Cultural Development Latvia Latvian State’s Public Good Organization. It promotes activities for university stu- dents. Intermedia Consulting Italy InterMedia Consulting is an international non-for-profit founded with the aim of provid- ing support to world wide NGOs activities and social entrepreneurs, promoting values in the fields of education, youth, mass media and entertainment. 48Citizen2010B.indd 48 2-06-2010 9:46:53
  49. 49. National students teams English team: Timothy Kilchenman, Hanane Hafraoui, Julia Dimitrova, Antonio Gonzalez. Italian team: Elisabetta Altomare, Sara Amighetti, Anna Baracchi, Maria D’Alessandro, Luigi Gambino, Laura Russo, Luca Zanotto, Stefano Battistello, Antonella Busso, Laura Massocchi, Federico Pavan, Andrea Pepe. Latvian team: Lauris Krolis, Claudio Rivera. Polish team: Przemysław Kornatowski, Adam Matłacz, Aneta Michalska, Paulina Siemieniuk, Olga Zarzycka, Magda Ziółkowska, Mateusz Wawrzyniuk. Spanish team: Macarena Ortiz Pulido, Rut María Barroso Vicente, Tomás Navarro Blake, Gonzalo Garrido Bañuelos, Gonzalo Ucar Rodríguez, Carlos García González. 49Citizen2010B.indd 49 2-06-2010 9:46:53
  50. 50. NOTES 1 Richard Haass “Cara Europa il XXI secolo non ha più bisogno di te” in Il Sole 24 ORE, 14 maggio 2010. 2 Richard Haass “Cara Europa il XXI secolo non ha più bisogno di te” in Il Sole 24 ORE, 14 maggio 2010. 3 Analyzed by InterMedia Consulting. Secretary General, Reynaldo Rivera; Ex- ecutive Manager Manuel Villalobos. Data, demographic characteristics and limitations will be available on our website, on which we extracted the %. Each question has its own index of representativeness. 4 The total number of respondents who started the survey were 1589, only 636 completed the survey. The average age of the participants was 21 years. Each question has its particular response rate, participation decreased as the survey progressed. 5 The remaining options were less valued: to campaign on facebook 12.85%; an interview on You Tube 12.75% or 13.51% tv network, write an article in a newspaper or 12.51% on the website of the EU 6.30%.  6 For to choose between friends, parents, religious leaders, university prof., me- dia and politicians. 7 Ibidem 8 Options: Be helpful; Be loyal in my commitments; Be interested in politics and current affairs; Be sincere; Have my own personality so as to maintain my opinions; Have information about the state of The European Union and its projects; Not depend on circumstances and be strong when difficulties arise; Choose the right person with whom to start a family; If I get married, I want my marriage to last all my life; To devote myself entirely to helping others (for example volunteering); To save money for the future. 9 Options for choose: Your parents; Your friends; Your contacts in your favourite 50Citizen2010B.indd 50 2-06-2010 9:46:53
  51. 51. social network; A professor from University; A College director or authority; Look it up on the Internet; Look it up in books. 10 Taken an active role in a group involved with political issues; Worked in a non profit organization; Signed a petition or submitted proposals to EU representatives; Taken part in a lawful public demonstration; Boycotted certain products; Deliberately bought certain products for political, ethical or environmental reasons; Donated money to a non profit organization; Visited a European Union website; Circulated information about European Union projects. 11 Support people who are worse off than themselves; Vote in elections; Always obey laws and regulations; Form their own opinion, independently of others; Be active in voluntary organisations; Be active in politics; Have a religion; Make every effort in creating a family and bringing up children; Study hardly, searching mainly the knowl- edge, not money or power; Have a lot of money. 12 TV News channels; Online newspapers, Google News or other digital source; Cable TV channels; Radio; Main Newspapers; Local Newspapers; Magazines; News- letters. 13 Analizado por InterMedia Consulting. Secretary General, Reynaldo Rivera; Executive Manager Manuel Villalobos. Más información, características demográficas y limites del estudio estarán a disposición en nuestro sitio Web www.intermediaconsult- 14 El numero total de personas que comenzaron la encuesta fue de 1589, sola- mente 636 la finalizaron. La edad media de los participantes fue de 21 años. Cada pregunta tiene su particular índice de respuestas y representatividad, la participación decrecía conforme avanzaba la encuesta. 15 Asl siguientes opciones fueron menos valoradas: una campaña en facebook 12.85%; una entrevista en You Tube 12.75% o en una cadena de tv 13.51%, escribir un artículo en un periódico 12.51% o en la web de la EU 6.30%.  16 A elegir entre amigos, padres, líderes religiosos, profesores universitarios, me- dios de comunicación y políticos. 17 Ibidem 51Citizen2010B.indd 51 2-06-2010 9:46:53