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Late Middle Age in Europe

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2o ESO: Social Sciences

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Late Middle Age in Europe

  1. 1. • Taxes Army Books • Government Trade Church • War Crafts Feudalism • Peasants Burgueoisie Manor • King Fall of cities Estates • Nobility Invasions • Fall of population Money • Religion Education
  2. 2. GOTHIC EUROPE MENTAL MAP Economy society GOTHIC EUROPE Low middle age XII-XV s.XIV-XV crisiss.XII-XIII expansion Rise of Trade And crafts. Agriculture recovery Two periods Politics cities More population Culture Rise of monarchies More taxes Kingdoms expansion Parliaments Gothic style Universities And finally CRISIS
  3. 3. GOTHIC EUROPE MENTAL MAP Economy society GOTHIC EUROPE Low middle age XII-XV s.XIV-XV crisiss.XII-XIII expansion Rise of Trade And crafts. Agriculture recovery Two periods Politics cities More population Culture Rise of monarchies More taxes Kingdoms expansion Parliaments Gothic style Universities And finally CRISIS
  4. 4. CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES MORE FOOD
  5. 5. ECONOMY TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENTS + MORE LANDS MORE PRODUCTION MORE FOOD POPULATION INCREASES MIGRATION TO NEW LANDS /TOWNS RECOVERY OF TRADE ECONOMY EXPANSION 12th and 13th century THE AGRARIAN REVOLUTION 11th and 12th century
  6. 6. Improvements after 11th century From the old Roman plough… Very light, not useful for hard soils… To the new Norman plough… Stronger, easy to carry by beasts…
  7. 7. Improvements after 11th century
  8. 8. ECONOMY THE IRRUPTION OF TRADE Guilds Master crafttsmen (maestros) Journeymen (oficiales) Apprentices
  9. 9. The new trade routes
  10. 10. THE TRADE • Local comercial activity (local markets) • Long distance trade (trade fairs, – Silk route throughtout Asia • Geographical areas: – Mediterranean sea (Italy, Cataluña, Muslims, Bizantium) – Atlantic and Baltic Sea (Hansa, Low countries, England, North of Spain…)
  11. 11. What is sold in this picture?
  12. 12. LOCAL MARKETS “El aire de la ciudad nos hace libres”
  13. 13. CAUSES OF URBAN GROWTH CITIES AND TOWNS GROWTH
  14. 14. CAUSES OF URBAN GROWTH Rural migration Urban life Economic growth Priviledges CITIES AND TOWNS GROWTH
  15. 15. WHAT CAN YOU SEE HERE? MAKE A DESCRIPTION
  16. 16. Cultivated lands Walls Jewish quatier Alcázar de la ciudad (fortress) Main convents, churches and palaces A MEDIEVAL TOWN: CÁCERES (12th – 15th century) River
  17. 17. PARTS OF A WHOLE • What smaller things make up the whole? • For each of these parts, what would happen to the whole if it were missing? • What is the function of the part?
  18. 18. Cultivated lands and river. Every town needed access to water and food supply. These lands have been cultivated from 11th century onwards.
  19. 19. ROMAN PAST Most of the medieval European cities were old Roman towns, but not all. . Cáceres, Arco del Cristo
  20. 20. WALLS AND GATES. They were very important in most of the towns, In case of war or siege. In peacetime, the gates Were locked after sunset. Matacán dome pinnacles
  21. 21. SQUARE AND UPPER DISTRICT The main square in the town was the place where the most remarkable events Took place: the market and the Celebration of religious acts Coats of arms Roman arch (gothic)
  22. 22. SQUARE AND UPPER DISTRICT The main square in the town was the place where the most remarkable events Took place: the market and the Celebration of religious acts Rose window Canecillos Bell tower Pointed Arch (gothic) Coats of arms Roman arch (gothic) Gargoles buttress
  23. 23. URBAN CONVENTS The church started to live In towns, in the way of new Convents, hospitals, parish Churches… San Pablo, 15th century Convent Buildings.
  24. 24. URBAN CONVENTS The church started to live In towns, in the way of new Convents, hospitals, parish Churches… San Pablo, 15th century Pointed arch Rose window buttress Apse Espadaña Convent Buildings. alfiz
  25. 25. NOBILITY PALACES Had the aspect Of a fortress or Castle… Roman arch (gothic) Merlons Coat of arms Double Horse-shoe Arch window dovelas Alfiz
  26. 26. But in the end Of Middle Age they lost their Military appearance And became more Luxurious. Renaissance decoration
  27. 27. JEWISH QUATIER (judería de Cáceres) Medieval towns created Districts for minorities Like Muslims and Jews.
  28. 28. CRAFTSMEN and GUILDS with the same activity used to live and work in the same street, sometimes out of the walls.
  29. 29. CITY COUNCIL & TOWNHALL Every town had his own council and townhall, And won independence from feudal lords.
  30. 30. URBAN PRIVILEGES AND LAWS, COUNCILS. Medieval towns had their own laws, so citizens were free from feudal lords. Kings granted and protected these laws. FUEROS DE CÁCERES 13th century (1230)
  31. 31. These are some of the medieval laws from Cáceres (13th century)
  32. 32. The rise of monarchies: causes. MONARCHIES Have more power because… The rise of the bourgeoisie (burguesía). The economic growth. They expanded their territories. By wars By familiar alliances More taxes, More economic power
  33. 33. The rise of monarchies: consequences. MONARCHIES Now… Fight between empire and papacy Were not so dependent from feudal lords. Start to fight for privileges and power against the church. They start to fight against other Kingdoms. Hundred years war PARLIAMENTS - Third estate - Nobility - Church
  34. 34. EUROPE 14th CENTURY: THE RISE OF MONARCHIES THE MAIN CONFLICTS: HUNDRED YEARS WAR PAPACY Vs. EMPIRE AVIGNON SCHISM
  35. 35. THE ORIGIN: THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE VS. PAPACY THE INVESTIDURE CONTROVERSY (12th -14th century)
  36. 36. THE PROBLEM: WHO WAS THE RIGHT PERSON TO APPOINT BISHOPS? THE MILITAR POWER THE CHURCH POWER NOBLES THE CHURCH OTON III (10th century)
  37. 37. HENRY IV VS. GREGORY VII The German Emperor dressed like a beggar and barefoot. The Pope Forgiving him
  38. 38. THE AVIGNON SCHISM
  39. 39. The pope from Avignon The pope from Rome THE AVIGNON SCHISM (14th century) CONCILIE OF CONSTANZA 1415
  40. 40. HUNDRED YEARS WAR (1337-1453) English bowmen Heavy armoured knights French flag (Capets)English flag (Plantagenets)
  41. 41. THE ENGLISH BOWMEN St. George cross Long pikes Wooden pikes Long bow
  42. 42. Great battles: Agincourt (1415)
  43. 43. THE CRISIS OF THE LATE MIDDLE AGE • CAUSES Too much population + Agriculture stagnation - Less food - Weaker population DISEASES: THE PLAGUE BAD CROPS: CLIMATE CHANGE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS
  44. 44. The spread of the Plague (¡¡la peste!!) FLEA
  45. 45. The population ofEurope declined More than one third in 50 years, Only 50 millions of population at The begining of the 15th century.
  46. 46. The ebola plague (2014)
  47. 47. The plague (1347-1351)
  48. 48. Pinnacle Flying butresses Rose window Archivoltes Pointed arch Gargoles
  49. 49. GOTHIC STYLE triforium Ribbed vault Rose window Stained glass Capitals & columns

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