Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Maghe - National innovation system and policy mix

215 views

Published on

Parallel session 3 - 20 September 2016

Published in: Data & Analytics
  • Slim Down in Just 1 Minute? What if I told you, you've been lied to for nearly all of your life? CLICK HERE TO SEE THE TRUTH ◆◆◆ http://t.cn/A6PnIVD3
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE Format, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

Maghe - National innovation system and policy mix

  1. 1. National Innovation System and policy mix: typology and relationship with competitiveness and innovation performances Virginie Maghe & Michele Cincera iCite Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management Université Libre de Bruxelles OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19- 21, 2016 1
  2. 2. Theoretical background • The Innovation System (IS) concept: « the network of institutions in the public and private sectors whose activities and interactions initiate, import, and diffuse new technologies » (Freeman 1987) • Justification for public intervention = system failures (Woolthuis et al., 2005) • Evaluating performances before and after policy treatment = strong ceteris paribus assumption  Environmental aspect of innovation may be not captured (Arnold, 2004) • Evaluation of a National Innovation System = Benchmarking/Comparison (Edquist, 2001)  No general equilibrium  Typologies based on traditional innovation indicators (performances) OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19,20 and 21 2
  3. 3. Data and methodology • Exhaustive innovation policy database for the 2007-2013 period  Objectives, instruments, beneficiaries, sectors and budgets  Quality check: GERD financed by government and GBOARD  Min. 60% - Max 120% • 28 EU Member States + Canada, US, Japan, China, South Korea and Australia • RIO (former Erawatch) and STIP databases, RIM Plus, OECD, Eurostat, and national sources • Taxonomy  Classification of all policy measures  Contingency tables • Data and cluster analysis • Contribution and novelty of the paper: typology built on policy implementation characteristics rather than traditional innovation performances (R&D investments, patents,…). OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19,20 and 21 3
  4. 4. Taxonomy Beneficiaries Instruments Objectives Sectors (NACE rev2) Business Education Research and technology Other organizations Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) support STI diffusion STI framework Creation of knowledge and technology Transfer of knowledge and technology Absorptive capacity Agriculture, Mining, Chemicals, Biotech and pharmaceuticals, Computer and electronics, Electrical equipment, Other equipment, Automotive, Ships and boat, Railway, Aerospace , Energy, Construction, Transport, ICT, Financial activities, Scientific R&D, Education, Human health and social interests, Other OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19,20 and 21 4
  5. 5. Functional matrices • Taxonomical classification  Functional matrices. Example for one single policy measure.  The measure targets 2 objectives and 3 beneficiaries.  Its budget represents 15% of the overall budget of all national policy measures = weight of 15%*1/2*1/3. • Sum up all the weighted policy measures within the matrices.  Relative weight of each dimension.  Weight of crossed dimensions. OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19,20 and 21 5
  6. 6. Functional matrices (cont.) OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19,20 and 21 6 i.e. 1.63%*1/4 + 5.6%*1/7= 1.2% of policy measures concern applied R&D objective of HEI research units (universities)
  7. 7. Data analysis • Contingency tables computed for each of the 34 countries • Do clusters of EU and Non-EU countries exist on specific STI political issues? • Factorial analysis of correspondence (FAC) + hierarchical ascendent classification (HAC) using the FactomineR package of R • Comparisons with the Global Competitiveness Index ranking and the EU Summary Innovation Index OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19,20 and 21 7
  8. 8. Data analysis: results OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19,20 and 21 8 #Rank Country Score (1-7) Cluster 3 FI 5.54 5 4 DE 5.51 5 5 US 5.48 1 6 SE 5.48 1 8 NL 5.42 2 9 JP 5.4 1 10 UK 5.37 1 14 CA 5.2 2 15 DK 5.18 5 16 AT 5.15 2 17 BE 5.13 2 21 AUS 5.09 2 22 LU 5.09 1 23 FR 5.05 2 25 KR 5.01 2 28 IE 4.92 2 29 CN 4.84 1 32 EE 4.65 4 35 ES 4.57 2 41 MT 4.5 4 42 PL 4.46 4 46 CZ 4.43 4 48 LT 4.41 3 49 IT 4.41 1 51 PT 4.4 3 52 LV 4.4 4 57 BG 4.31 3 58 CY 4.3 1 62 SI 4.25 1 63 HU 4.25 3 75 HR 4.13 3 76 RO 4.13 1 78 SK 4.1 3 91 EL 3.23 3  Comparison with the Global Competitiveness Index ranking. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 LU LU LU LU LU LU LU LU SE SE SE SE SE SE SE SE RO RO RO RO RO RO RO RO CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN IT IT IT IT IT IT IT IT SI SI SI SI SI SI SI SI JP JP JP JP JP JP JP JP UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK US US US US US US US US CY CY CY CY CY CY CY CY HR HR HR HR HR HR HR HR BG BG BG BG BG BG BG BG SK SK SK SK SK SK SK SK PT PT PT PT PT PT PT PT EL EL EL EL EL EL EL EL HU HU HU HU HU HU HU HU LT LT LT LT LT LT LT LT PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL LV LV LV LV LV LV LV LV EE EE EE EE EE EE EE EE CZ CZ CZ CZ CZ CZ CZ CZ MT MT MT MT MT MT MT MT AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS KR KR KR KR KR KR KR KR ES ES ES ES ES ES ES ES CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA IE IE IE IE IE IE IE IE NL NL NL NL NL NL NL NL BE BE BE BE BE BE BE BE AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT FR FR FR FR FR FR FR FR DE DE DE DE DE DE DE DE FI FI FI FI FI FI FI FI DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK
  9. 9. Data analysis : results (cont.) OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19,20 and 21 9 Cluster 1: LU, SE, US, CY, JP, UK, RO, SI, CN, IT v.test Mean in category Overall mean sd in category Overall sd p.value HEI research 3.85 0.48 0.34 0.13 0.14 0.00 Science Base 3.40 0.22 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.00 Fundamental R&D 2.90 0.28 0.16 0.19 0.14 0.00 Non-Profit 2.40 0.13 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.02 Universities 2.05 0.14 0.08 0.12 0.10 0.04 Infrastructure 1.97 0.12 0.08 0.11 0.08 0.05 Research Competences -2.16 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.03 Private Research -2.29 0.05 0.09 0.05 0.07 0.02 Start-ups -2.57 0.07 0.15 0.06 0.12 0.01 Downstream Activities -2.70 0.07 0.11 0.05 0.06 0.01 SMEs -2.84 0.07 0.14 0.05 0.09 0.00 Non-EU strong innovators and strongly competitive European countries targeting research organizations and science base.  University research units  Education and science base  Fundamental research  Non-profit organizations  SMEs  Downstream R&D activities  Start-ups  Private research organizations
  10. 10. Data analysis: results (cont.) OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19,20 and 21 10 Cluster 2: AUS, BE, AT, FR, NL, KR, ES, IE, CA v.test Mean in category Overall mean sd in category Overall sd p.value Tax Credits 3.86 0.24 0.10 0.14 0.12 0.00 Applied R&D 3.57 0.26 0.18 0.04 0.08 0.00 Large companies 3.34 0.11 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.00 Downstream Activities 3.29 0.17 0.11 0.05 0.06 0.00 Private Research 2.06 0.13 0.09 0.06 0.07 0.04 Universities -2.07 0.02 0.08 0.01 0.10 0.04 Direct Support -2.78 0.26 0.34 0.10 0.11 0.01 Absorption -2.90 0.08 0.17 0.04 0.10 0.00 Cluster 3: HR, BG, SK, PT, EL, HU, LT v.test Mean in category Overall mean sd in category Overall sd p.value Transfer 3.11 0.16 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.00 SMEs 2.07 0.20 0.14 0.09 0.09 0.04 Collaborations 2.02 0.09 0.05 0.09 0.05 0.04 HEI research -2.21 0.23 0.34 0.05 0.14 0.03 Science Base -2.49 0.03 0.12 0.01 0.10 0.01 Relatively strong non-EU countries and Western-EU countries with high scores targeting market-oriented R&D activities  Indirect measures  Applied R&D  Large companies  Downstream R&D activities  Absorptive capacity  Direct measures Weakest performers focusing on the transfer capacities of small companies  Knowledge and technology transfers  SMEs  Collaborations  Education and science base
  11. 11. Data analysis: results (cont.) OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19,20 and 21 11 Cluster 4:LV, PL, CZ, EE, MT v.test Mean in category Overall mean sd in category Overall sd p.value Students 3.10 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.01 0.00 Research Competences 3.05 0.07 0.02 0.06 0.04 0.00 Absorption 2.64 0.28 0.17 0.02 0.10 0.01 Energy 2.61 0.09 0.04 0.08 0.05 0.01 Upstream Activities 2.44 0.27 0.15 0.12 0.11 0.01 NGOs 2.41 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 Direct Support 2.11 0.44 0.34 0.03 0.11 0.03 Railway 2.07 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.04 Applied R&D -2.97 0.08 0.18 0.01 0.08 0.00 Cluster 5: DE, FI DK v.test Mean in category Overall mean sd in category Overall sd p.value Creation of Firm 5.28 0.18 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.00 Risk-capital 4.87 0.14 0.02 0.06 0.04 0.00 Start-ups 4.17 0.45 0.15 0.16 0.12 0.00 Lifelong learning 2.89 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 Social Interests 2.69 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.02 0.01 Financial services 2.59 0.19 0.05 0.25 0.09 0.01 Computer 2.44 0.19 0.08 0.17 0.08 0.01 Upstream Activities 2.43 0.30 0.15 0.09 0.11 0.02 Environment 2.42 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 Other sectors -2.36 0.09 0.19 0.05 0.08 0.02 Direct support -2.78 0.18 0.34 0.05 0.11 0.01 Eastern EU countries with lower scores in terms of competitiveness targeting competences within the IS  Students  Research competences  Absorptive capacity  Applied R&D Top performers in terms of competitiveness focused on upstream R&D activities  Creation of firms  Risk capital  Start-ups  Direct support measures
  12. 12. Challenges and further research • Current research  Use of obtained typology in a stochastic frontier approach (Battese and Coelli 1995)  Efficiency of public intervention in leveraging Business Expenditure in R&D financed by the business sector ln (𝐵𝐸𝑅𝐷𝑏𝑦𝐵𝑈𝑆it) = 𝛽1 + 𝛽2 ln(𝐵𝐸𝑅𝐷𝑏𝑦𝐺𝑂𝑉it) + 𝛽3 ln (𝐺𝑂𝑉𝐸𝑅𝐷it) + 𝛽4 ln(𝐻𝐸𝑅𝐷it) + 𝜈it − 𝑢it BERDbyBUS = BERD financed by the business sector BERDbyGOV = BERD financed by the government sector GOVERD = R&D performed by government HERD = R&D performed by the higher education secor 𝜈it = error term 𝑢it = inefficiency term expressed as  Effect of BERDbyGOV on BERDbyBUS: additionality or crowding out.  Effect of policy mix cluster (clus) on the efficiency of public R&D. OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19,20 and 21 12
  13. 13. Challenges and further research (cont.) • Systemic evaluation of innovation policies Not self-sufficient Complement traditional diagnosis of innovation performances • Necessity of extensive innovation policy databases for further research  Period of time, beneficiaries, level of implementation (Regional – National), management institutions and selection criteria  Annual budgets (provisional or attributed)  Comparability between countries for benchmarking purpose OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19,20 and 21 13
  14. 14. Thank you for your attention  vmaghe@ulb.ac.be OECD Blue Sky Forum III - Ghent, September 19,20 and 21 14

×