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Programa
                                                    Ecoturismo de Base
                                                    Comunitária




Community-Based Ecotourism in
the Brazilian Amazon
Ana Gabriela da Cruz Fontoura



The experience of the Institute Peabiru


Artigo publicado no volume 14 da DevISSues,
do Instituto internacional de Estudos Sociais –
ISS da Erasmus University, Rotterdam,
Holanda.



2012




Rua Ó de Almeida, 1083 | CEP: 66053-190 | Belém, Pará, Brasil
F +55 91 3222 6000 | peabiru@peabiru.org.br | www.peabiru.org.br
Community-Based Ecotourism in the Brazilian Amazon: The experience of the
Institute Peabiru



Ana Gabriela da Cruz Fontoura




        Tourism has developed rapidly since the 1950s and has undergone some
important transformations. The 1950s and 1960s were characterized by charter
flights and package tours with the emergence of mass tourism: large
concentrations of tourists travelling to core destinations.
        Increased environmental awareness in the 1970s saw a change to
traditional tourism with the development of new travel expectations and the
emergence of sustainable tourism as a response to the negative impacts of mass
tourism: tourists became more nature-oriented and in search of a better quality of
life and more personal travel experiences.

        Sustainable tourism encompasses three main factors: a) respect for the
environment so that tourism does not endanger or cause irreversible damage to
the regions where it is developed, b) harmony between cultures and local
community social spaces, without harming or altering them, and c) the equitable
distribution of the economic benefits of tourism between the host community,
tourists and business.

       The idea of Community-Based Ecotourism (CBE) arose in order to further
emphasize the involvement of communities in the management, decision-making
and benefits of tourism. The concept of CBE, collectively developed during the
First Seminar on Community-Based Ecotourism Tapajós/Arapiuns in June 2007
within Jamaraquá community in Belterra, State of Pará, Brazil, is:

 ….a tourism based on the integration of regional development axes, community
management, the experience and knowledge exchange between tourists and
communities, cultural and environmental enhancement and broad access to the
benefits of tourism (First Seminar on Community-Based Ecotourism
Tapajós/Arapiuns, 2007).

      Some of the core principles guiding the actions based on this alternative
model of tourism are:
      • it is planned and developed within the community, which decides and
      organizes activities in the local area;
      • it is complementary to the local way of life, as it helps strengthen
      community organization and only supplement (not replace) traditional
      activities;
      • it creates opportunities for cultural sharing and learning, since the
      exchange of experiences between the community and the traveller
      guarantees that both learn from each other;
• it ensures transparency and the equitable distribution of resources among
       all stakeholders;
       • it guarantees social and environmental conservation as tourism should
       respect regional
       conservation rules and seek to generate the least possible environmental
       and cultural impact.


        The Institute Peabiru realised that its mission - social values, environmental
diversity and support for processes of social change in the communities of the
Amazon - has affinity with this emerging concept of CBE and thus uses this
approach as a tool to strengthen the social fabric and develop human capacity in
the Amazon.

        The Institute’s CBE programme includes several studies and projects. Three
of these in the State of Pará are worth mentioning: a) training in CBE in the
communities of Maxirazinho and Lages, surrounding Monte Alegre State Park,
Monte Alegre; b) capacity building and strengthening of a youth group in the
Extractive Reserve (Resex) Mãe Grande in the municipality of Curuçá, and c) the
Sustainable Almeirim project which focuses on the development of CBE in riverine
communities along the Amazon River, with an emphasis on youth and women’s
participation.

       Ecotourism as a tool for strengthening the social tissue, alternative income
generation and cultural appreciation of communities in the Amazon. Ana Gabriela
da Cruz Fontoura Community-Based Ecotourism is the main strategy in the Value
Chain of Young Ecotourism (Cadeia de Valor do EcotourismoJovem) project in
Monte Alegre, Pará. The aim of this project is to improve rural communities’
quality of life and conserve the biodiversity of the Cerrado (Savannah area) of
Monte Alegre. The project received funding from PPP-ECOS (UNDP and ISPN)
and was set up by two communities around the State Park of Monte Alegre,
Lages and Maxirazinho.

       An example of a training course is the CBE tour in Maxirazinho and Lages
which offers tourists the opportunity to experience the daily lives of farmers and
fishermen: their community organizations, the family farming of cassava, the set
of cave paintings in the region’s mountains, typical cuisine, handcrafts and so on.
Communities participate in the entire planning process of tourism in their areas.

       In the municipality of Curuçá, also in Pará State, Peabiru’s CBE activities
started in 2006 with research, lectures and trainings. The Casa da Virada’s
ecotourism training programme began in March 2008, with a total study load of
100 hours – both practical and theoretical - and was attended by a group of 20
young people. Local students were trained alongside groups of Canadian tourists.
       Upon completion of the Casa da Virada programme, the young people
showed great interest in continuing the implementation of ecotourism in the
municipality of Curuçá, resulting in the creation of a non-profit organization, the
Institute Tapiaim. The group’s motivation has contributed to Institute Peabiru,
which now seeks new sources of funding.
        In July 2008, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Public Call for Projects
MTUR / No. 001/2008 (a selection of projects to support CBE initiatives), Institute
Peabiru presented a successful proposal for the creation of the Cooperative of
Community Ecotourism in Curuçá. The project, which ran from March 2010 to
September 2011, had the following objectives: to establish the value chain of
sustainable CBE; to contribute to the conservation of natural resources in the
region, especially the micro-basins and mangroves in the area and extractive
reserves in the vicinity of the Resex Mae Grande de Curuçá; to establish Curuçá as
a national and international ecotourism destination; and to develop methodologies
and strategies that will contribute to the improvement of the socioeconomic status
of communities in the Amazon.
         In addition to these two remarkable experiences, in 2011 the Institute
accepted a new challenge: to work with CBE as a value chain which is able to
support the structuring and strengthening of other productive activities, such as
acai (see the article by Pereira in this issue), Brazil nut, cocoa and cassava.
Through the Almeirim Sustentavel project, in partnership with the Insituto Floresta
Tropical (IFT) and supported by the Fundo Vale, this new project will make it
possible to interact directly with other chains and maximize the results of the
programme in the region of the Calha Norte, encompassing municipalities north
of Pará State.
        From the lessons learnt over the years – that the community is the ‘root‘ of
all work and it is necessary to understand and respect local dynamics in order to
develop activities and achieve positive results in accordance with cultural and
traditional patrimony - Institute Peabiru has identified some challenges CBE still
has to face. These include:

a) evaluating and the developing participatory indicators with the involvement of
all stakeholders;
b) strengthening communities in entrepreneurship skills;
c) updating the teaching methods and other key issues (safety, first aid etc.)
usedin tourism training courses. These need to be increasingly adapted to the
reality of local dynamics – using local and natural teaching materials, planning the
meetings and making prior agreements for the classes with the participants,
prioritizing practical exercises and examples above theories, visiting and
interchanging with other communities and projects to learn from their experiences
and to give them a ‘voice‘; and
d) implementing effective strategies for working with the consumer market (trade)
and on product and innovative services, and trying to be the ‘bridge’ connecting
communities with travel agencies and organizations that operate on CBE and fair
trade principles.

       Ana Gabriela da Cruz Fontoura has a Bachelor degree in Tourism from the
Federal University of Pará (UFPA) and a Bachelor degree in Environmental Studies
  from the Catholic University Minas Gerais (PUC - Minas). Since 2007 she has
    been the director of Estação Gabiraba – an operator of community based
ecotourism in the Brazilian Amazon. She has been programme coordinator of
                   Community Based Ecotourism at th

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Community-Based Ecotourism in the Brazilian Amazon: The experience of the Institute Peabiru.

  • 1. Programa Ecoturismo de Base Comunitária Community-Based Ecotourism in the Brazilian Amazon Ana Gabriela da Cruz Fontoura The experience of the Institute Peabiru Artigo publicado no volume 14 da DevISSues, do Instituto internacional de Estudos Sociais – ISS da Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Holanda. 2012 Rua Ó de Almeida, 1083 | CEP: 66053-190 | Belém, Pará, Brasil F +55 91 3222 6000 | peabiru@peabiru.org.br | www.peabiru.org.br
  • 2. Community-Based Ecotourism in the Brazilian Amazon: The experience of the Institute Peabiru Ana Gabriela da Cruz Fontoura Tourism has developed rapidly since the 1950s and has undergone some important transformations. The 1950s and 1960s were characterized by charter flights and package tours with the emergence of mass tourism: large concentrations of tourists travelling to core destinations. Increased environmental awareness in the 1970s saw a change to traditional tourism with the development of new travel expectations and the emergence of sustainable tourism as a response to the negative impacts of mass tourism: tourists became more nature-oriented and in search of a better quality of life and more personal travel experiences. Sustainable tourism encompasses three main factors: a) respect for the environment so that tourism does not endanger or cause irreversible damage to the regions where it is developed, b) harmony between cultures and local community social spaces, without harming or altering them, and c) the equitable distribution of the economic benefits of tourism between the host community, tourists and business. The idea of Community-Based Ecotourism (CBE) arose in order to further emphasize the involvement of communities in the management, decision-making and benefits of tourism. The concept of CBE, collectively developed during the First Seminar on Community-Based Ecotourism Tapajós/Arapiuns in June 2007 within Jamaraquá community in Belterra, State of Pará, Brazil, is: ….a tourism based on the integration of regional development axes, community management, the experience and knowledge exchange between tourists and communities, cultural and environmental enhancement and broad access to the benefits of tourism (First Seminar on Community-Based Ecotourism Tapajós/Arapiuns, 2007). Some of the core principles guiding the actions based on this alternative model of tourism are: • it is planned and developed within the community, which decides and organizes activities in the local area; • it is complementary to the local way of life, as it helps strengthen community organization and only supplement (not replace) traditional activities; • it creates opportunities for cultural sharing and learning, since the exchange of experiences between the community and the traveller guarantees that both learn from each other;
  • 3. • it ensures transparency and the equitable distribution of resources among all stakeholders; • it guarantees social and environmental conservation as tourism should respect regional conservation rules and seek to generate the least possible environmental and cultural impact. The Institute Peabiru realised that its mission - social values, environmental diversity and support for processes of social change in the communities of the Amazon - has affinity with this emerging concept of CBE and thus uses this approach as a tool to strengthen the social fabric and develop human capacity in the Amazon. The Institute’s CBE programme includes several studies and projects. Three of these in the State of Pará are worth mentioning: a) training in CBE in the communities of Maxirazinho and Lages, surrounding Monte Alegre State Park, Monte Alegre; b) capacity building and strengthening of a youth group in the Extractive Reserve (Resex) Mãe Grande in the municipality of Curuçá, and c) the Sustainable Almeirim project which focuses on the development of CBE in riverine communities along the Amazon River, with an emphasis on youth and women’s participation. Ecotourism as a tool for strengthening the social tissue, alternative income generation and cultural appreciation of communities in the Amazon. Ana Gabriela da Cruz Fontoura Community-Based Ecotourism is the main strategy in the Value Chain of Young Ecotourism (Cadeia de Valor do EcotourismoJovem) project in Monte Alegre, Pará. The aim of this project is to improve rural communities’ quality of life and conserve the biodiversity of the Cerrado (Savannah area) of Monte Alegre. The project received funding from PPP-ECOS (UNDP and ISPN) and was set up by two communities around the State Park of Monte Alegre, Lages and Maxirazinho. An example of a training course is the CBE tour in Maxirazinho and Lages which offers tourists the opportunity to experience the daily lives of farmers and fishermen: their community organizations, the family farming of cassava, the set of cave paintings in the region’s mountains, typical cuisine, handcrafts and so on. Communities participate in the entire planning process of tourism in their areas. In the municipality of Curuçá, also in Pará State, Peabiru’s CBE activities started in 2006 with research, lectures and trainings. The Casa da Virada’s ecotourism training programme began in March 2008, with a total study load of 100 hours – both practical and theoretical - and was attended by a group of 20 young people. Local students were trained alongside groups of Canadian tourists. Upon completion of the Casa da Virada programme, the young people showed great interest in continuing the implementation of ecotourism in the municipality of Curuçá, resulting in the creation of a non-profit organization, the
  • 4. Institute Tapiaim. The group’s motivation has contributed to Institute Peabiru, which now seeks new sources of funding. In July 2008, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Public Call for Projects MTUR / No. 001/2008 (a selection of projects to support CBE initiatives), Institute Peabiru presented a successful proposal for the creation of the Cooperative of Community Ecotourism in Curuçá. The project, which ran from March 2010 to September 2011, had the following objectives: to establish the value chain of sustainable CBE; to contribute to the conservation of natural resources in the region, especially the micro-basins and mangroves in the area and extractive reserves in the vicinity of the Resex Mae Grande de Curuçá; to establish Curuçá as a national and international ecotourism destination; and to develop methodologies and strategies that will contribute to the improvement of the socioeconomic status of communities in the Amazon. In addition to these two remarkable experiences, in 2011 the Institute accepted a new challenge: to work with CBE as a value chain which is able to support the structuring and strengthening of other productive activities, such as acai (see the article by Pereira in this issue), Brazil nut, cocoa and cassava. Through the Almeirim Sustentavel project, in partnership with the Insituto Floresta Tropical (IFT) and supported by the Fundo Vale, this new project will make it possible to interact directly with other chains and maximize the results of the programme in the region of the Calha Norte, encompassing municipalities north of Pará State. From the lessons learnt over the years – that the community is the ‘root‘ of all work and it is necessary to understand and respect local dynamics in order to develop activities and achieve positive results in accordance with cultural and traditional patrimony - Institute Peabiru has identified some challenges CBE still has to face. These include: a) evaluating and the developing participatory indicators with the involvement of all stakeholders; b) strengthening communities in entrepreneurship skills; c) updating the teaching methods and other key issues (safety, first aid etc.) usedin tourism training courses. These need to be increasingly adapted to the reality of local dynamics – using local and natural teaching materials, planning the meetings and making prior agreements for the classes with the participants, prioritizing practical exercises and examples above theories, visiting and interchanging with other communities and projects to learn from their experiences and to give them a ‘voice‘; and d) implementing effective strategies for working with the consumer market (trade) and on product and innovative services, and trying to be the ‘bridge’ connecting communities with travel agencies and organizations that operate on CBE and fair trade principles. Ana Gabriela da Cruz Fontoura has a Bachelor degree in Tourism from the Federal University of Pará (UFPA) and a Bachelor degree in Environmental Studies from the Catholic University Minas Gerais (PUC - Minas). Since 2007 she has been the director of Estação Gabiraba – an operator of community based
  • 5. ecotourism in the Brazilian Amazon. She has been programme coordinator of Community Based Ecotourism at th