Conferência Ethos Internacional 2012 - Ashok Chapagain


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Water: Responsilble and Sustainable Management

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Conferência Ethos Internacional 2012 - Ashok Chapagain

  1. 1. Water stewardship- A journey to better water management PRESENTED AT: ETHOS CONFERENCE 2012, WORKSHOP “WATER: RESPONSIBLE AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT” 12-06-2012Dr Ashok ChapagainSenior Water
  2. 2. Overview of the presentation Issue Water Rio & Water WWF Stewardship Scene setting for Rio + 20 on water
  3. 3. Issue Water, water everywhere ?
  4. 4. A blue planet, ….but
  5. 5. Oceans Glaciers, Ground Lakes,97.5% Snow & water swamps & permafrost 0.075% rivers 1.725% 0.025% The world’s water resources
  6. 6. Per capita water availability1614 Africa12108 World6 Asia42 MEast & NAfrica01960 1990 2025
  7. 7. Concept – Context 90% of the Lake area is lost due to over abstractionSource: National Geographic
  8. 8. 2020 Water Stress: Rate of Change 10
  9. 9. Climate change and change in precipitation
  10. 10. Economy-wide impacts 15.0 3.0 2.0 Variability in Rainfall (Meter) 10.0 Real GDP growth (%) 1.0 5.0 0.0 -1.0 0.0 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 -2.0 -5.0 Real GDP grow th (%) -3.0 Variability in Rainfall (Meter) -10.0 -4.0 Rainfall & GDP growth: Zimbabwe 1978-1993 Years 80 25 20 60 15 40 10percentage 20 5 0 0 -5 1992 1998 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1993 1995 1996 1997 1999 2000 1982 1983 1984 1985 1994 -20 -10 -15 -40 rainfall variation around the mean -20 -60 GDP growth -25 -80 -30 year Rainfall & GDP growth: Ethiopia 1982-2000
  11. 11. Water footprint of the UK….from where?• Source: WWF 2008
  12. 12. Blue water footprint Blue water availability Blue water scarcity Source: Hoekstra et al 2012
  13. 13. Number of months during the year in which the water consumption exceedswater availability for the worlds major river basinsHoekstra et al. 2012
  14. 14. Freshwater Living Planet Index 16
  15. 15. Concept The Indus River dolphin
  16. 16. Issues and driversOur current global water challenges These challenges will grow due to 3 megatrends • 1.1 B people lack access to safe drinking • Global population will peak at 9 B by 2050 water, 2.6 B lack adequate sanitation • 65% of population and 1/3 of the land area in services severe water stress • 3 B additional people will live in cities in the • 2.7 B are already experiencing severe developing world with poor water and water scarcity at least one month in a sanitation infrastructure year • Temperature increase of 1-2 degrees by 2050 • Freshwater species are declining the • Climate change results in higher weather fastest, especially in the tropical regions variability, less freshwater stored in ice, more (70% decline of Living Planet Index since droughts and floods, and changes in the 1970) ecosystem • Water pollution is high, especially in • Urbanization and rising incomes, especially in BRIC developing countries where up to 70% countries, leading to higher consumption patterns of industrial wastewater is disposed • A near doubling of water for irrigation is without treatment needed through shifts in demand for different types of food
  17. 17. Water is unique Demands special treatment……….
  18. 18. Why water is different from carbon? Water CarbonChronic global shortages already exist Global impacts are slowly increasingClear physical and financial risks to Specific risks to business are harder tobusiness – not only reputations defineSolving water problems is a local issue Solving carbon problems is a global issueNo single international convention Addressed through UNFCCCaddresses water comprehensivelyShortages can vary disastrously from CO2 increases and decreases graduallyyear to yearMeaningful solutions must be found in Cap and trade carbon trading systemsthe watershed to address impactsConfusion over response Confusion over measurement Response is Stewardship Response is Efficiency
  19. 19. WWF – Water StewardshipVision:• All stakeholders in our priority river basins, including an active private sector, are fully engaged in efforts to secure water for people and nature by recognizing and taking responsibility of their role in managing freshwater within the wider water cycle, and integrating the principles of good stewardship into their core (business) activities • By reducing the impacts of their own water footprints • By taking voluntary action to conserve freshwater ecosystems • By participating in constructive public policy and industry standard dialogues to improve water resource management
  20. 20. WWF – Water Stewardship strategy Ultimate goals per step for WWF: Governments incentivized and motivated to manage and Influence invest in water basins in a sustainable wayLevel of watershed sustainability governance Stakeholder Companies, governments and NGO’s are engaged engagement together in multi-stakeholder platforms to address issues Companies take action to optimize internal water Internal governance, improve water efficiency and reduce action pollution Knowledge Companies have detailed understanding of impact they of impact and their suppliers have (incl. footprint & risk) Companies, their suppliers and customers have (high Water level) understanding of the global water challenges, their awareness dependence on freshwater and their exposure to water related risks Progress
  21. 21. WWF Water Stewardship – examples Influence Governance Stakeholder Engagement Internal Action Knowledge of Impact Water Awareness
  22. 22. Primary (physical) risks Shared quantity; quality risksOther businesses Ecosystems Communities Governments Secondary risks regulatory; litigational; reputational; market Supply Direct Investments chains operations Economic impact Adapted from R Farrington 24
  23. 23. Role of businesses in water management 16th July 2011Godavri River, India – water consumption Shanghai, China – urban pollution Sugar mill, Africa – industrial pollution Asparagus, Peru – groundwater extraction 25
  24. 24. Rio and water Lessons learnt…….
  25. 25. UN Conference on Environment and DevelopmentUNCED: Rio 1992• Agenda 21 Chapter 18 is dedicated to water.• Encouraged: – the global management of freshwater – the integration of sectoral water plans and programmes within the framework of national economic and social policy• For the first time, development and environment are seen as strongly associated.• Creation of the Commission on Sustainable Development
  26. 26. UN Conference on Environment and DevelopmentHowever, water is not yet a great priority• Almost exclusively dominated by the officials from the Environment ministries• Very few water professionals from developing countries participated• The Heads of States rarely, referred to water as an important environmental issue• Chapter 18, even though it was the longest chapter of the Agenda 21, was also the most poorly formulated
  27. 27. UN Conference on Environment and DevelopmentSome even argue that“In all probability, developments in the water sector would not have been very different at present, even if the Rio Conference had not taken place” - Prof. Asit K Biswas
  28. 28. Timeline: post Rio-1992 1994 - Ministerial Conference on Drinking Water Supply & Sanitation, Noordwijk 1994 – Int. Conference on Population & Development, Le Caire 1996 - UN Conference on Human Settlements, Istanbul 1997 - First World Water Forum, Marrakech 2000 - 2nd World Water Forum, Den Hague 2000 - United Nations Millennium Declaration 2001 - International Conference on Freshwater, Bonn 2002 - World Summit on Sustainable development, (Rio + 10), Johannesburg 2003 - 3rd World Water Forum, Kyoto + International Water Yea 2006 - 4th World Water Forum, Mexico 2009 – 5th World Water Forum, Istanbul, Turkey2012 – 6th World Water Forum, Marseille, France
  29. 29. NGOs, business, civil societiesNumerous platforms, tools and methods developede.g. WBCSD, WFN, IUCN, WRI, CEO water mandate, Risk tools etc.New concepts, ideas and standards emerged e.g. water accounting(water footprint), disclosure (such as CDP), Water stewardship, AWS,ISO etc.Risk element of water as a business motivation to engage, corporatewater strategies, certification etc.
  30. 30. WWF’s engagement Finally……
  31. 31. Level of engagements Business engagement Consumer awareness Government involvement  WFD (Water Framework Directive)  food/energy/water in one coherent frame in development strategy  legislation/WF accounting/product transparency etc. Engaging with other key players  such as AWS, WFN , WBCSD, financial institutions GTZ , development banks, NGO’s etc.
  32. 32. & the list of a few partners on this journey…..
  33. 33. WWF- Water Corporate Partnerships
  34. 34. “we shan’t save all we’d like to, but we shall save a great deal more than if we had never tried.”“we shan’t save all we’d like to, but Founder Sir Peter Scott – WWFwe shall save a great deal morethan if we had never tried.” Sir Peter Scott – WWF FounderThank you very