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ChemHistory

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A ChemHistory Lesson by Paul Price, Trinity Valley School, Texas. This was presented at the ACT2 luncheon on 11/7/09 as part of CAST 2009 in Galveston Texas.

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ChemHistory

  1. 1. A Chemhistory Lesson Paul D. Price Trinity Valley School pricep@trinityvalleyschool.org
  2. 2. What We Do Is Hard! • Memorization vs. Understanding • Various Levels of Abstraction • Critical Thinking • Putting it all together
  3. 3. The Use of History • Puts Discoveries in Context – When? – Why Then? – How? • The Human Element – I can do this • Aligns with “Classic” Chem course – 2010 TEKS
  4. 4. The Organizing Principle • When? • Who? • Why Then? QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  5. 5. ---> ---> 1913 1813 1803 QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. --->
  6. 6. Dalton!? • The mass of atoms? – Needs QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  7. 7. Joseph Black (1728 - 1799) • Analytical Balance • Specific + Latent Heat • Fixed Air (1754) – CaO + CO2 --> CaCO3 – Ca(OH)2 + CO2 --> CaCO3 + H2O – MgCO3 + HCl --> H2O + CO2 + MgCl2 QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  8. 8. Pneumatic Chemistry • H2 (1766) by Cavendish • O2, HCl, NH3, NO, N2O, SO2 by Priestley (1774 - 86?) • Cl2 and O2 by Scheele (17??) • Lavoisier (O2 ?) – Conservation of Mass QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  9. 9. Proust and Dalton CO CO2 ?? ?? ??
  10. 10. Nuts and Bolts Cup 10 is BN. Can you figure out the rest?
  11. 11. Can you explain the data? • All Matter is made up of indivisible particles called atoms. • All atoms of the same element are exactly the same; atoms of different elements are different in some fundamental way • Compounds form when atoms of different elements combine in unique fixed ratio • In a chemical reaction, atoms are simply rearranged to create new compounds from old
  12. 12. Sample Homework
  13. 13. The Real Payoff • CO • One O weighs 1.33 times more! • Define C = 1, O = 1.33 • Define C = 100 , O = • Define C = 12, then O = 16 133
  14. 14. A Small Problem Compound Grams of Hydrogen Grams of Oxygen Possible Formula ? A 2.000 15.84 B 103.00 815.84 Rule of Greatest Simplicity OH ! Dalton Mass Table H = 1 O = 7.92
  15. 15. Gay-Lussac • 2 vol H + 1 vol O = 2 vol water • 3 vol H + 1 vol N = 2 vol ammonia • 1 vol N + 1 vol O = 2 vol nitric oxide QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  16. 16. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Diatomics!
  17. 17. Future Developments • Electrochemistry and diatomic bonding • Why only H2? (not Hn) • Organic Chemistry and Empirical vs. Molecular Formula • Excellent Atomic Weights (Cannizzaro) Periodic Table • 6.02 x 1023
  18. 18. References • Arnold B. Arons; Development of Concepts of Physics • Aaron J. Ihde; The Development of Modern Chemistry • Classic Chemistry; http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/ • Classic Papers from the History of Chemistry; http://www.chemteam.info/Chem-History/Classic-Pa
  19. 19. Thank you Dennis QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.

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