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Science, Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A comparative overview of OECD countries

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Presentation by Andy Wyckoff, OECD Director for Science, Technology and Innovation, at 2nd World Conference on Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 12 May 2017.

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Science, Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A comparative overview of OECD countries

  1. 1. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW OF OECD COUNTRIES 2nd World Conference on Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Andy Wyckoff, Director for Science, Technology and Innovation, OECD 12 May 2017 Istanbul, Turkey
  2. 2. Megatrends for Science, Technology and Innovation
  3. 3. Megatrends & Technology Trends for STI Urgency of policy action Science and innovation are key Science, Technology and Innovation today
  4. 4. R&D has fallen behind other policy priorities in many countries Source: OECD R&D Statistics (RDS) Database, April 2016, www.oecd.org/sti/rds; OECD National Accounts Database. Government budget appropriations and outlays for R&D, as a % of total government expenditures, 2000 and 2015
  5. 5. Public R&D budgets are likely to plateau around current ratios… Government budget appropriations and outlays for R&D, as a % of GDP Source: OECD R&D Statistics (RDS) Database, April 2016, www.oecd.org/sti/rds. France United Kingdom Germany Unites States Sweden 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 2013 Chinese Taipei EU28 Mexico Norway 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 2013 Denmark Korea Austria Finland Iceland 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 2013
  6. 6. … requiring a combination of public and private efforts... Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators Database, January 2016, www.oecd.org/sti/msti.htm. USA CHN EU28 JPN DEU KOR FRA GBR RUS BRA ITA CAN AUS TUR MEX ARG ZAF 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percentage of GERD financed by industry OECD average = 2.4% OECD average = 60.9% G20 countries non-G20 OECD countries Gross domestic expenditures on R&D as a percentage of GDP
  7. 7. … and increased government support for business R&D across countries. Direct government funding of business R&D and tax incentives for R&D, 2014 Source: OECD, R&D Tax Incentive Indicators, http://oe.cd/rdtax and Main Science and Technology Indicators, http://oe.cd/msti, March 2017. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 % Indirect government support through tax incentives Direct government funding of BERD Data on tax incentive support not available Indirect government support to business R&D, 2006 or nearest year, where available
  8. 8. Could increasingly generous R&D tax incentives jeopardize our fundamental research? Change in R&D tax costs (% annual growth) and the share of public support going to firms (% point) , 2006-14 or nearest years available Source: Based on OECD R&D Tax Incentive Indicators, www.oecd.org/sti/rd-tax-stats.htm, July 2016; OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators, www.oecd.org/sti/msti.htm, June 2016; OECD R&D Statistics (RDS) Database, April 2016, www.oecd.org/sti/rds. There is emerging evidence of more public support going to firms – and away from public research - due to more generous R&D tax incentives More support given to firms (and less to public research) More generous tax concessions
  9. 9. 9 Public research has shifted towards universities … Public R&D, OECD, % of GDP Source: OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators (MSTI) Database, June 2016, www.oecd.org/sti/msti. Higher education Government Funding by industry, OECD, USD million 2010 PPP … that are increasingly relying on private funding
  10. 10. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 % Science, mathematics and computing Engineering, manufacturing and construction 0 10 20 30 40 % Science, mathematics and computing Engineering, manufacturing and construction Tertiary education has expanded to support the supply of skills for innovation Tertiary education graduates in natural sciences and engineering, selected G20 economies, 2013 Graduates at doctorate level in natural sciences and engineering, selected G20 economies, 2013 Source: OECD, Education Database, April 2016.
  11. 11. Megatrends & Technology Trends for STI Capacity of governments to intervene? Competing policy priorities and agendas (financial resources?) Shaping future R&D and innovation policy agendas? Opening science Building international cooperation Urgency of policy action Science and innovation are key Science, Technology and Innovation today
  12. 12. Open science is on the march Number of papers, 2000-13 Source: Based on Laakso, M. and B.-C. Björk (2012), “Anatomy of open access publishing: A study of longitudinal development and internal structure”, BMC Medicine, Vol. 10, p. 124, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/124, and website of the Open Access Scholarly Publications Association (OASPA), http://oaspa.org/growth-of-fully-oa-journals-using-a-cc-by-license/.
  13. 13. International knowledge networks are more diverse Source: OECD (2015), OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2015: Innovation for Growth and Society, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/sti_scoreboard-2015-en. Citation counts, by country of main affiliation of citing and cited corresponding author International citation network, 1996-2013
  14. 14. International net flows of scientific authors, G20 economies, 1999-2013 Source: OECD (2015), OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2015: Innovation for growth and society, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/sti_scoreboard-2015-en. International mobility is a major channel for knowledge circulation… -15 000 -10 000 -5 000 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 1999-2003 2004-08 2009-13 Net flows, full period (right-hand scale) % Flows
  15. 15. Highest expected citation impact of scientific authors by mobility profile Based on the median Scimago Journal Rank (SJR) score of 2013, mobility patterns over 1996-2013 Source: OECD (2015), OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2015: Innovation for growth and society, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/sti_scoreboard-2015-en. … and for research excellence.
  16. 16. 16 http://oe.cd/STIOutlook • Global megatrends and societal challenges highlight the need for some big solutions and radical changes, including in our STI policies. • There is a risk that as countries focus internally, it could threaten future international cooperation for R&D, innovation and international mobility – just when we need it most. Conclusions and Policy Implications • There are growing concerns about declining public funding for R&D and innovation, and the situation could deteriorate further with austerity and ageing societies.
  17. 17. andrew.wyckoff@oecd.org Follow us on Twitter: @OECDinnovation Subscribe to the OECD News on Science, Technology and Innovation: http://oe.cd/stinews Thank you

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