Paolo Merialdo, Cloud Computing and Virtualization: una introduzione


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Intervento di Paolo Merialdo, Professore dell'Università degli Studi Roma Tre all'evento "Cloud Computing e Virtualization" di Roma, 17 Settembre 2010, organizzato da Innovation Lab.

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Paolo Merialdo, Cloud Computing and Virtualization: una introduzione

  1. 1. Cloud Computing & Virtualization<br />Paolo Merialdo<br />Università Roma Tre<br />Innovation Lab<br />
  2. 2. Virtualization<br />Hiding the physical characteristics of computing resources from the way in which other systems, applications or end users interact with them<br />IBM White Paper "Virtualization in Education" 2007<br />
  3. 3. Cloud Computing<br />A new term for a long-held dream of computing as a utility (1966) whichhas recently emerged as a commercial reality<br />
  4. 4. Cloud Computing<br />Gartner: <br />a style of computing where massively-scalable IT-enabled capabilities are delivered as a service to external customer using Internet technologies<br />NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technologies): <br />a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction technologies<br />
  5. 5. Whatiscloudcomputing?<br />Cloud Computing refers to both <br />the applications delivered as services over the Internet<br />the hardware and systems software in the datacenters that provide those services <br />The services themselves have long been referred to as Software as a Service (SaaS)<br />The datacenter hardware and software is what we can call a Cloud<br />
  6. 6. Whatiscloudcomputing?<br />
  7. 7. Whatiscloudcomputing?<br />When a Cloud is made available in a pay-as-you-go manner to the public, it is called a Public Cloud<br />the service being sold is Utility Computing<br />Cloud Computing is the sum of SaaS and Utility Computing<br />
  8. 8. Whatiscloudcomputing?<br />Advantages of SaaS to both end users and service providers are well known<br />Cloud Computing gives more application providers the choice of deploying their product as SaaS without provisioning a datacenter<br />Analogously to how SaaS allows the user to offload some problems to the SaaS provider, the SaaS provider can now offload some of his problems to the Cloud Computing provider<br />
  9. 9. Whatiscloudcomputing?<br />Three aspects are new in Cloud Computing:<br />The illusion of infinite computing resources available as services on demand<br />The elimination of an up-front commitment by Cloud users<br />The ability to pay for use of computing resources on a short-term basis as needed and release them as needed<br />All three are important!<br />Past efforts at utility computing failed (in each case one or two of these three critical aspects were missing)<br />
  10. 10. Whatiscloudcomputing?<br />"The Datacenter as a Computer" (Google)<br />
  11. 11. Whatiscloudcomputing?<br />0.1$/h<br />0.1$/h<br />0.1$/h<br />0.2$/h<br />0.1$/h<br />0.1$/h<br />0.1$/h<br /><br />LoadBalancer<br />Example: 0.4$ per hour + Traffic<br />Example: 0.8$ per hour + Traffic<br />Thanksto Domenico Talia<br />
  12. 12. Cloud Computing Economics<br /><ul><li>Elasticity: Static provisioning for peak is wasteful, but necessary for SLA</li></ul>Capacity<br />Machines<br />$<br />Capacity<br />Demand<br />Demand<br />“Statically provisioned” data center<br />“Virtual” data center in the cloud<br />Time<br />Time<br />Unused resources<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Risk of Under Utilization<br /><ul><li>Underutilization results if “peak” predictions are too optimistic</li></ul>Unused resources<br />Capacity<br />Resources<br />Demand<br />Time<br />Static data center<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Risks of Under Provisioning<br />Resources<br />Resources<br />Resources<br />Capacity<br />Capacity<br />Capacity<br />Lost revenue<br />Demand<br />Demand<br />Demand<br />2<br />3<br />2<br />3<br />2<br />3<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />Time (days)<br />Time (days)<br />Time (days)<br />Lost users<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Whatiscloudcomputing?<br />The LayersofCloudComputing<br />ApplicationLayer<br />(Software As A Service)<br />Software PlatformLayer<br />(Platform As A Service)<br />InfrastructureLayer<br />(Infrastructure As A Service)<br />
  16. 16. References<br />Armbrust et al. Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud ComputingUniversity of California at Berkeley TechRep UCB/EECS-2009-28<br />Barroso et al. The Datacenter as a Computer Google<br />Bohmet al. Cloud Computing - Outsourcing 2.0 or a new Business Model for IT Provisioning<br />ItWorld7 things you need to know about cloud computing<br />Tom BittmanWhat You Need to Know About Cloud Computing Gartner IT Infrastructure, Operations & Management Summit<br />Cloudecosystem<br />
  17. 17. Classesof Utility Computing<br />Instruction Set VM (Amazon EC2)<br />Managed runtime VM (Microsoft Azure)<br />Framework VM (Google AppEngine, SalesForge)<br />Tradeoff: flexibility/portability vs. “built in” functionality<br />Lower-level,<br />Less managed<br />Higher-level,<br />More managed<br />EC2<br />Azure<br />AppEngine<br />17<br />
  18. 18. New Scenarios Enabled by “Risk Transfer” to Cloud<br />Not (just) Capital Expense vs. Operation Expense!<br />“Cost associativity”: 1,000 CPUs for 1 hour same price as 1 CPUs for 1,000 hours (@$0.08/hour)<br />Major enabler for SaaS startups<br />Animoto ( traffic doubled every 12 hours for 3 days when released as Facebook plug-in<br />Scaled from 50 to >3500 servers<br />...then scaled back down<br />Gets IT gatekeepers out of the way<br />not unlike the PC revolution<br />18<br /><br /><br />