There are two methods to estimate the need for
hospital in a population:
Analytical method : Taking feedback and
analysis of data collected through survey e.g.
Planning (also called forethought/forecasting) is the
process of thinking about and organizing the activities
required to achieve a desired goal.
1.What are we expect to do?
2.Why it should be done ?
3.Where will it be done ?
4.When are we expect to do it?
5.Who are those going to do it ?
6.How will it be done ?
Excellent firms don’t believe in excellence – only in constant improvement and
constant change – Tom Peters
Community interest over individual interest
Preventive services over curative services
Services catering to the weaker sections of the
Rural over Urban
Morbidity & Mortality Status
Need & Demand
Details of existing Facilities
Sex & Age Ration
Must meet the needs of the patient that it is going to
It must be in a size and proportions which the
owners or promoters will be able to build and
Sound architectural plan
Effective community orientation
Quality of patient care
Protection from unwanted and unnecessary disturbances
in order to help speedy recovery
Separation of dissimilar activities
Control – the nurses station should be positioned
strategically to enable proper monitoring of visitors
entering and leaving the ward, infants and children should
be protected from theft and infection etc.
Circulation- all the departments of a hospital must be
(“separate all departments, yet keep them all together;
separate types of traffic, yet save steps for everybody; that
is all there is to hospital planning “– Emerson Goble)
Needs of the community
Ease of accessibility
Range of services offered
Availability of specialists
Availability of technology
Study of existing hospital(if any)
Requirements of staff and services
Bed: Population = A x S x 100
365 x PO
A= number of inpatient
S= average length of stay
PO= percentage occupancy
Planning of financesFunds required for constructing, furnishing
and equipping the hospital.
Operating funds- salaries, loans and
interest, other maintenance expenses.
Arranging financial assistance-patient fees,
bed charges, and other modes of revenue
Assessment of functional content
Submission of owners( Govt,private
organization etc.)for approval
Site appraisal, gross floor areas
Building space. Draft master plan
Estimation of cost and phasing
Appraisal of work by owners
Departmental and inter related activities
Departmental and hospital policies
Development control plan
Continuous informal discussion with
Schedules of accommodation, sketches,
Final cost estimate:
Detail design working drawings, tender
Contract and construction:
Schedules of accommodation
Equipment schedules component
Cost revenue and staffing estimates
Final cost approval
Bills of quantities
Assessments of tenders
Award of contract
Staff assembly and training
Equipment and supplies assembly
Testing of installation
Equipment planningBuilt in equipment
These include counters and cabinets in
laboratory, Pharmacy and other parts of the
hospital , elevators , incinerators , coolers , fixed
sterilizing equipment etc. These are usually
included in the construction contract and the
planning of these equipments is the architect's
This includes equipment that has a life of five
years or more and is not purchased through
construction contracts. These are large pieces of
furniture which have a relatively fixed location
and are capable of being moved e.g., diagnostic
and therapeutic equipment, laboratory
instruments, office furniture etc.
Non depreciable equipment
These are small items with a low unit cost
and life span of less than five years. These
are generally under the control of the store
room and are bought through other than
construction contracts. They include kitchen
Waste disposal plant
Fire and safety
Intensive critical care unit (ICCU)Should preferably be located on the ground floor with convenient
access from the operation theatre suit and emergency department and
easy accessibility for wards.
It consists patient area, staff area, support area.
Four basic requirementsDirect observation of the patient by nursing and medical staff
Surveillance of physiological monitoring
Provision and efficient use of routine and emergency
diagnostic procedures and interventions.
Recording and maintenance of patient information
Design and Layout of ICCU
Design should take into consideration the integration
and smooth functioning of three areas
1. The Patient Area
2. The Staff Area
3. The Support Area
Total area ranges from 350 to 500 sq. feet per bed which
1. Circulation Area
2. Nursing Station
3. Sanitary and Ancillary Accommodation
Ancillary & Support Services
It should be centrally air conditioned.
Overall lighting Requirement in ICCU is for subdued illumination for the patient bed with
capacity for increasing it in case of need.
Main light at the bed head should be fitted with dimmer switch.
A high intensity emergency light or spot focusing light should also be provided.
Emergency buzzer switch connected to central buzzer and location panel at central nursing
Multiple electrical gadgets required.
Stand by generator is also required.
Should have round the clock access to
Sq .ft / bed
Sq .ft / bed
Maintenance work shop
Total net area
Hospital administrators and staff have an
ongoing concern with controlling unwanted
noise in their facilities. Patient comfort,
employee satisfaction and environmental
concerns are always at the forefront in the
continuous design and maintenance of a wide
array of systems that keep a medical facility
Technology requirement must be met
Clinical needs must be considered
Safety is a major factor
Standards and Guidelines are essential
Importance of the role of Hospital Staff
in construction and design.
A hospital is a living organism, made up of
many different parts , having different
functions, but all these must be in due
proportion and relation to each other and to
the environment to produce the desired
result - Dr S Billings