Environmental impact assessment

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Environmental impact assessment

  1. 1. Environmental Management Environmental Impact Assessment Concept Fitria Intan Ayuningtias 105030200121014 Definition of EIA a procedure that ensures that the environmental implications of decisions are taken into account before the decisions are made. The studies on large and significant impact an business and/or planned activities on the environment needed for the decision making process about maintenance of business and/or activities. Every business and/or activities required to conduct an EIA if the effort and/or activities that lead to significant impact on the environment and lead to fundamental changes in the environment Significant Impact 1. Carrying Capacity 2. Policies that will be affected and the business plan or activity 3. Social values or public views who will be affected by the business plan and/or activities 4. Environmental components that have ecological importance who will be affected by the business and/or activities. 5. Environmental components that have economic importance who will be affected by the business and/or activities. 6. Existence the conflicts of interest (including spatial structure and protected area due to business plan and/or activities 7. improvement of environmental quality standard as a result of business plans and/or activities. 8. Discruptiob of ecosystems that have significant scientific value (science)
  2. 2. The main Activities 1. EIA competency training activities Training aimed at improving the competence of personnel in the field of implementastion studies document the preparation of EIA. His training activities conducted by the institute of training competence (lembaga pelatihan kompetensi/LPK). The training institute also conducts training to field of assessment EIA document. 2. EIA document preparation activities Activities studies to analyze the environmental impact of a business and/or planned activities on the environment. This activity is carried out by the institute of EIA document drafting service provider. 3. EIA documents assessment activities Activities carried out by the institute of Environmental impact control in center level implemented by the Ministry of environment, at provincial level implemented by the Provincial Environmental Control Agency, and at district/city level implemented by the Environmental Control Agency district/city or department/agency in charge of environmental issues Document of EIA 1. Reference Framework (kerangka acuan) As the basis for the implementation of EIA study. Reference framwork contains the scope of the assessment of environmental impact assessment. 2. Environmental Impact Analysis Is the result of research paper carefully, mature, and deeply from the significant impact on a business plan and/or activities 3. Environmental Management Plan An effort to handle the significant impact as a result of business plan/activities, which aimed to reduce the negative impacts and increase positive environmental impact. 4. Environmental Monitoring Plan An monitoring effort the environmental component affected by significant impact and is used to see the performance management conducted.
  3. 3. 5. Executive Summary A summary of the document Environmental Impact Analysis, Environmental Management Plan, and Environmental Monitoring Plan The Law of EIA 1. UU No. 23,1997 about environmental management Stated that the environment is unity with all things space, power, situation, and sentient beings, including humans and behavior that affect lives and welfare of human continuity as well as other living creatures. 2. PP Nomor 27 Tahun 1999 about Environmental Impact Analysis Permit to doing business and/or new activities will be provided when the result of EIA study stated that the business plan and/or activity is environmentally feasible. The provisions in the various terms n the Environmental Management Plan and Environmental Monitoring Plan must be included as a condition of license. 3. Decree of the state minister for environment No. 17 Tahun 2001 about the type of business plan and/or activities that must be completed by the EIA 4. Decree of the head Environment Impact Control Agency The Purpose and Target of EIA To guarantee a business and/or development activities can run continuously without damage the environment. The function as effort to prevent environmental damage. So that construction activities can utilitize and manage the natural resources efficiently, to minize negative impacts and maximize positive impacts on the environment. Identifying optimal solutions and prevent or resolve conflicts of interest. Criteria of EIA Implementation To measure or determine significant impacts can be use some criteria, where these criteria are interrelated with each other : 1. Size of the area affected (how many hectares) 2. Total area of the deployment takes place (eg. Project under the pass 1 year)
  4. 4. 3. Intensity of impact (how the document area) 4. Many other environmental components affected 5. Cumulative nature of the impact 6. Reversible or irreversible impact Procedure of Arranging EIA EIA process includes the folowing steps : 1. identify the impact of a business plan and / or credible form; 2. outlines the initial environmental setting; 3. predict a large and significant impact; 4. evaluate the impact of a large and important, formulate directives environmental management and monitoring plan
  5. 5. The Impact of Basic Setting 1. To identify the effects that occur in the environment component. 2. Measurement / calculation of impact it will have an environmental component. 3. Merging several highly related environmental components are then analyzed and used to establish a reflection of the impact of the components as indicators of environmental change into the image. Scope of EIA 1. Limit the affected areas should be selected all areas 2. Baseline (prior to) damage to the environment area. 3. Rona activities to be proposed 4. Estimates of the possible impact 5. Evaluation of the effects and control measures alternatir 6. Procedures for monitoring and evaluation procedures. Analysis Method 1. Social impact assessment Parameters that can be developed include the effects of such policies / programs to: a. Livelihoods. b. public health c. Basic education. d. Environment.
  6. 6. 2. Cross Impact Analisys Evaluating the impact of the policy by linking the impact one another. Basically the analysis of the impact from a policy with this model aims as follows: a. Through this way will be determined whether or not the expected impact achieved with the actual impact. b. In addition, to obtain evidence of benefit in identifying unanticipated policy outcomes as opposed to the achievement of policy programs; c. To obtain evidence of the expected benefits derived target group / benefecaries be intended impact and evidence of the impact of unexpected / unintended impact. Popular Method of EIA 1. Leopolo Method Leopold is known as the matrix or the machinations from Leopold matrix interactions are known since 1971 with 100 ascertains kinds of activity from a project with 88 environmental components. 2. Matrix Method are impact from moore (1973) This method shows the environmental impact from the point of impact on the groups that have been or are being used by humans or can be described as well as the projects of other human development. 3. sorenson method (1971) The first is a network analyzer developed for use on the seabed dredging project 4. Mac Harg method (1968). overlya known method or technique overlay. As the name implies the method is illustrated using a variety of maps in transparency sheets. 5. fishe anri davies method (1973) known as the matrix from fisiter and Davies. The specificity of this method are three kinds of matrix arranged in stages.  Step 1 : The matrix of the environmental evaluation before the project is built is called Env. baseline  Step 2 : Env. Compatibility matrix  Step 3 : decision matrix
  7. 7. Why EIA Very Important ? At first human activity is the ability of human nature, but as time goes by more and more human activities lead to environmental changes. Knowingly or not, many human activities change an environmental functions, including: ecosystem functions (such as: changes in the hydrological cycle, changes in vegetation composition, species composition changes), changes in the standard of living and employment opportunities (including: recruitment, development of the region as a result of the business / new activity) herefore, a very drastic change in function, the required EIA study in depth about the feasibility of a business / activities to do. 1. Because has been governed by the Act and regulations. If the owners do not project EIA, the government will revoke perizinn to build the project and get penalized. 2. that the quality of the environment is not damaged due to construction projects. The Role of EIA In general, the phases can be divided as follows: a. Phase identification; b. Phase of the feasibility study; c. Engineering design phase, also known as the design phase; d. Phase of project development; e. Phase of the project or project phase operation; f. Phase of the project has ceased operations or post-operative 1. for taking decision : government as decision-makers to assess whether the proposed project's potential impact is large or not. If considered great potential for negative impacts, especially, the decision makers will require project owners do Andal. Conversely, if deemed not to pose a significant impact,
  8. 8. then the project owner does not need to Andal and can begin to build a project with the given guidelines for management and monitoring. 2. for environment controlling With the RKL and RPL is the implementation of development activities will be legally bound to carry out the management and monitoring of the environment, because of the RKL and RPL are positively impacts the development of procedures and reduction of negative impacts, as well as environmental monitoring procedures Report of EIA EIA report is an important document which is a very useful source of information for a variety of purposes: a) For comparative information on the results of the analysis b) As a source of information that is important for the project to be carried out in the area near the site. c) an important document that can be used in court to face the demands of other projects, the public or the regulatory agencies. Function of EIA
  9. 9. • Materials for regional development planning • Assist in the decision-making process on environmental feasibility of the business plan and / or activities • Provide inputs for the preparation of a detailed technical design of a business plan and / or activities • Provide inputs for the preparation of management plans and environmental monitoring • Provide information to the public over the impact of a proposed business or activity • Beginning of recommendation on business license • For Scientific and Legal Document • Feasibility of Environmental Permits The division uses in other forms can also be prepared by the parties getting usefulness, as follows: a. for goverment; a. To prevent the potential for managed natural resources are not damaged (specifically for renewable natural resources); b. Prevents damage to other natural resources that are well beyond the project other projects are processed, processed or unprocessed society; c. Avoid the destruction of the environment such as the emergence of water pollution, air pollution, noise, etc. so as not to interfere with the health, comfort and safety of the public; d. Avoid the conflicts that may arise in particular with the community and other projects; e. In accordance with the local development plan, national or international and does not interfere with other projects; f. Ensures clear benefits for the general public; g. As a general decision-making tool;
  10. 10. b. for project owner; a. To protect projects that violate the laws or regulations in force; b. To protect the project from charges of violation or an actual negative impact is not done; c. To view the environmental issues that will be faced in the future; d. Preparing ways of solving problems that would be encountered in the future; e. As environmental resources around the project sites quantitatively, including socio-economic information and socio-cultural; f. As the material for analysis and management of the project objectives; g. As a basis for examining comprehensively from project planning, to be able to find flaws and shortcomings if there is to be prepared immediately revised. h. To find circumstances that endanger the project (eg, floods, landslides, earthquakes, etc.) and look for circumstances that are useful and support the project; c. for Investor; To build the project normally borrowed capital from banks either national banks or international banks such as the World Bank (World Bank) or the Asian Development Bank (Asian Development Bank). For international bank loans usually every request asked to include Andal report. Andal nasionalpun Bank will ask anyway, especially for large projects, then surely there must be a benefit to the owners of capital a. In order to ensure that the capital is lent to the project can achieve the goal of helping development banks or investors who make loans; b. In order to ensure that the borrowed capital can be paid back by the appropriate project on time, so that capital is not lost; c. Determine priorities in accordance with the mission of borrowing; d. Capital arrangements and promotion of various sources of capital; e. Avoid duplication of other projects that are not necessary;
  11. 11. d. for community a. Be able to know a plan with establishment in the region, to be able to prepare Your dir in life adjustments if necessary. b. Knowing the environmental changes in the future after the project is built to be able to take advantage of opportunities that may menguntungka himself and avoid losses that can be suffered as a result of the project; c. Participate in pembangunna in the area since the beginning, especially in providing input information or participate directly in building and running the project; d. Understanding of the particulars of the project will also prevent the emergence of a clear misunderstanding, to be able to mobilize mutual cooperation; e. Knowing their rights and obligations in relation to the project, especially the rights and obligations involved in maintaining and managing the quality of the environment; e. other function Other uses of this, generally enjoyed by scientists and researchers, among others. a. Usefulness in the analysis, advances in technology and science; b. Usefulness in the study; c. Usefulness in improving skills in research and improved its knowledge; d. The growth of private consultants Reliably good. EIA on Other Country 1. German Germany is one of the countries in Europe are very concerned about environmental issues. Various regulations from the European level (EIA Directive 337/85/EEC, SEA Directive 42/2001/EG) Internal to the German state (EIA Act; Federal Mining Act; Federal Regional Planning Act, etc) incurred to ensure the protection of the environment . In general, EIA in Germany applied to the second level. Ie Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is Thorough evaluation of the project before proceeding. Strategic Environmental Asessment (SEA) is Thorough evaluation of the proposed policy / plan / program
  12. 12. The Directives on Environmental Assessment aim to provide a high level of protection of the environment and to contribute to the integration of environmental considerations into the preparation of projects, plans and programmes with a view to reduce their environmental impact. They ensure public participation in decision-making and thereby strengthen the quality of decisions. The projects and programmes co-financed by the EU (Cohesion, Agricultural and Fisheries Policies) have to comply with the EIA and SEA Directives to receive approval for financial assistance. Hence the Directives on Environmental Assessment are crucial tools for sustainable development. This website (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/home.htm) provides information on the European Union's laws on Environmental Impact Assessment of public and private projects (including its review) and the Environmental Assessment of public plans and programmes together with other related information. The Group of EIA/SEA National Experts brings together environmental experts from national administrations and meets twice per year. The role of the Group is to provide advice and expertise to the European Commission in relation to the coordination and cooperation with Member States, the implementation of the EIA/SEA Directives and the preparation of legislative proposals and policy initiatives. 2. Canada Through the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), the State is also divided into two assessment EIA: Environmental Impact assessment and? Thorough evaluation of the project before proceeding. Strategic Environmental Assessment? Thorough evaluation of the proposed policy / plan / program assessment and addition there are 2 more common in use in Canada, namely: Health Impact assessment and? Represents a combination of procedures, methods and tools (tool) in which a policy; program; project analyzed the effects on the health of a population and how this influences the distribution in the population. Risk assessment and? Specific to discuss the influence of exposure to hazardous materials (Hazardous Materials) and dangerous situations (Hazardous Situation) on human health.
  13. 13. In Indonesia Environmental Impact Assessment in Indonesia or translated with the term Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was first introduced in 1969 by the National Environmental Policy Act in the United States, which later spread to and used by various countries. With this method of assessment that is universal, EIA position can always be adjusted to control the system in each country that implements it. Regulation Indonesian government has set up a comprehensive survey of the environmental impact assessment. Law no. 23/1997 on Environmental Management; PP. 27/1999 on environmental impact analysis (EIA) and confirmed again by the PP. 27/2012 on environmental permits, has been defined clearly and plainly about what the EIA. Daftar Pustaka www.sentral-sistem.com access on 2014, 27 feb at 12.00 http://id.wikipedia.org http://ec.europa.eu/environment http://edukasi.kompasiana.com http://sitesources.worldbank.org http://intakindo.org http://industri20cosmas.blogspot.com
  14. 14. SINGKATAN ADB Asian Development Bank AMDAL Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan ANDAL Analisis Dampak Lingkungan BAPEDAL Badan Pengendalian Lingkungan Hidup (Environment Impact Control Agency) BPLH-D Badan Pengendalian Lingkungan Hidup - Daerah (Regional Environment Control Agency) CIDA Canadian International Development Agency CITET Centre des Technologies de l’Environnement de Tunis EIA Environmental lmpact Assessment EMP Environmental Management Plan KA-ANDAL ANDAL Reference Framework KepMen Ministerial decree KepGub Gubernatorial decree KLH Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup (Ministry of Environment) IAIA International Agency for Impact Assessment IDB Inter-American Development Bank METAP Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program MIC Middle Income Country NGO Non Governmental Organization PIK Pantai Indah Kapuk PSL Pusat Studi Lingkungan (Environment Central Study) RKL Rencana Pengelolaan Lingkungan (Environmental Management Plan) RPL Rencana Pemantauan Lingkungan (Environmental Monitoring Plan) SAIEA South African Institute for Environmental Assessment SEA Strategic Environmental Assessment UKL Upaya Pengelolaan Lingkungan (Environment Management Effort) UPL Upaya Pemantauan Lingkungan (Environmental Monitoring Assessment)

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