Cleantech Day - REE


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Red Electrica de España´s role in the safe integration of new generation technologies

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Cleantech Day - REE

  1. 1. RED ELECTRICA DE ESPAÑA’srole in the safe integration of newgeneration technologies BILBAO, 4th October 2011
  2. 2. TSO Functions Spanish electric system. TSO functions: To ensure the security and continuity of power supply, keeping the instantaneous balance between generation and demand. To design, develop and maintain transmission network. Residential consumption Thermal (low voltage) generation REE Control centre Distribution substation Hydro generation Distribution network Transport network Industrial consumption Transport (high voltage) substation Wind power 2
  3. 3. Generation-Demand Balance Electricity is a non storable product Necessary instantaneous balance betwen generation and demand Exceso de generación Exceso de demanda RED ELÉCTRICA DE ESPAÑA 3
  4. 4. The European 20/20/20 Objectives for 2020The 20/20/20 European Strategy is the key driver of the European change in theEnergy model. Spain supports strongly these European objectives and iscommitted to reach them- 20 / 20 / 20 Strategy 20% reduction in GHG The development of renewable energy emissions sources and the reduction in consumption 20% of final energy coming from imply a reduction in GHG emissions. renewables 20% reduction in primary energy consumption 4
  5. 5. Evolution and forecast of installed power in the Spanish electric system 140 Evolution of the Spanish system S.R. Solar CSP S.R. Solar PV 120 S.R. Wind S.R. Mini-hydro 100 S.R. Biom-SUW-SIW S.R. Non Renew.GW 80 OCGT Pure Pump St. 60 Conventional Hydro CCGT 40 Fuel-gas Coal 20 Nuclear Peak demand 0 Off-peak demand H In order to meet the energy targets, the national objective plans to install almost 35.000 MW of wind power and 11.500 MW of solar power H integration of RES will require actions in order to maximize their integration in the system 5
  6. 6. Evolution and forecast of the energy production in the Spanish electric system 400,000 S.R. Solar CSP Evolution of the Spanish system 350,000 S.R. Solar PV S.R. Wind S.R. Mini-hydro 300,000 S.R. Biom-SUW-SIW 250,000 S.R. Non Renew.GWh OCGT 200,000 Pure Pump St. 150,000 Conventional Hydro Fuel-gas 100,000 CCGT Coal 50,000 Nuclear 0 Demand H 2010: 20.000 MW Wind and 4.000 MW Solar power. Support schemes will continue H Low interconnection capacity with the European continental system H EU 20-20-20 Objectives in 2020 RES should produce ~40% of Spain’s electricity H RES integration challenges will increase 6
  7. 7. Spanish inteconnection capacity Interconnection capacity compared to installed capacity 50 45 40 35 30 25 FR ES =1,5% 20 15PO ES = 1,5% 10 UE 10% 5 0 Inst. Capacity. SPAIN = 100 GW MA ES = 0,6% Limited interconnection capacity with France, security link with the European Interconnected system. In practice almost an “electrical 7 island”.
  8. 8. Wind generation tripping due to voltage dips.The voltage dip which would be generated by a three-phase dead fault in some 400kV substations affects most of the system.From January 1st 2008 all new wind facilities must comply with PO 12.3. Of the parksthat were on-line prior to this date 12 500 MW have been also certified.Still 1000 MW of installed wind turbines have no fault-ride-through capabilities forfaults shorter than 100ms and voltages lower than 85% p.u. 8 8
  9. 9. Studies on wind behavior in the Spanish system 9
  10. 10. Curtailment of Renewable Energies[MW] Remaining conventional technologies Available RES that participate in the market Conventional generators needed for securilty reasons The generation program must ensure: Feasibility of the power balance Operational reserves System stability after faults Voltage control Short-circuit power Oscillation damping [h] [MW]Since 2010, on days with high primary RES Curtailmentresource, it is not possible to integrateall the available power with priority ofdispatch, and it becomes necessary tocurtail RES production to balancegeneration and demandFrequency expected to increase [h] 10
  11. 11. Future challenges to integrate RES Integration and curtailments of RES in the Spanish systemI Forecasts for the 60,000 Central scenario - 2020 2020 horizon 50,000 40,000 30,000 MW 20,000 10,000 - -10,000 -20,000 Min. Conv. Generation Run-of-river (Medium) SR Cogeneration SR Biomass-SUW-SIW SR Mini-hyd. SR Solar PV SR Solar CSP Wind 1 2020 Eff. Dem. Total load -Eff.- Curtail. E1 Integration and curtailments of RES in the Spanish system Central scenario - 2020 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 MW 20,000 10,000 - -10,000 -20,000 Min. Conv. Generation Run-of-river (Medium) SR Cogeneration SR Biomass-SUW-SIW SR Mini-hyd. SR Solar PV SR Solar CSP Wind 1 2020 Eff. Dem. Total load -Eff.- Curtail. E1 11
  12. 12. Red Eléctrica and the integration of renewable energiesH In order to reach a safe, efficient and environmentally friendly energy supply, REE supports the development of renewable energies through: Investment in grid infrastructures to evacuate their production Minimizing their social and environmental impact The implementation of tools and mechanisms that allow their maximum integration in the system in safe conditions First control centre in the world for the safe integration of renewable energies (CECRE)H Red Eléctrica has been a key actor for Spain to become a world leader in renewable energies integration 12
  13. 13. CECRE: Control Centre for Renewable EnergiesI RES curtailments caused by grid constraints or fault-ride-through incapability have been practically solved. REEs CECRE (Control Centre for Renewable Energies) monitors system conditions and sends curtailment orders to RES plants when system security is at risk. These instruments allowed a record integration of 54% of Spanish demand with wind on the 9th of November 2010 at 3h35 a.m.! And 43% of the daily demand!I Until 2010, RES curtailments have been infrequent and non relevant in relative terms x ~22 WGCCn x ~800 … Remote control Iccp Link WGCC1 13
  14. 14. Challenges to maximize the integration of RES I Challenges: Massive disconnection after voltage dips Voltage control: overvoltages Low interconnection capacity and new grid to evacuate RES Back-up power with low yearly production Variability and predictability of RES: operational reserves Load following of conventional generators Interaction with the integration of combined cycle units Storage? Costs and impact on the electricity tariffs? Market rules? 14
  15. 15. Solutions to optimize the integration of RESI Solutions: Fault-ride-through capability (Integration studies Grid code P.O 12.3) Contribution to voltage control (Integration studies Grid code P.O 12.2) CECRE: Control Centre for RES (First Control Centre in the world to monitor and control RES) Increase of interconnection capacity (HVDC projects with France in the 2020 horizon) Enhancement of forecasting tools Demand Side Management: move load to off-peak hours Contribution of pump storage or other storage technologies (prioritize installation of Pump units) Flexibility of new/existing generation Market mechanisms: market coupling mechanisms regional integration (MIBEL IEM) Provide the gas system with higher capacity and flexibility in its reservoirs and supply chains Contribution of electric vehicles? Smart grids? Participation in national/international studies: EWIS (European Wind Integration Study), MERGE (EU, electric vehicle), TWENTIES (EU, RES integration), VERDE (electric vehicle), ESP-LEADER (Flows control with FACTS), MEDGRID initiative (Interconnections with North Africa), CONSOLIDA (Integration of CSP), Projects on chemical storage 15
  16. 16. ConclusionsH Red Eléctrica supports the development of RES in safe conditions for the electric systemH RES integration challenges will icrease, and partial curtailments will be necessary for security reasons need to minimize themH Red Eléctrica, as technical manager of the system, will keep working on maximizing the integration of RES in safe conditions, and will support all measures contributing to this goal H Technical studies (tools, requirements, DSM, electric vehicles etc.) H CECRE: monitoring and control H Grid expansion and interconnections H Market mechanismsH Supergrid? Smartgrids? North African initiatives? Demand Side Management? Electric Vehicle? Storage? Smart grids? 16
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  18. 18. Cambios en los flujos 18