A marketer must decide whether to incorporate rational or emotional appeals in its communications strategy. Which conditions are more favourable to using one or the other?
persuasive |pərˈswāsiv; -ziv| communication |kəˌmyoōnəˈkā sh ən| (Stiff 2003) "... any message that is intended to shape, reinforce, or change the responses of another, or others. ” This definition limits persuasive activity to intentional behavior. DERIVATIVES persuasively |pərˈsweɪs1vli| |pərˈsweɪz1vli| adverb persuasiveness |pərˈsweɪsɪvn1s| |pərˈsweɪzɪvn1s| noun ORIGIN late 15th cent.: from French persuasif , -ive or medieval Latin persuasivus , from persuas- ‘convinced by reasoning,’ from the verb persuadere (see persuade ). DERIVATIVES communicational |-ˈkā sh ənl| |kəˈmjunəˈkeɪʃənl| |kəˈmjunəˈkeɪʃnəl| adjective ORIGIN late Middle English : from Old French comunicacion , from Latin communicatio(n-) , from the verb communicare ‘to share’ (see communicate ).
Response Alteration The goal of persuasive communication in advertising is to alter the response of the consumer in a manner favorable to the brand. (Stiff 2003)
• Response Shaping - Creating new brand perception. Ex: Obama Campaign • Response Reinforcing - Maintaining brand loyalty. Ex: Zappos • Response Changing - Significantly altering consumer’s responses from one position to another. Ex: GM Response Alteration (Stiff 2003)
• Listing Product Benefits - To use this method effectively, the advertisement must underscore consumer benefits rather than product features. • Convincing Proof - This approach is based upon the premise, "Seeing is believing." Ads or commercials take the form of a product demonstration. Rational Persuasion Seeks to shape, reinforce, or change consumer response by through a logical argument. (Stiff 2003)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SpWgs98iBGk Volkswagen -Funeral Response Shaping and Changing
“ Emotional appeals attempt to stir up either negative or positive emotions that can motivate purchase. These include fear, guilt and shame appeals that get people to do things they should or stop doing things they shouldn't ... communicators also use positive emotional appeals such as love, humour, pride and joy” (Kotler & Armstrong, 1994, as cited in Albers-Miller & Stafford, 1999). They rely on feelings for effectiveness.
Fear Humour Agony Abrasive Sex Emotional Appeals
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wtaXjzQQGE8 Volkswagen - Like Fear
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OWhO3sAOnGc Volkswagen - Break Up Humour
http://www.ddblondon.com/the-fight/?ddb_cat=work&ddb_division=ddb Volkswagen - The Fight Response Reinforcing Cannes Lions Advertiser of the Year
“ Advertisers can achieve success with both rational and emotional appeals. Each has its place in the marketing toolbox. The challenge is to know which is right for your product or service.” (Orwig)
References Albers-Miller, N.D., & Stafford, M.R. (1999). An international analysis of emotional and rational appeals in services vs goods advertising. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 16 (1), 42. Morton, L.P. (n.d). How to use emotional and rational advertising appeals . Retrieved September 5, 2009, from http://www.strategicmarketsegmentation.com/blog/how-to-use-emotional-and-rational-advertising-appeals/ Morton, L.P. (n.d). Types of advertising appeals. Retrieved September 5, 2009, from http://www.strategicmarketsegmentation.com/blog/types-of-advertising-appeals-1/ Orwig, K. Rational Ap peals vs. Emotional Appeals in Advertising and Marketing Communication. http:// www.orwig.net/articles/rational_emotl/rational_emotl.html Schiffman, L., Bednall, D., O’Cass, A., Paladino, A., Ward, S. Kanuk, L. (2008). Consumer behaviour (4 th ed.). Fren chs Forest, NSW: Pearson Education. Stiff, J., Mongeau, P. (2003 ). Persuasive Communication. (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press, NY. Trout, J. (2007, November 27). The Emotional Trap. http://www.forbes.com/2007/11/26/trout-marketing-emotions-oped-cx_jt_1127trout.html Williams, M. (2009, May 13). Volkswagen named Cannes Lions Advertiser of the Year. http://www.campaignlive.co.uk/news/905599/Volkswagen-named-Cannes-Lions-Adve rtiser-Year/