Apospori

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Apospori

  1. 1. Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture 5 rd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN EUROPE : TRENDS AND CHALLENGES Thursday , May 27 , 2010
  2. 2. To examine the role of ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS on Workplace Bullying (WPB) Our Goal <ul><ul><li>Need for inclusion of organizational predictors in an explanatory model of WPB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite the abundance of literature on the association of leadership and employees’ behavior, the connection between leadership or management style and workplace bullying has received little attention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, organizational culture is an important potential facilitator or impediment of WPB. However, few studies have included organizational culture in their explanatory models </li></ul></ul>The relevant literature
  3. 3. To examine the role of ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS on Workplace Bullying (WPB) Our Goal <ul><ul><li>Furthermore, the methods of analysis used so far have treated i ndividual and organizational predictors at the same level , assuming that individual predictors do not vary across various leaders/managers and organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research in other fields – i.e. education - has shown that students’ individual characteristics vary over schools as a function of school characteristics </li></ul></ul>The relevant literature
  4. 4. Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture <ul><ul><li>Expands on the existing literature by adopting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a multi-level approach where three levels of data are used , individual, managerial and company level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For this purpose, HLM has been employed for the analysis of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multi-level data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The general idea behind this method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals under the same manager and in the same organization are more similar than individuals under other managers and from different organizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, individuals are nested in groups, in terms of management style and organizational culture </li></ul></ul></ul>The present study
  5. 5. Methodology <ul><li>Our sample </li></ul><ul><li>convenient sampling </li></ul><ul><li>303 employees </li></ul><ul><li>from 32 organizations and under 89 managers </li></ul><ul><li>in the Greater Athens Area, Greece </li></ul>Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  6. 6. Methodology <ul><li>The questionnaire : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Work-Place Bullying </li></ul><ul><li>R espondents were asked to </li></ul><ul><li>indicate how often they had </li></ul><ul><li>experienced 32 negative and </li></ul><ul><li>potentially harassing acts </li></ul><ul><li>within the past 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Factor and reliability analysis of the 32 Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ) indicators yielded five different factors </li></ul><ul><li>EXCLUSION </li></ul><ul><li>(5 indicators, alpha=.801) </li></ul><ul><li>WORKRELATED BULLYING Over-check /Over0load </li></ul><ul><li>(7 indicators, alpha=.779 ) </li></ul><ul><li>VERBAL BULLYING </li></ul><ul><li>(6 indicators, alpha=.803 ) </li></ul><ul><li>VIOLENT/RACIAL BULLYING </li></ul><ul><li>(3 indicators, alpha=.778 ) </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATION BULLYING </li></ul><ul><li>(2 indicators, alpha=.647) </li></ul>Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  7. 7. Methodology III <ul><li>The questionnaire : </li></ul><ul><li>2. Individual’s psychological characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>External locus of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am very sensitive of what people think of me </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My actions are governed by the way people expect me to behave…. </li></ul></ul>1. External Locus of control (4 indicators, alpha=.701) Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  8. 8. Methodology III <ul><li>The questionnaire : </li></ul><ul><li>3. Leadership/management style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-ordinator, organizer, administrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur, innovator, risk taker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentor, sage, father/mother figure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producer, technician, hard-driver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good leadership </li></ul><ul><li>(3 indicators, alpha=.773) </li></ul>Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  9. 9. Methodology III <ul><li>The questionnaire : </li></ul><ul><li>4. Dimensions of organizational culture </li></ul><ul><li>assertiveness </li></ul><ul><li>gendered/male culture </li></ul><ul><li>humane orientation </li></ul><ul><li>communication </li></ul><ul><li>1. Assertiveness </li></ul><ul><li>(4 indicators, alpha=.787) </li></ul><ul><li>Gendered/male culture </li></ul><ul><li>(3 indicators, alpha=.748 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Humane orientation </li></ul><ul><li>(4 indicators, alpha=.810 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>(4 indicators, alpha=.728 ) </li></ul>Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  10. 10. Descriptive statistics <ul><li>The respondents reported </li></ul><ul><li>34% EXCLUSION </li></ul><ul><li>40% WORK RELATED BULLYING, over check/over load </li></ul><ul><li>7% verbal bullying </li></ul><ul><li>1% abusive calls or emails </li></ul><ul><li>1% violent/racial bullying </li></ul><ul><li>at least once a month in the past 12 months </li></ul>Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  11. 11. Results <ul><li>EXCLUSION </li></ul><ul><li>INDIVIDUAL LEVEL (1) </li></ul><ul><li>External locus of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees with high external locus of control are more likely to be excluded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. MANAGEMENT LEVEL (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is not a predictor of exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>3. COMPANY LEVEL (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees in companies with worse communication are more likely to be excluded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humane orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees in companies with more humane orientation are less likely to be excluded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. INTERACTION between external locus and communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees with higher external locus of control in companies with worse communication are more likely to be excluded </li></ul></ul>Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  12. 12. Results <ul><li>WORK RELATED BULLYING/over-check over-load </li></ul><ul><li>INDIVIDUAL LEVEL (1) </li></ul><ul><li>External locus of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals with more external locus of control are more likely to be over-checked/overloaded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. MANAGEMENT LEVEL (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Good leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees under better leadership are less likely to be over-checked/overloaded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. COMPANY LEVEL (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Gendered culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees in companies with more male-gendered culture are more likely to be over-checked/overloaded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. INTERACTION between external locus and gendered culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees with higher external locus of control in companies with more gendered culture are more likely to be excluded </li></ul></ul>Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  13. 13. At the policy level <ul><li>The findings suggest that </li></ul><ul><li>if organizations want to confront WPB, they will be more successful </li></ul><ul><li>if they </li></ul><ul><li>1. Develop good leaders/managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>coordinators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mentors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>innovators and </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Change their organizational cultures to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More communicative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less gendered </li></ul></ul>Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  14. 14. Thank you & Have a Relaxing Summer Eleni Apospori, Assistant Professor Athens University of Economics and Business Department of Marketing and Communication 76 Patission St., 104 34 Athens, Greece Tel. +30-2108203445 Email: [email_address]

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