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  1. 1. CEO of Me: Managing work-life relationships in the Flexible Job Age Michigan State University University Distinguished Professor Ellen Ernst Kossek, Ph.D. School of Labor & Industrial Relations East Lansing, Michigan USA kossek@msu.edu Website: http://ellenkossek.lir.msu.edu/
  2. 2. Overview  Understand current work life challenges evidence -based research  Identify your own flexstyle and those you work and live with  Reflect on vision and tools for change Professor Ellen Ernst Kossek, Ph.D. 2 Michigan State University USA
  3. 3. FLEXSTYLE Finding an Approach that Works for You
  4. 4. Flexstyles are our approaches to managing:  BOUNDARIES  ATTENTION  RELATIONSHIPS Between our work and personal life.
  5. 5. Theme1 : For many of us, work-life could be working better!
  6. 6. Technology & Changing Work-Life Relationships Creating Work Engagement Challenges  Work-Life Paradox: Many individuals are having greater difficulties being engaged at work (e.g. work-life conflicts and job role overload) despite the growing use of  technology tools  presence of many employer flexibility and work-life policies.  & its growth is viewed as legitimate problem of everyday life in. societal and organizational cultures.  Professor jobs have job autonomy in job design on paper but often not in how many experience this job.  Source: Kossek and Lautsch, 2008 7
  7. 7. Professional employees face unique work challenges- Workload and 24-7 availability  Time/Energy Imbalance: Putting Work Above Everything Else  Factors contributing to the pressures to overwork:  New Workplace technology makes it easier to bring work home  Global interactions require 24 hour communications  Competitive Pressures to continually show you add value and are on career track Professor Ellen Ernst Kossek, Ph.D. 8 Michigan State University USA
  8. 8. Academic Freedom/ ability to work 24- 7 requires high self-regulation. Take Away Tip: We must take control of work –life relationships to self- manage engagement Must avoid -constant multi-tasking & -overwork from being accessible to E- work Must understand not everyone works the same way 9
  9. 9. Linking Positive Work- Life Engagement to Productivity  Work –Life engagement increases productivity through  positive work and home environments  that challenge us in a positive way  where we experience “flow”  Lack of Work Engagement decreases productivity and performance due to  increased stress  poorer health  role overload  Turnover, health costs, mistakes, accidents, mood disorder  U. S, NIH National Work Family Health Network  Ineffective work engagement strategy increases switching costs!
  10. 10. Links between Health and WFC supported in Many Studies  Portland State University & Michigan State University (PSU/MSU) study trained supervisors to support grocery workers’ family and personal lives through family supportive behaviors. TYPES OF SUPERVISORY SUPPORT FOR FAMILY  Emotional Support for Family  Practical Support with Scheduling Conflicts  Work-Family Role Modeling  Creative Work-Family Management
  11. 11. Results of PSU/MSU study published in Harvard Business Review 2008 Workers supervised by family-supportive managers are more likely to experience:  Lower levels of work and family conflict  Higher job satisfaction  Lower intentions to turnover  Higher reports of mental and physical health Kossek, E. E., & Hammer, L. B. (November, 2008). Work/Life Training for Supervisors Gets Big Results. Harvard Business Review.
  12. 12. National Work Family Health Network Link Between Work Family Conflicts & Health  Harvard study of long-term care nurses and nurse assistants in Massachusetts.  “Openness” of managers to help/adjust for employees’ work-family needs (e.g., schedules) and the “Creativity” of managers in applying current policies predicted employee cardiovascular risk and sleep duration in extended care settings.  http://www.kpchr.org/WORKFAMILYHE ALTHNETWORK/public/default.aspx
  13. 13. National Work Family Health Network Link Between Work Family Health Conflicts & Health Poor work-family practices are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and short sleep duration among low-wage employees in long term care.
  14. 14. Theme 2: Flexstyles
  15. 15. Flexstyles are our approaches to managing:  BOUNDARIES  ATTENTION  RELATIONSHIPS Between our work and personal life.
  16. 16. Boundaries 18
  17. 17. ATTENTION ATTENTION  divided  deficit  scattered  Switching costs (process losses from switching)  Overload  multi-tasking
  18. 18. Relationships RELATIONSHIPS
  19. 19. Theme 3: Self- Assessment and Reflection
  20. 20. Defining FlexStyle  The psychological and physical ways we manage  Boundaries  Attention  Relationships  between our jobs and personal lives 22
  21. 21. Patterns vary because everyone has one of 3 main styles to manage work and personal life:  Integrators  Separators  Volleyors
  22. 22. Separators Separators keep work and personal tasks and commitments divided. P. 24
  23. 23. Integrators Constantly Blend Professor Ellen Ernst Kossek, Ph.D. 25 Michigan State University USA
  24. 24. Volleyers switch back and forth between integrating and separating the work life and personal life. Integrators blend work and personal tasks P. 26 and commitments.
  25. 25. Know your FlexStyle  What matters most for well-being: a) alignment between your ideal personal values for how you would prefer to allocate your life pie b) controlof how you manage work- life relationships 27
  26. 26. Self-Assessment: Identifying Your Flexstyle Pages 32-33 from CEO of Me Statement Strongly Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Agree Agree Disagree nor Disagree 1. I rarely attend to 1 2 3 4 5 personal or family issues during the workday. 2. When I’m at home I 1 2 3 4 5 rarely think about work, so I can fully get away from my job. 3. In general, I don’t 1 2 3 4 5 take work-related phone calls or e-mails during evenings, weekends, holidays, or vacations.
  27. 27. Strongly Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Agree Agree nor Disagree Disagree 4. In general, I don’t take work- 1 2 3 4 5 related phone calls or e-mails during evenings, weekends, holidays, or vacations. 5. With most of my family and 1 2 3 4 5 friends, I tend not to talk about work issues as I like to keep work separate. 6. I do not think about my family, 1 2 3 4 5 friends, and personal interests when at work, so I can focus. 7. I usually handle e-mails related 1 2 3 4 5 to my family or personal life separately from e-mails related to my work. Calculating your score: Add up the total number of circles you placed in each column, and write the totals in the boxes to the right.
  28. 28. TABLE 2-1: Effective and Ineffective FLEXSTYLES (from Kossek & Lautsch: CEO of Me) WELL-BEING INTEGRATORS VOLLEYERS SEPARATORS HAPPINESS LEVEL High Fusion Lover Quality time Work or (Feeling in Family First Control, work and personal life have positive relationships) Low Reactors Job Warriors Captives (overwhelmed, overworked, out of control, work and personal life often feel at odds ) Professor Ellen Ernst Kossek, Ph.D. 30 Michigan State University USA
  29. 29. Don’t assume your style is the best style. There are different ways to work effectively.
  30. 30. Separator Tradeoff: Stunted Life Long days (Job or Family Creep) Others’ misunderstanding about availability Perceptions about professionalism Higher switching costs & role restructuring Lack of buffers, Transition times
  31. 31. Integrator Tradeoff: Manage Switching Costs
  32. 32. Volleyer Tradeoff: Role Confusion
  33. 33. Tenets of Flexstyle Trade-offs  Choose flexstyle aligning with values  Some flexstyles are not sustainable  All have pros and cons  If your life is overloaded, minor flexstyle changes won’t work because you lack control or resources.  If you are undergoing major personal or professional change, it is likely your flexstyle is out of alignment.
  34. 34. Tips for Navigating your Flexstyle
  35. 35. Imagine your Ideal
  36. 36. Increase Support
  37. 37. Manage Transition Times & Switching Costs
  38. 38. Monitor Yourself and Experiment
  39. 39. What matters most ? What is the change you could make that would enrich your life?
  40. 40. Develop work-life plan
  41. 41. Compare the two pies How are they similar to and different from each other?
  42. 42. Negotiation 101
  43. 43. Do you need to change? Remember the Gut Test  Individual Level:  Are the cons of your style outweighing the pros?  What about your ability to control work life relationships and values (life pie alignment)?  Stakeholder Level: Perception is reality: Feedback from important others in life (family and work colleagues etc.)
  44. 44. CEO of Me: Creating a Life that Works in the Flexible Job Age Available from Wharton School 1. Individuals need help Publishing, reflecting on values Amazon.com, Barnes and developing and Nobles strategies to gain control. 2. Sometimes individuals need to separate particularly from work or family, & technology- avoid switching costs! 3. Take time to Reflect: has your work-life situation created conflicts- if so, time for change?