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Climates of the world

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Geography & history, 1o ESO

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Climates of the world

  1. 1. The atmosphere: components and layers. Atmosphere is a layer of gases that surround the Earth. It’s 1000 km. thick. Oxygen and nitrogen are the main components, but it has other gases as CO2 or Ozone, vital for life. Low temperatures High temperatures (ozone layer)
  2. 2. Atmospherical global risks Global warming by greenhouse effect: More amount of CO2 increases Earth temperatures Ozone hole: It lets the ultraviolet Radiation reach Earth
  3. 3. FEATURES AND FACTORS OF CLIMATE MAIN CLIMATES FEATURES ARE TEMPERATURE How warm the air is. WIND Movement of air masses, depending On atmospheric pressure. PRECIPITATION Amount of water falling in a place PRESSURE
  4. 4. High pressure (antyciclone) WEATHER CHART Cold front Warm front Low pressure (depression) Isobars
  5. 5. Where are the anticyclones and depressions?
  6. 6. Depression weather Thick cloud (nymbus) Rainfall
  7. 7. “anvil cloud” (Nube yunque) over Cáceres -sept. 2014- 1. Formation of the Anvil. 2. Dispersion of the Storm cell.
  8. 8. Tornadoes and Heavy storms Appear when Two masses of Air colide... Kansas, USA Cold and humid air Hot and dry air
  9. 9. Different pressure in the atmosphere creates masses of air: Depressions and anticyclones Counterclockwise: H Clockwise: L
  10. 10. Katrina hurricane 2005 Eye Heavy rainfall
  11. 11. Anticyclone weather (stable and dry, can be cold or Hot) Sunny weather High clou (cyrrus) fog
  12. 12. FACTORS OF CLIMATE CLIMATE IS INFLUENCED BY… LATITUDE Equator = hot; poles = cold ALTITUDE The higher, the colder. PROXIMITY TO SEAS AND OCEANS The closer to an ocean, the milder and more humidity. MOUNTAIN RANGES Shadow effect. OCEAN CURRENTS Warm currents: mild weather, cool currents: dry and cold. GREENHOUSE EFFECT CO2 keeps planet Earth warm enough to allow life to emerge.
  13. 13. Factors: mountain ranges
  14. 14. Factors: greenhouse effect Global warming by greenhouse effect: More amount of CO2 increases Earth temperatures
  15. 15. WORLD CLIMATES
  16. 16. Example of climograph (Cáceres) Red curve shows Temperature. Light blue boxes Shows rainfall. Every capital letter means a month of The year.
  17. 17. When happens the maximum precipitation? When is the minimum temperature? When is the highest temperature?
  18. 18. EQUATORIAL CLIMATE Temperatures are very high and without variation. Rainfall: 1500 mm all the year Round.
  19. 19. Tropical climate Between the Equator and the tropics. Temperatures are high all the year round. There is a dry season and a wet season. depending on rainfall, it will be a dry tropical climate or wet. Monzonic climate
  20. 20. Temperatures are high (average 25ºC), But may fall below 18º some months Precipitation is scarce, less than 300 mm HOT DESERT CLIMATE Arizona, USA
  21. 21. Anatolia plateau, Turkey STEPPES CLIMATE Precipitation is similar to hot deserts. Temperatures are less than 5ºC in winter. Steppes depend not only on latitude But in mountains ranges as well.
  22. 22. Mediterranean Climate Cape Town, South Africa Located on 60º latitude Summers are hot and dry, And winters are mild. Most precipitations fall In spring and autumn (300-800 mm)
  23. 23. Continental climate Inlands, Northern Hemisphere Sharp contrast between cold Winter and warm summer. Rainfall: 300-1000 mm
  24. 24. Oceanic climate Close to west coasts of oceans Summers and winters are mild. Preciptations are Abundant (+1000 mm)
  25. 25. Polar climate Temperatures are very low During the whole year. There is no summer and Rainfall is scarce. Sun rays are weak and angled In sharp contrast with Equator.
  26. 26. MOUNTAIN CLIMATE High amount of precipitations. Low temperatures. The higher altitude we are, the lower precipitations And higher precipitations.
  27. 27. Which climates can we identify in the following climographs?

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