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Vintersykling i Oulu

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Miraklet i Oulu. Om hvordan en by langt mot nord i Finland har en av verdens høyeste sykkelandeler - også i vinterhalvåret.

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Vintersykling i Oulu

  1. 1. CYCLING IN OULU Transport 2.0 visit in Helsinki, 29.11.2016 Timo Perälä Navico Ltd. Winter Cycling Federation Oulu Region walking & cycling coordinator Photo: Pekka Tahkola
  2. 2. Photo: Anu Perälä NATIONAL WINTER CYCLING STUDY 2002 MAINTENANCE LEVEL OF CYCLING ROUTES, SINGLE ACCIDENTS OF CYCLISTS AND PEDESTRIANS, 1999 CITY OF OULU CYCLING COORDINATOR 2013-2015 OULU REGION WALCY-COORDINATOR 2015-2017 • MSc IN TRAFFIC ENGINEERING • PRESIDENT OF INTERNATIONAL WINTER CYCLING FEDERATION • CHAIRMAN OF FINNISH CYCLING EMBASSY • CEO AT NAVICO LTD. timo.perala@navico.fi timo.perala@wintercycling.org
  3. 3. FINLAND FACTS ABOUT OULU
  4. 4. OULU WINTER CYCLING VIDEO Photo: Pekka Tahkola
  5. 5. APART FROM CYCLING, WE ARE KNOWN FOR… Oulu people GisbertAir guitar world championships Yu-hsuan Heavy metal bands
  6. 6. SAPPORO VANCOUVER PARIS OTTAWA NOVOSIBIRSK TRONDHEIM JOKKMOKK UMEÅ OSLO COPENHAGEN ST.PETERSBURG MUNICH WARSAW ASTANA JEKATERINBURG WINNIPEG EDMONTON VORONEZH IRKUTSK KRASNOYARSK MINSK
  7. 7. CYCLING IN OULU - INDEX 1. Facts and figures 2. How it all happened? Oulu cycling history and milestones 3. Winter maintenance secrests of Oulu 4. Oulu cycling coordinator – even more cyclists to Oulu 5. Oulu cycling future Photo: Iisakki Kennilä
  8. 8. OULU CYCLING FACTS & FIGURES 1
  9. 9. LAND USE DEVELOPMENT AND… Trips within Oulu 362 000 Trips within other municipalities in the region 120 000 14 000 87 000 92 %2 % 5 % 53 %22 % 5 %20 % 51 %26 % 3 %19 % 2 %6 % 2 %90 % Trips made by the residents of the region wit a destination outside the region TRAFFIC IN OULU REGION Trips between municipalities in the region New build-up areas New residential areas by 2020 New working areas by 2020
  10. 10. • Public transport in decline • Share of private cars still keeps on growing • Some increase in walking MODAL SPLIT DEVELOPMENT
  11. 11. Population over 6 year old CYCLIST SEGMENTS IN OULU 27% 12% 14% 19% 22% Active cyclists all year round Cycle daily or several times a weeks both summer and winter time Active summer cyclist, infrequent winter cyclist Active summer cyclist, never on winter time Infrequent cyclists Non-cyclists Oulu regional traffic survey, 2009 51 000 active all year round cyclists
  12. 12. 0 % 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % 100 % Age Gender Others Non-cyclists Infrequentcyclists Activesummer cyclist, never on winter time Activesummer cyclist, infrequent winter cyclist Activecyclist all year round CYCLING BY AGE AND GENDER Population over 6 year old Oulu regional traffic survey, 2009
  13. 13. Photos: Timo Perälä, Picture: www.toronto.ca
  14. 14. Photo: Timo Perälä
  15. 15. • Cyclist amounts from automatic bike counter points • Modal share of cycling is 22 % (September 2009) • Winter cycling share is 33 % (3 lowest cycling months / 3 busiest cycling months) • 22 % of winter cyclists in Oulu use helmets • 35 % of winter cyclists in Oulu use studded winter tires SEASONAL CHANGES OF CYCLING IN OULU
  16. 16. CYCLING SAFETY IN OULU • Approx. 0-1 fatal cycling accidents / year (2006 a black year: 3 deaths) • Approx. 60-80 cyclists accidents leading to injury / year • Most accidents in crossings during daylight in good traffic conditions • Removal of mopeds in 2009-2010 improved traffic safety remarkably Pictures: Yle.fi / source: City of Oulu Cycling accidents during seasons Surface conditions of cycling accidents AUTUMN SUMMER SPRING WINTER DRY WET SNOWY ICY
  17. 17. Photo: City of Oulu CYCLING SAFETY IN OULU, SINGLE ACCIDENTS Accidents leading to injury / 1000 cyclists (Data from the city of Oulu)
  18. 18. OULU CYCLING NETWORK • 845 km of DEDICATED routes, about 4,0 m per inhabitant • SEPARATED and PROTECTED from motor traffic and SHARED with pedestrians. SHARED space on low trafficed residential streets • Routes INSIDE the city structure • All routes have street lights • 98 % maintained throughout winter • You can go EVERYWHERE by bike using cycling routes • UNDERPASSES in most busy crossings Photos: Pekka Tahkola, Eltis.org, City of Oulu
  19. 19. Almost 300 underpasses just for cyclists and pedestrians Map: Anders Swanson & Pekka Tahkola Photo: Pekka Tahkola
  20. 20. OULU CYCLING HISTORY 2
  21. 21. 2. Human resource factors 3. Political factors 4. Financial factors 2. TRAFFIC PLANNING HISTORY 1. A long history 5. Technical factors ROAD TO OULU CYCLING SUCCES
  22. 22. • 1969 Transport system plan • Walking and cycling were included for the first time • 1972 City development plan of bicycle and pedestrian traffic • Extensive network separated from car traffic covering the whole city • Separate funding for bicycle and pedestrian projects • Major part of construction using other funding sources • Since then cycling and pedestrian planning have been a “part of the system” • 1981 Development plan of bicycle and pedestrian traffic in the city center 1. A LONG HISTORY…
  23. 23. 2. TRAFFIC PLANNING HISTORYAN EYE-OPENER IN 1969
  24. 24. • 1987 Pedestrian zone Rotuaari opens • 1993 First extensions to Rotuaari • 2007 Regional strategy for bicycle and pedestrian traffic • 2009-2010 Mopeds removed from bicycle and pedestrians routes • 2011 Oulu city development plan for bicycle and pedestrian traffic • 2011 – 2013 Further extensions to Rotuaari, including street heating installation SOME LATER MILESTONES
  25. 25. • 2012 Online cycling journey planner • 2013 International winter cycling congress • 2013 Cycling coordinator starts • 2014 Oulu cycling quality routes plan • 2014 Regional transport system 2030 plan • 2015 Oulu city center cycling development plan • 2015 Oulu Regional WALCY -coordinators start • 2017 Separated maintenance contract for 130 km of most important cycling routes MORE MILESTONES
  26. 26. 2. HUMAN RESOURCE FACTORS • Cycling was understood (THE eye opener in 1969!) to be an equal mode of transportation right from the beginning • Good dialogue and co-operation between traffic engineers and land use planners • Became an essential tool in traffic and area planning • Conflict of interests between traffic modes were found nonexistent MAURI MYLLYLÄ KEY PERSON FOR OULU MIRACLE • Born in 1935 • Oulu city traffic engineer from 1961 – 1998 • Retired, but still active in bicycle and pedestrian traffic development issues ”VISION, DEDICATION AND FIGHTING”
  27. 27. 3. POLITICAL FACTORS • Extensive political unity was achieved in 1980’s • Political support has been an essential tool for the success • Residents are proud of the cycling network ROTUAARI PEDESTRIAN ZONE: A GOOD EXAMPLE OF FIGHTING - 1967 the first try - 1976 the second - Third time a success in 1986
  28. 28. Main street Other streets Crossings/ roundabouts Main route (regional) other routes Grade separation Example of master plan of Ritaharju residential area Roads Bicycle and pedestrian ways IMPLEMENTED PLANNING PROCEDURE - RESULTS
  29. 29. 4. ECOONOMICAL FACTORS • A separated funding from the year 1972 • Although the network is mainly funded trough larger traffic infrastructure investments • Yearly maintenance costs estimated to be 2,0 M€ 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1972 1982 1993 2007 2009 Year Bicycle and pedestrian routes in Oulu (maintained by the city authority) 2013 700 km Between 2000 and 2010 AVERAGE OF 17 km / year Build it today: 300 M€ Annual cycling benefits ~80M€
  30. 30. 5. TECHNICAL FACTORS • Accessibility as a foundation • Quality demands: paved, street lights, winter maintenance • Cycling routes planned to go inside the city structure -> comfort, direct connections • Continuation important -> expensive solutions were needed • Crossings with busy streets and roads in levels -> safe, fast • Shared space with cars on low trafficked residential streets • Car free city centre Ilpo Okkonen 2. TRAFFIC PLANNING HISTORY
  31. 31. 3 Photo: Timo Perälä WINTER MAINTENANCE SECRETS Pre-sanding on a October morning
  32. 32. TOP NORDIC WINTER CYCLING CITIES OULU JOENSUU UMEÅ UPPSALA LINKÖPING COPENHAGEN OULU 22 % -67 % 150d JOENSUU 32 % -81 % 155d UMEÅ 22 % -63 % 129d UPPSALA 28 % -59 % 114d LINKÖPING 30 % -60 % 99d COPENHAGEN 37 % -20 % 31d = CYCLING MODAL SPLIT = DECLINE IN WINTER CYCLING = NO OF THERMAL WINTER DAYS Perälä, 2013
  33. 33. WHAT HAVE THEY DONE RIGHT? Photo: Pekka Tahkola
  34. 34. • At the moment 2 classes. Super maintenance class coming along with the new contract in 2017 • Current 1st class quality requirements, example: • 3cm snowfall, within 4 hours, but at least by 7am and 4pm • 2cm snowfall, by the next morning MAINTENANCE CLASSIFICATION • Oulu enjoys normally solid winter conditions from November to March • A thin layer of hardpacked snow is often even better than asphalt • Surface must be clean of loose snow and a bit rough, not slippery • Priority given before driveways • Snow plowed from driveways must be cleaned as soon as possible • Snow must not be stacked next to crosswalks nor intersections • Using salt is not allowed SOME NOTES
  35. 35. 3. OULU CYCLING POLICIES Cycling network, underpasses WINTER MAINTENANCE CLASSIFICATION
  36. 36. PRIORIZED WINTER MAINTENANCE NETWORK FOR BIKE PATHS • To be launched 10/2017 • Problems to be solved: • Several contractors -> changes in service level on most important routes • Snow / slush removal during afternoons / evenings • Levelling softened snow layer • Slush removal prior to freezing • Heavy / wet snow (less than 2cm) removal • Punctual maintenance
  37. 37. MAINTENANCE AGENTS • 62 volunteer frequent cyclists serve as maintenance agents • Report daily faults in maintenance (GIS based reporting system) • Answer weekly in a user satisfaction survey • Results will be used as triggers for bonuses and sanctions • Season 2016-2017 results will determine the starting point for the new contract • Quality promise method used in the tendering phase Very bad Very good ROUTE: C: Oulunsalo - CENTRE A: Ritaharju - CENTRE OTHER ROUTE SEND TIME: MAINTENANCESERVICE LEVEL: SEND FEEDBACK IS ABOUT… Snow on the route Slipperiness Icy, uneven surface Uneven surface Slushon the route Maintenance agents’ routes
  38. 38. WINTER MAINTENANCE PHASES
  39. 39. • Good surface conditions are essential • Enough space (>3m) for snow build-up areas needed • Space for snow away from bushes, trees, traffic signs GETTING PREPARED FOR WINTER Drainage, drainage, drainage… • Mostly sewers used, not open ditches • Sewers are much easier to keep open • Even surface with single sided camber Areas and responsibilities • City + Regional Road Authority (ELY-centre) are responsible for bike path maintenance • 14 maintenance areas (city of Oulu), ELY has one (1) maintenance area / contractor • In 2017 a separated contract for bike path maintenance will be launched. Total of 130 km of most important routes within Oulu Region Photo: Timo Perälä
  40. 40. Why so much space? Photo: Timo Perälä
  41. 41. • Anticipated treatment • Sieved natural sand, 0-6mm • Calcium chloride solution for anti-icing • Used only on asphalt, not on snow Friction on asphalt • Material must be accepted by the city • 2-6mm natural gravel, washed and sieved • Must not puncture tires • Crushed bedrock is often too sharp • Salt is not allowed • During winter period 2014-2015 salted wooden chips tested on ELY pilot routes Friction on snow Photo: Pekka Tahkola GOOD FRICTION IS NEEDED THROUGH THE YEAR!
  42. 42. Photo: Timo Perälä
  43. 43. Photo: Pekka Tahkola • Removal of hardpacked snow surface • Cleaning the surface from gravel • Future main winter conditions in Oulu? SPRINGTIME MAINTENANCE
  44. 44. Photo: Pekka Tahkola • Drainage Springtime maintenance
  45. 45. Photo: Pekka Tahkola Next morning..
  46. 46. Same place 5 days later… • Drainage fixed afterwards
  47. 47. © Pekka Tahkola 3. OULU CYCLING POLICIES Cycling network, maintenance OULU WINTER MAINTENANCE VIDEO
  48. 48. OULU CYCLING COORDINATOR 4
  49. 49. 650 €/y/inhab. 130 M€/y in Oulu alone
  50. 50. SMARTISH MOBILITY
  51. 51. SMART MOBILITY, INNOVATIONS
  52. 52. Municipality (Oulu Region) Number of private cars (30.6.2016) Average usege (18 000 km/v) Average costs € (0,36€/km) Share of taxes* Money leaving local economy** Oulu 87 828 1 580 904 000 569 125 440 336 188 721 195 666 844 Kempele 8 725 157 050 000 56 538 000 33 397 625 19 437 915 Ii 4 772 85 896 000 30 922 560 18 266 300 10 631 259 Muhos 4 500 81 000 000 29 160 000 17 225 136 10 025 286 Tyrnävä 3 044 54 792 000 19 725 120 11 651 848 6 781 549 Hailuoto 516 9 288 000 3 343 680 1 975 149 1 149 566 Lumijoki 953 17 154 000 6 175 440 3 647 901 2 123 133 YHTEENSÄ 110 338 1 986 084 000 714 990 240 422 352 679 245 815 551 WHY ARE WE STILL INVESTING ON CYCLING? * Price of gasoline= 1,380 €/l, share of taxes 0,92 €/l, taxation on cars: 28,9 % - 42,90 % depending exhaustion limits. Sahre of invested capital approx. 64 %. with average yearly milage of 20 000 km ** According to a study made in US, 84 % of the money invested in cars leaves the local economy 12,3 M€/v 24,6 M€/v 49,2 M€/v 5 % less car usage / y 10 % less car usage / y 20 % less car usage / y POTENTIAL FUNDS FOR LOCAL ECONOMY
  53. 53. Started in 2013 First 2 years received national funding From 08/2015 regional walking and cycling coordinator Funded by the City and the ELY- center CYCLING COORDINATOR TASKS • Small planning tasks • National and international marketing • Winter Cycling Congress 2013 • Citizen engagement and engouragement • Campaigns • Events • Networking • ”Selling and ensuring good solutions”
  54. 54. • European Mobility week 16-22.9 • National Reflector Day 1.10. • National Traffic safety week (7-13.9.) • Kilometer Race ends on 22.9. AUTUMN (16-22.9) • International WinterBiketoWorkDay and WinterBiketoSchoolDay • Winter Cycling Tasks MID WINTER (7-15.2) • National cycling week, 2nd week of May • Kilometer Race starts • Bike to School Day 13.5. • Bike to Work Day 10.5. • Tour de Kids races start SPRING (7-15.5) • Cycling Winter, start of the winter season • Lumo Light Festival 18-27.11. • Winter Cyclist campaign starts EARLY WINTER (16.11-22.11) EVENTS & CAMPAIGNS YEAR CLOCK
  55. 55. WINTER CYCLING CONGRESS 2013
  56. 56. • The most succesfull campaing • 4th one started in 11/2016 • Engouraging people to continue their cycling as the winter comes • Over 300 persons ”Oulunized” • 92 % of the participants will continue their winter cycling in coming years WINTER CYCLIST CAMPAIGNS
  57. 57. DOES IT PAY OFF? How did the campaign affect to your general wellbeing? Negative effect Positive effect
  58. 58. MYTH BUSTING: CYCLING AND COLDNESS Photo: Pekka Tahkola 0ºC -5ºC - 6ºC -10ºC -11ºC - 15ºC -16ºC - 20ºC -21ºC - 30ºC 3163 3293 3224 3 142 3176 2675 - 15 % Min ºC
  59. 59. HOW THE BAD ROAD SURFACE CONDITIONS AFFECTED THE AMOUNT OF CYCLISTS Min. temperature -5 -8 1 -4 -9 -12 -14 Max temperature 0 4 6 4 -4 -3 2 -38 % -36 % -20 % -12 % MYTH BUSTING
  60. 60. LINNANMAA KESKUSTA OULU QUALITY CYCLING NETWORK PLAN AND MARKETING MATERIAL 2014 • Two pilot routes from city centre to the University • Long and short marketing videos SMALL PLANNING TASKS
  61. 61. LINNANMAA KESKUSTA FUTURE STEPS6
  62. 62. CITY CENTRE CYCLING NETWORK DEVELOPMENT DECISION MAKERS ENGAGEMENT Photo: Ramboll Finland
  63. 63. QUALITY CYCLING NETWORK
  64. 64. OULU-SYÖTE 100 % BIKE CYCLING TOURISM DEVELOPMENT TOTAL IMPACT OF 44 BILLION EUROS ANNUALLY CYCLING TOURISTS USE 9 BILLIONS EUROS Photo: Iisakki Kennilä
  65. 65. Navico Oy / Winter Cycling Federation Nummikatu 34 90100 Oulu, Finland +358(0)407060415 www.navico.fi www.wintercycling.org timo.perala@navico.fi timo.perala@wintercycling.org THANK YOU! KIITOS! Photo: Iisakki Kennilä

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