Employment Interview In Greece


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Nikolaou, I. & Roumpis, D. (2006). Employment interview context in Greece: the interviewer perspective. 26th International Congress of Applied Psychology, Athens, Greece.

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Employment Interview In Greece

  1. 1. Employment Interview context in Greece: the interviewer perspective Ioannis Nikolaou Dimitris Roumpis Department of Management Science & Technology Athens University of Economics & Business. Greece
  2. 2. The Employment Interview: Previous findings <ul><li>The most popular personnel selection method (Ryan et al., 1999; Judge et al., 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive use of individual (Armstrong 2003), semi-structured interviews (Huffcutt & Arthur, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Structured interviews have high predictive validity (Robertson & Smith, 2001; Salgado, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of behavioral & situational interviews (Campion et al., 1997), which have high validity & reliability (Day & Carroll, 2003; McDaniel et al., 1994; Campion et al., 1994; Pulakos & Schmitt, 1995 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral interviews favor applicants with a lot of work experience and they are more effective than situational interviews when it comes to jobs with high significance (Pulakos & Schmitt, 1995 ) </li></ul><ul><li>The use of behavioral questions has increased over the last years (Motowildo, 1999) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>In USA (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996 ), Spain & Portugal (Moscoso & Salgado, 2004 ) employment interview has the highest face validity among all selection methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar results are recently obtained in Greece (Nikolaou, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Applicants find structured interviews fair, while unstructured unfair. They also find behavioral & situational interviews equally fair (Day & Carroll, 2003; Terpstra et al., 1999 ). </li></ul>The Employment Interview – Applicants’ reactions: Previous findings
  4. 4. Employment Interview context in Greece: Our aim: <ul><li>To explore the context of employment interview in Greece, from the perspective of the interviewer </li></ul>
  5. 5. Current study <ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Face to face interviews (pilot) with 5 experienced interviewers </li></ul><ul><li>Survey completed by 131 interviewers (mostly HR professionals) </li></ul><ul><li>Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Interview guide </li></ul><ul><li>Survey (closed-type questions, 5-point Likert scale) </li></ul><ul><li>Major sections: procedure, structure, content, effectiveness, interviewers’ training and fairness </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sample <ul><li>131 interviewers (78 females - 53 males) </li></ul><ul><li>Years of experience: 1-5 years 38.9% </li></ul><ul><li>6-10 years 31.3% </li></ul><ul><li>11-15 years 19.1% </li></ul><ul><li>over 15 years 10.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Size of companies: </li></ul><ul><li>29% in small companies (0-100 employees) </li></ul><ul><li>38.9% in medium companies (100-500 employees) </li></ul><ul><li>32.1% in large companies (> 500 employees) </li></ul><ul><li>Sector: 28.2% industry </li></ul><ul><li> 16.8% commerce </li></ul><ul><li> 55% services </li></ul>
  7. 7. Results - Procedure of the interview <ul><li>82.4% always use the employment interview as a selection method across all jobs , usually conducted by 2 interviewers </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 interviews are usually carried out until final decision </li></ul><ul><li>85.5% conduct only individual interviews, while </li></ul><ul><li>14.5% conduct both individual & group interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewers usually keep notes during the interview (82.4%) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Results - Factors that affect the duration of the interview <ul><li>The duration of most interviews is about 45 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Significance/complexity of the job (84%) </li></ul><ul><li>The stage of the selection procedure (55.7%) </li></ul><ul><li>Quick understanding of applicant fit (55.7%) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of the applicant’s resume (33.6%) </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifications at the applicant’s resume (31.3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Prior knowledge of the applicant (29.8%) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Results - Structure of the interview <ul><li>Use of semi-structured (45.8%) or quite structured interviews (44.3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews are usually based on previously-held job analyses (85%) </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the questions are prepared before the interview (77.1%), and they are almost always the same across applicants (95.4%) </li></ul><ul><li>Same interviewers are usually conducting interviews for the same position (82%) </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of the interview is associated with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewers’ training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note-taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback to applicants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previously-held job analyses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-interview preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-defined criteria </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Results - Content of the interview <ul><li>Interviewers’ questions concentrate on: </li></ul><ul><li>The competencies the applicant must posses (62.6% always, 27.5% usually) </li></ul><ul><li>The content of the job (57.3% always, 35.9% usually) </li></ul><ul><li>The resume of the applicant (46.6% always, 29.8% usually) </li></ul><ul><li>The personality of the applicant (39.7% always, 32.1% usually) </li></ul>Communication skills (93.1%) Collaboration (79.4%) Adaptability (79.4%) Organization skills (76.3%) Analytical skills (56.5%) Creativity (47.3%) Leadership skills (43.5%)
  11. 11. Results - Types of questions <ul><li>Interviewers use: </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral questions (92.4%) </li></ul><ul><li>Biographical questions (87.8%) </li></ul><ul><li>Situational questions (65.6%) </li></ul><ul><li>For applicants with little or no working experience: </li></ul><ul><li>Biographical and situational questions </li></ul><ul><li>For applicants with extensive working experience: </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral questions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Results – Predictive validity of the interview <ul><li>The majority (59.5%) believes that it has medium predictive validity </li></ul><ul><li>The predictive validity of the interview can be improved when combined with: </li></ul><ul><li>Ability tests (64.1%) </li></ul><ul><li>Personality tests (57.3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies (49.6%) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal references (42.7%) </li></ul><ul><li>Resumes (35.9%) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Results – Training of the interviewers <ul><li>On-the-job training (77.1%) </li></ul><ul><li>Employment Interview seminars (62.6%) </li></ul><ul><li>HRM or I/O degree (6.9%) </li></ul><ul><li>No training (6.9%) </li></ul><ul><li>Those with on-the-job training: </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct more structured interviews (p<.05) </li></ul><ul><li>Their questions are related more to the job’s content (p<.01), the competencies needed (p<.01) and the applicant’s resume (p<.01) </li></ul><ul><li>Their appraisal is based more on objective criteria (p<.05) </li></ul><ul><li>More use of anchored rating scales (p<.05) </li></ul><ul><li>Those who have taken seminars: </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct more structured interviews (p<.05) </li></ul><ul><li>Their questions are related more to the competencies needed (p<.01) </li></ul><ul><li>They are affected less by first impressions (p<.05) and halo effect (p<.05) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Results – Fairness issues <ul><li>Gender & nationality: Very rare </li></ul><ul><li>Halo/horn effect: Rare </li></ul><ul><li>Age, appearance, non verbal communication: Sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>First impressions: Usually </li></ul><ul><li>Applicants’ professional attitude: Almost always </li></ul><ul><li>Male interviewers make more discriminations than females based of: </li></ul><ul><li>Applicants’ Gender (p<.05) </li></ul><ul><li>Applicants’ Ethnicity (p<.01) </li></ul><ul><li>Halo/Horn effect (p<.05) </li></ul><ul><li>First impressions (p<.05) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Discussion-Conclusion-Limitations <ul><li>Extensive use of behavioral, semi-structured interviews. Moderately based on previously carried out job analyses – medium predictive validity </li></ul><ul><li>The most common characteristics that are being assessed are: communication skills, teamwork, adaptability & organization skills </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewers keep notes, thus improving the structure of the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Personal judgments affect the interview’s appraisal, especially from male interviewers </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The size of the sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability of the answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only the interviewer perspective </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. For more information…. <ul><li>Please contact: </li></ul>Ioannis Nikolaou (inikol@aueb.gr) Department of Management Science & Technology Athens University of Economics & Business. Greece