Environmental Impact Assessment Concept
Fitria Intan Ayuningtias
Definition of EIA
a procedure that ensures that the environmental implications of decisions are taken into
account before the decisions are made.
The studies on large and significant impact an business and/or planned activities on the
environment needed for the decision making process about maintenance of business and/or
activities. Every business and/or activities required to conduct an EIA if the effort and/or
activities that lead to significant impact on the environment and lead to fundamental changes in
1. Carrying Capacity
2. Policies that will be affected and the business plan or activity
3. Social values or public views who will be affected by the business plan and/or activities
4. Environmental components that have ecological importance who will be affected by the
business and/or activities.
5. Environmental components that have economic importance who will be affected by the
business and/or activities.
6. Existence the conflicts of interest (including spatial structure and protected area due to
business plan and/or activities
7. improvement of environmental quality standard as a result of business plans and/or activities.
8. Discruptiob of ecosystems that have significant scientific value (science)
The main Activities
1. EIA competency training activities
Training aimed at improving the competence of personnel in the field of
implementastion studies document the preparation of EIA.
His training activities conducted by the institute of training competence (lembaga
pelatihan kompetensi/LPK). The training institute also conducts training to field of
assessment EIA document.
2. EIA document preparation activities
Activities studies to analyze the environmental impact of a business and/or planned
activities on the environment.
This activity is carried out by the institute of EIA document drafting service provider.
3. EIA documents assessment activities
Activities carried out by the institute of Environmental impact control in center level
implemented by the Ministry of environment, at provincial level implemented by the
Provincial Environmental Control Agency, and at district/city level implemented by
the Environmental Control Agency district/city or department/agency in charge of
Document of EIA
1. Reference Framework (kerangka acuan)
As the basis for the implementation of EIA study. Reference framwork contains the scope of
the assessment of environmental impact assessment.
2. Environmental Impact Analysis
Is the result of research paper carefully, mature, and deeply from the significant impact on a
business plan and/or activities
3. Environmental Management Plan
An effort to handle the significant impact as a result of business plan/activities, which aimed
to reduce the negative impacts and increase positive environmental impact.
4. Environmental Monitoring Plan
An monitoring effort the environmental component affected by significant impact and is used
to see the performance management conducted.
5. Executive Summary
A summary of the document Environmental Impact Analysis, Environmental Management
Plan, and Environmental Monitoring Plan
The Law of EIA
1. UU No. 23,1997 about environmental management
Stated that the environment is unity with all things space, power, situation, and sentient
beings, including humans and behavior that affect lives and welfare of human continuity as well
as other living creatures.
2. PP Nomor 27 Tahun 1999 about Environmental Impact Analysis
Permit to doing business and/or new activities will be provided when the result of EIA study
stated that the business plan and/or activity is environmentally feasible. The provisions in the
various terms n the Environmental Management Plan and Environmental Monitoring Plan
must be included as a condition of license.
3. Decree of the state minister for environment No. 17 Tahun 2001 about the type of business
plan and/or activities that must be completed by the EIA
4. Decree of the head Environment Impact Control Agency
The Purpose and Target of EIA
To guarantee a business and/or development activities can run continuously without damage
the environment. The function as effort to prevent environmental damage. So that construction
activities can utilitize and manage the natural resources efficiently, to minize negative impacts
and maximize positive impacts on the environment. Identifying optimal solutions and prevent or
resolve conflicts of interest.
Criteria of EIA Implementation
To measure or determine significant impacts can be use some criteria, where these
criteria are interrelated with each other :
1. Size of the area affected (how many hectares)
2. Total area of the deployment takes place (eg. Project under the pass 1 year)
3. Intensity of impact (how the document area)
4. Many other environmental components affected
5. Cumulative nature of the impact
6. Reversible or irreversible impact
Procedure of Arranging EIA
EIA process includes the folowing steps :
1. identify the impact of a business plan and / or credible form;
2. outlines the initial environmental setting;
3. predict a large and significant impact;
4. evaluate the impact of a large and important, formulate directives environmental management
and monitoring plan
The Impact of Basic Setting
1. To identify the effects that occur in the environment component.
2. Measurement / calculation of impact it will have an environmental component.
3. Merging several highly related environmental components are then analyzed and used to
establish a reflection of the impact of the components as indicators of environmental change
into the image.
Scope of EIA
1. Limit the affected areas should be selected all areas
2. Baseline (prior to) damage to the environment area.
3. Rona activities to be proposed
4. Estimates of the possible impact
5. Evaluation of the effects and control measures alternatir
6. Procedures for monitoring and evaluation procedures.
1. Social impact assessment
Parameters that can be developed include the effects of such policies / programs to:
b. public health
c. Basic education.
2. Cross Impact Analisys
Evaluating the impact of the policy by linking the impact one another. Basically the analysis of
the impact from a policy with this model aims as follows:
a. Through this way will be determined whether or not the expected impact achieved with the
b. In addition, to obtain evidence of benefit in identifying unanticipated policy outcomes as
opposed to the achievement of policy programs;
c. To obtain evidence of the expected benefits derived target group / benefecaries be intended
impact and evidence of the impact of unexpected / unintended impact.
Popular Method of EIA
1. Leopolo Method
Leopold is known as the matrix or the machinations from Leopold matrix interactions are
known since 1971 with 100 ascertains kinds of activity from a project with 88 environmental
2. Matrix Method are impact from moore (1973)
This method shows the environmental impact from the point of impact on the groups that
have been or are being used by humans or can be described as well as the projects of other
3. sorenson method (1971)
The first is a network analyzer developed for use on the seabed dredging project
4. Mac Harg method (1968). overlya known method or technique overlay. As the name implies
the method is illustrated using a variety of maps in transparency sheets.
5. fishe anri davies method (1973)
known as the matrix from fisiter and Davies. The specificity of this method are three kinds of
matrix arranged in stages.
Step 1 : The matrix of the environmental evaluation before the project is built is called
Step 2 : Env. Compatibility matrix
Step 3 : decision matrix
Why EIA Very Important ?
At first human activity is the ability of human nature, but as time goes by more and more human
activities lead to environmental changes. Knowingly or not, many human activities change an
environmental functions, including:
ecosystem functions (such as: changes in the hydrological cycle, changes in vegetation
composition, species composition changes),
changes in the standard of living and employment opportunities (including: recruitment,
development of the region as a result of the business / new activity)
herefore, a very drastic change in function, the required EIA study in depth about the feasibility
of a business / activities to do.
1. Because has been governed by the Act and regulations. If the owners do not project EIA, the
government will revoke perizinn to build the project and get penalized.
2. that the quality of the environment is not damaged due to construction projects.
The Role of EIA
In general, the phases can be divided as follows:
a. Phase identification;
b. Phase of the feasibility study;
c. Engineering design phase, also known as the design phase;
d. Phase of project development;
e. Phase of the project or project phase operation;
f. Phase of the project has ceased operations or post-operative
1. for taking decision :
government as decision-makers to assess whether the proposed project's potential impact is
large or not. If considered great potential for negative impacts, especially, the decision makers
will require project owners do Andal. Conversely, if deemed not to pose a significant impact,
then the project owner does not need to Andal and can begin to build a project with the given
guidelines for management and monitoring.
2. for environment controlling
With the RKL and RPL is the implementation of development activities will be legally bound to
carry out the management and monitoring of the environment, because of the RKL and RPL are
positively impacts the development of procedures and reduction of negative impacts, as well as
environmental monitoring procedures
Report of EIA
EIA report is an important document which is a very useful source of information for a variety of
a) For comparative information on the results of the analysis
b) As a source of information that is important for the project to be carried out in the area near
c) an important document that can be used in court to face the demands of other projects, the
public or the regulatory agencies.
Function of EIA
• Materials for regional development planning
• Assist in the decision-making process on environmental feasibility of the business plan and / or
• Provide inputs for the preparation of a detailed technical design of a business plan and / or
• Provide inputs for the preparation of management plans and environmental monitoring
• Provide information to the public over the impact of a proposed business or activity
• Beginning of recommendation on business license
• For Scientific and Legal Document
• Feasibility of Environmental Permits
The division uses in other forms can also be prepared by the parties getting usefulness, as
a. for goverment;
a. To prevent the potential for managed natural resources are not damaged (specifically for
renewable natural resources);
b. Prevents damage to other natural resources that are well beyond the project other projects
are processed, processed or unprocessed society;
c. Avoid the destruction of the environment such as the emergence of water pollution, air
pollution, noise, etc. so as not to interfere with the health, comfort and safety of the public;
d. Avoid the conflicts that may arise in particular with the community and other projects;
e. In accordance with the local development plan, national or international and does not
interfere with other projects;
f. Ensures clear benefits for the general public;
g. As a general decision-making tool;
b. for project owner;
a. To protect projects that violate the laws or regulations in force;
b. To protect the project from charges of violation or an actual negative impact is not done;
c. To view the environmental issues that will be faced in the future;
d. Preparing ways of solving problems that would be encountered in the future;
e. As environmental resources around the project sites quantitatively, including socio-economic
information and socio-cultural;
f. As the material for analysis and management of the project objectives;
g. As a basis for examining comprehensively from project planning, to be able to find flaws and
shortcomings if there is to be prepared immediately revised.
h. To find circumstances that endanger the project (eg, floods, landslides, earthquakes, etc.)
and look for circumstances that are useful and support the project;
c. for Investor;
To build the project normally borrowed capital from banks either national banks or international
banks such as the World Bank (World Bank) or the Asian Development Bank (Asian
Development Bank). For international bank loans usually every request asked to include Andal
report. Andal nasionalpun Bank will ask anyway, especially for large projects, then surely there
must be a benefit to the owners of capital
a. In order to ensure that the capital is lent to the project can achieve the goal of helping
development banks or investors who make loans;
b. In order to ensure that the borrowed capital can be paid back by the appropriate project on
time, so that capital is not lost;
c. Determine priorities in accordance with the mission of borrowing;
d. Capital arrangements and promotion of various sources of capital;
e. Avoid duplication of other projects that are not necessary;
d. for community
a. Be able to know a plan with establishment in the region, to be able to prepare Your dir in life
adjustments if necessary.
b. Knowing the environmental changes in the future after the project is built to be able to take
advantage of opportunities that may menguntungka himself and avoid losses that can be
suffered as a result of the project;
c. Participate in pembangunna in the area since the beginning, especially in providing input
information or participate directly in building and running the project;
d. Understanding of the particulars of the project will also prevent the emergence of a clear
misunderstanding, to be able to mobilize mutual cooperation;
e. Knowing their rights and obligations in relation to the project, especially the rights and
obligations involved in maintaining and managing the quality of the environment;
e. other function
Other uses of this, generally enjoyed by scientists and researchers, among others.
a. Usefulness in the analysis, advances in technology and science;
b. Usefulness in the study;
c. Usefulness in improving skills in research and improved its knowledge;
d. The growth of private consultants Reliably good.
EIA on Other Country
Germany is one of the countries in Europe are very concerned about environmental issues.
Various regulations from the European level (EIA Directive 337/85/EEC, SEA Directive
42/2001/EG) Internal to the German state (EIA Act; Federal Mining Act; Federal Regional
Planning Act, etc) incurred to ensure the protection of the environment . In general, EIA in
Germany applied to the second level. Ie Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is Thorough
evaluation of the project before proceeding. Strategic Environmental Asessment (SEA) is
Thorough evaluation of the proposed policy / plan / program
The Directives on Environmental Assessment aim to provide a high level of protection of the
environment and to contribute to the integration of environmental considerations into the
preparation of projects, plans and programmes with a view to reduce their environmental
impact. They ensure public participation in decision-making and thereby strengthen the quality
of decisions. The projects and programmes co-financed by the EU (Cohesion, Agricultural and
Fisheries Policies) have to comply with the EIA and SEA Directives to receive approval for
financial assistance. Hence the Directives on Environmental Assessment are crucial tools for
This website (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/home.htm) provides information on the
European Union's laws on Environmental Impact Assessment of public and private projects
(including its review) and the Environmental Assessment of public plans and programmes
together with other related information.
The Group of EIA/SEA National Experts brings together environmental experts from national
administrations and meets twice per year. The role of the Group is to provide advice and
expertise to the European Commission in relation to the coordination and cooperation with
Member States, the implementation of the EIA/SEA Directives and the preparation of legislative
proposals and policy initiatives.
Through the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), the State is also divided into
two assessment EIA: Environmental Impact assessment and? Thorough evaluation of the
project before proceeding. Strategic Environmental Assessment? Thorough evaluation of the
proposed policy / plan / program assessment and addition there are 2 more common in use in
Canada, namely: Health Impact assessment and? Represents a combination of procedures,
methods and tools (tool) in which a policy; program; project analyzed the effects on the health of
a population and how this influences the distribution in the population. Risk assessment and?
Specific to discuss the influence of exposure to hazardous materials (Hazardous Materials) and
dangerous situations (Hazardous Situation) on human health.
Environmental Impact Assessment in Indonesia or translated with the term Environmental
Impact Assessment (EIA) was first introduced in 1969 by the National Environmental Policy Act
in the United States, which later spread to and used by various countries. With this method of
assessment that is universal, EIA position can always be adjusted to control the system in each
country that implements it.
Regulation Indonesian government has set up a comprehensive survey of the environmental
impact assessment. Law no. 23/1997 on Environmental Management; PP. 27/1999 on
environmental impact analysis (EIA) and confirmed again by the PP. 27/2012 on environmental
permits, has been defined clearly and plainly about what the EIA.
www.sentral-sistem.com access on 2014, 27 feb at 12.00
Asian Development Bank
Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan
Analisis Dampak Lingkungan
Badan Pengendalian Lingkungan Hidup (Environment Impact Control Agency)
Badan Pengendalian Lingkungan Hidup - Daerah (Regional Environment Control
Canadian International Development Agency
Centre des Technologies de l’Environnement de Tunis
Environmental lmpact Assessment
Environmental Management Plan
ANDAL Reference Framework
Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup (Ministry of Environment)
International Agency for Impact Assessment
Inter-American Development Bank
Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program
Middle Income Country
Non Governmental Organization
Pantai Indah Kapuk
Pusat Studi Lingkungan (Environment Central Study)
Rencana Pengelolaan Lingkungan (Environmental Management Plan)
Rencana Pemantauan Lingkungan (Environmental Monitoring Plan)
South African Institute for Environmental Assessment
Strategic Environmental Assessment
Upaya Pengelolaan Lingkungan (Environment Management Effort)
Upaya Pemantauan Lingkungan (Environmental Monitoring Assessment)