basics of robotics


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  • This presentation offers students lots of opportunities to experiment with different types of robots and to learn how robots are used. The presenter will usually start by talking a bit about their own experiences in college, engineering or industry with robots. Then discuss some or all of the following: History of robots including the origin of the term "robot" What is a robot and how is it different from other machines? How robots are used in industry and science today How robots work and receive commands What robots may be designed to do in the future
  • Mercifully, he died before the Gestapo got to him for his anti-Nazi sympathies in 1938. The use of the word Robot was introduced into his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) which opened in Prague in January 1921. The play was an enormous success and productions soon opened throughout Europe and the US. R.U.R's theme, in part, was the dehumanization of man in a technological civilization. You may find it surprising that the robots were not mechanical in nature but were created through chemical means. In fact, in an essay written in 1935, Capek strongly fought that this idea was at all possible and, writing in the third person, said: "It is with horror, frankly, that he rejects all responsibility for the idea that metal contraptions could ever replace human beings, and that by means of wires they could awaken something like life, love, or rebellion. He would deem this dark prospect to be either an overestimation of machines, or a grave offence against life." [The Author of Robots Defends Himself - Karl Capek, Lidove noviny, June 9, 1935, translation: Bean Comrada] There is some evidence that the word robot was actually coined by Karl's brother Josef, a writer in his own right. In a short letter, Capek writes that he asked Josef what he should call the artifical workers in his new play. Karel suggests Labori, which he thinks too 'bookish' and his brother mutters "then call them Robots" and turns back to his work, and so from a curt response we have the word robot. R.U.R is found in most libraries. The most common English translation is that of P. Selver from the 1920's which is not completely faithful to the original. A more recent and accurate translation is in a collection of Capek's writings called Towards the Radical Center published by Catbird Press in North Haven, CT. tel: 203.230.2391
  • The word 'robotics' was first used in Runaround , a short story published in 1942. I, Robot , a collection of several of these stories, was published in 1950. Asimov also proposed his three "Laws of Robotics", and he later added a 'zeroth law'. Law Zero: A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm. Law One: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would violate a higher order law. Law Two: A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law. Law Three: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law. An interesting article on this subject: Clarke, Roger, "Asimov's Laws for Robotics: Implications for Information Technology", Part 1 and Part 2, Computer, December 1993, pp. 53-61 and Computer, January 1994, pp.57-65. The article is an interesting discussion of his Laws and how they came to be in his books, and the implications for technology today and in the future.
  • basics of robotics

    1. 1. Intro to ROBOTICSIntro to ROBOTICS (There is more to robots than you know!)
    2. 2. Computer vs. HumanComputer vs. Human  Machine  Performs precisely defined tasks with speed and accuracy  Not gifted with common sense  Human  Capable of understanding and reasoning  More likely to understand the results and determine what to do next  Not gifted with complex computations
    3. 3. Humanlike Computer (Robots)Humanlike Computer (Robots)  The ideal hybrid  Continues without human intervention when faced with unforeseen situations  Possesses or simulate the ability to reason  To qualify as a robot, a machine has to be able to do two things: 1. get information from its surroundings 2. do something physical–such as move or manipulate objects.
    4. 4. Robotics HistoryRobotics History The idea of a robot is not new. For thousands of years man has been imagining intelligent mechanized devices that perform human-like tasks. He has built automatic toys and mechanisms and imagined robots in drawings, books, plays and science fiction movies.
    5. 5. Robotics HistoryRobotics History In fact, the term "robot" was first used in 1920 in a play called "R.U.R." Or "Rossum's universal robots" by the Czech writer Karel Capek. The plot was simple: man makes robot then robot kills man! Many movies that followed continued to show robots as harmful, menacing machines. Where did the word 'robot' come from? What is the definition of a 'robot'? "A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks" Robot Institute of America, 1979
    6. 6. Robotics HistoryRobotics History The term 'robotics' refers to the study and use of robots. The term was coined and first used by the Russian-born American scientist and writer Isaac Asimov (born Jan. 2, 1920, died Apr. 6, 1992). Asimov wrote prodigiously on a wide variety of subjects. He was best known for his many works of science fiction. Robotics Terminology The most famous include I Robot (1950), The Foundation Trilogy (1951-52), Foundation's Edge (1982), and The Gods Themselves (1972), which won both the Hugo and Nebula awards. He also wrote the three “Laws of Robotics for which he is also famous.
    7. 7. Law Of RoboticsLaw Of Robotics Asimov proposed the “Laws of Robotics”  Law 1: A robot may not injure a human being or through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm  Law 2: A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law  Law 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law  Zeroth Law: "A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm"
    8. 8. Types of RobotsTypes of Robots 1.1. Industrial RobotsIndustrial Robots  materials handling  pick and place  factory automation  Welding  improving productivity 1.1. MilitaryMilitary  Packbot  Bomb disposal  Search and rescue 1.1. MedicalMedical  remote surgery  minimally invasive surgery 1.1. EducationEducation  LEGO Mindstorms  VEX
    9. 9. Types of Robots (contTypes of Robots (cont’d)’d) 5.5. ExploratoryExploratory  Mars rover  Deep sea ROV’S  Unassisted aerial vehicles 5.5. DomesticDomestic  Roomba  Automatic lawn mowers 5.5. EntertainmentEntertainment  ASIMO  QRIO  AiBo  Animatronics  RoboSapien 5.5. MoviesMovies  R2D2  C3PO  Terminator  Transformers
    10. 10. Classification of RobotsClassification of Robots  Robots are programmable computers designed to perform a variety of tasks by moving parts, tools or specialized devices.  Non- adaptive robotsNon- adaptive robots - no way of sensing the environment, so do the job regardless of any environmental factors  Adaptive RobotsAdaptive Robots - get feedback from a sensor to alter the operation of the device.  Robots can also be classified according to whether they are stationary or mobile.  MobileMobile robots are free to move around,  StationaryStationary robots remain in 1 place but have arms that move.
    11. 11. The Purpose of RobotsThe Purpose of Robots Robots are also used for the following tasks: • Dirty Tasks • Repetitive tasks • Dangerous tasks • Impossible tasks • Assist the handicapped
    12. 12. Robot ComponentsRobot Components  Processor: The brain of the robot. It calculates the motions and the velocity of the robot’s joints, etc.  Sensors: To collect information about the internal state of the robot or To communicate with the outside environment  Software: Operating system, robotic software and the collection of routines.  Rover or Manipulator : Main body of robot (Links, Joints, other structural element of the robot)  Actuators: Muscles of the manipulators (servomotor, stepper motor, pneumatic and hydraulic cylinder)  End Effecter: The part that is connected to the last joint hand) of a manipulator  Controller: Similar to cerebellum. It controls and coordinates the motion of the actuators.
    13. 13. The robot control loopThe robot control loop  Sense Think  Act
    14. 14. Output information Move, Speech Text, Visuals Wheels Legs Arms Tracks Speech, Vision Acceleration, Temperature Position ,Distance Touch, Force Magnetic field ,Light Sound ,Position Task planning Plan Classification Learn Process data Path planning Motion planning Sense Think Act
    15. 15. Advantages VS. Disadvantages of RobotsAdvantages VS. Disadvantages of Robots Identify which statement is an advantage and which is a disadvantageIdentify which statement is an advantage and which is a disadvantage  Robots increase productivity, safety, efficiency, quality, and consistency of products.  Robots can work in hazardous environments.  Robots need no environmental comfort.  Robots work continuously without experiencing fatigue of problem.  Robots have repeatable precision at all times.  Robots can be much more accurate than human.  Robots replace human workers creating economic problems.  Robots can process multiple stimuli or tasks simultaneously.  Robots lack capability to respond in emergencies.  Robots, although superior in certain senses, have limited capabilities in Degree of freedom, Dexterity, Sensors, Vision system, real time response.  Robots are costly, due to Initial cost of equipment, Installation costs, Need for Peripherals, Need for training, Need for programming
    16. 16. Millions of Instructions per SecondMillions of Instructions per Second (MIPS)(MIPS)  Research scientist Hans Moravec sees a 4- stage evolution towards universal robots, robots with human-level intelligence flexible enough to do a broad range of tasks. Key to this evolution is a steady increase in computer power, defined in terms of millions of instructions per second, or MIPS.
    17. 17. Year: 2010Year: 2010 Processing power: 3,000 MIPSProcessing power: 3,000 MIPS Intelligence equivalent: LizardIntelligence equivalent: Lizard Robots will have basic navigation skills and could be used for cleaning or deliveryRobots will have basic navigation skills and could be used for cleaning or delivery and take on expanded roles in factories.and take on expanded roles in factories.
    18. 18. Year: 2020Year: 2020 Processing power: 100,000 MIPSProcessing power: 100,000 MIPS Intelligence equivalent: MouseIntelligence equivalent: Mouse Robots will be able to learn on the job, adapting their own programs to performRobots will be able to learn on the job, adapting their own programs to perform more successfully. Robots will do the same jobs as before, but more reliably andmore successfully. Robots will do the same jobs as before, but more reliably and flexibly.flexibly.
    19. 19. QuestionQuestion If you could have a robot that would do any task you like, a companion to do all the work that you prefer not to, would you? And if so, how do you think this might affect you as a person?
    20. 20. QuestionQuestion Are there any kind of robots that shouldn't be created? Or that you wouldn't want to see created? Why?
    21. 21. AssignmentAssignment Think of a job that you would like for a robot to do for you. Be ready to discuss whether this is a robot that could and should be built. Name your robot Draw a picture of your robot (color optional) Explain what your robot will do Could your robot be built Should your robot be built
    22. 22. Robotics TerminologyRobotics Terminology Robot - Mechanical device that performs human tasks, either automatically or by remote control. (From the Czech word robota.) Robotics - Study and application of robot technology. Telerobotics - Robot that is operated remotely.
    23. 23. Robotics TerminologyRobotics Terminology Au-ton-o-mousAu-ton-o-mous 1. Not controlled by others or by outside forces; independent: 2. Independent in mind or judgment; self-directed. Android An"droid ([a^]n"droid)Android An"droid ([a^]n"droid)  A machine or automaton in the form of a human being  Possessing human features. n.  An automaton that is created from biological materials and resembles a human being. Also called humanoid.