Role of history

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Role of history

  1. 1. The Role of History in the Developing of European Identity and Citizenship Jelena Petrucijova – University of Ostrava, CZ Spain, 2007
  2. 2. Description of current cultural and political situation <ul><li>Present day Europe is a multicultural continent </li></ul><ul><li> Multiculturalism is a process of interaction, with the potential for individuals to belong to several cultures, while still retaining authentic membership in their own culture . </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of the EU is not for the Member States to be ‘dissolved’ into the EU, but rather for them to contribute their own particular qualities. (Article 6(3) EU) </li></ul>
  3. 3. The General Aims are: <ul><li>The challenge is to allow for and protect cultural variety as a starting point for future development and mutual enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore it is to build on the new social phenomenon of European identity as a result of common efforts based on acceptance of cultural differences and mutual respect </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Educational Aims are <ul><li>Multicultural integration based on universal equality, freedom and solidarity is Europe’s next challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Let us remember that it is the pupil/student’s personal identity and competence to live and to co-operate with different people by sharing common human values and common goals for non-violent co-existence what forms the core of any multicultural/intercultural education </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pupil’s identity i s a starting point of educational process <ul><li>The identity problem is above all the problem of being a human being. As a person realises himself, he formulates a question about self-identity </li></ul><ul><li>B eing a social phenomenon, our personal identity/identities is a lifelong constructing and self-constructing process </li></ul>
  6. 6. Identity <ul><li>is shaped in the process of changing one’s personal life and relationships with other people, the goal being to attain a well structured personal integrity through self-identification and self-assessment, by deciding what matters to one’s life and suppressing what is nonessential </li></ul>
  7. 7. Tajfel & Turner . An integrative theory of intergroup conflict
  8. 8. (1) Identification <ul><li>My awareness of my ‘Self’ is based on my awareness of myself as a part of a social/cultural group (ethnic, national, religious, lingual, gender, etc). To define “myself” means to be aware of “we are…” and to be accepted by “we” </li></ul><ul><li>Since a person may see her/himself as a member of more than one group, her/his identity may vary depending on the group s/he identifies with at any particular time </li></ul>
  9. 9. (2) Categorisation <ul><li>Categorisation is required to make sense of our social cultural environment. We create categories using racial, ethnic, religious, occupational and other existing social categories that help organise our conception of our environment </li></ul>
  10. 10. (2) Categorisation. Identity and Traditions <ul><li>Being a specific construct the real content and means of categorisation are based on the historical experience of every culture as ordained it by its traditions. Sharing some cultural tradition with other people a person can be a member of their culture. Cultural identity arises from the consciousness of a common, shared present and past we are usually proud of. Traditions of an individual’s native culture influence get in her/his way regarding adaptation to new cultural surroundings </li></ul>
  11. 11. (2) Categorisation Identity and cultural contacts <ul><li>Traditions of an individual’s native culture influence get in her/his way regarding adaptation to new cultural surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever the situation, an individual retains some cultural links that play a role of background the perception of her/his new surroundings and of her,/himself. The links even help her/him find her/his way through intercultural situations and better deal with such </li></ul>
  12. 12. (3) Social Comparison <ul><li>I n order to evaluate our group (and ourselves) we compare it with other groups. To define “we are”… we need “they are” to find common, but first of all specific/different identification signs, i.e. we need “otherness” to realize “ourselves” and “myself” </li></ul>
  13. 13. (3) Social comparison <ul><li>Generally, group/culture members tend to make comparisons in ways that reflect positively on themselves. They do this by using dimensions that are favourable to their group as a basis of comparison (McGarty et al. 1994). This type of positive self-evaluation improves the level of group self-awareness, its solidarity and integrity. At the same time it’s the basis for positive as much so as negative stereotypes (resulting in prejudices) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Identity: inclusive versus exclusive <ul><li>In preceding historical eras the collective cultural/social identities were mainly constructed based on the tendency toward an ethnocentric social exclusion of “otherness” </li></ul>
  15. 15. European Identity <ul><li>Identity with a focus on inclusiveness versus exclusiveness is seen as a conception of the multicultural world. In this way we see an effort towards cultivating inclusive identity as an integral part of the socialization role of education. Thus, through contact with another culture, cultural identity will be modified, consciously or unconsciously </li></ul>
  16. 16. EU and European Identity <ul><li>“ Social capital” of each individual should be accepted, because each of us has a history of living experience, which guides him/her to raising own questions and looking for her/his own place in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Social capital” of each individual should be accepted and enrich the European Identity in the process of its developing </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cited Literature <ul><li>Tajfel, H . , & J . D . Turner (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W.G. Austin and S. Worchel (eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole </li></ul><ul><li>McGarty, C., Haslam, S. A., Hutchinson, K. J. & Turner (1994). The effects of salient group memberships on persuasion. Small Group Research, 25, 267-293 </li></ul>

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