So which one should you bother writing if you want to be cited? All researchers (including you) are selfish, time constrained creatures who will only read something if it’s worth their while. If you always know the WIFM ('what's in it for me?') for your audience you will be a successful writer.
According to Rugg and Petre they should be 'solid' and 'interesting'In the sciences it's the type of paper that is designed to help others to replicate the studyYou need good data: Sample size, quality, representativenessFindings should be (ideally)useful and/or surprising
Work-in-progress papers stake out territory - helps you to lay claims to ideas you are working on (important to thesis writers)Needs: strong idea, clarity about how the idea fits in the field and how it is distinguished from other work, speculation about the implicationsMeta studies papers compile and analyse multiple existing studies.Needs: a clearly stated purpose; good data and clear analysis methodAnd a good discussion sectionArtefact papers publicise a new artefact, tool, system, pedagogy, instrument etc & provide information for critique / applicationNeeds: what the thing is, the gap it fills, why it's novel, what ideas it embodies, an evaluation and implications.
Rugg and Petre say these describe a new method, technique, algorithm or process well enough for other researchers to replicate it. Usually written for a very particular audience or communityMethods introductions: describe a new method invented or developed by the author and justify it (what is it good for, why do you need it, how do you know it works?).Tutorial papers: describe a method and how to use it. Usually includes an example. Journals are usually reluctant to publish these, although they are widely quoted when they are.Method mongering paper: describes a method with the aim of promoting it to other scholars in the field. Often includes an example without too much description of the method itself.Demonstration of concept paper: demonstrates that a particular concept (method or framework) is feasible, useful and interesting. Can get away with using less data than other paper types.
Rugg and Petre claim such papers help you to act like a 'navigator' for your research community. They are likely to be cited heavily by people... who either love or loathe youRaise awareness of issue which have not received enough attention in the field. They might give other researchers "interesting new toys to play with", usually by importing an idea from another discipline.Good ones need:vision!genuine authority based on comprehensive and current knowledge of the fieldStrong critical and creative abilitiesMake sure your complaints about the field are justified before proceeding!
Introduce new theory or explain someone else's theory in a way which makes more sense…Different types of papers will appeal to different kinds of researcher audiences. A scientist will be more interested in a methods paper which gives them ideas for what they can do next, than a theory paper which questions the veracity of the scientific method.
Kamler and Thomson suggest your abstract should have four "moves":1. Focus2. Locate3. Explain4.Suggest Implications
Kamler and Thomson suggest you use a series of questions to help you start:What's the research problem being addressed?How do I locate the significance of my work?What conversation am I in? Where am I standing in relation to this research problem?What do I offer as an alternative to existing research?What is my argument (thesis)?
Cut and paste bits of writing you already have into your word processor and start writing the bits that are missing!The trick is to write as fast as you can - not as well as you can. Think "bee": you are flitting between pieces of text when you get stuck - not trying to 'finish' anything.
Don't give up. You have two options:1) Gather more evidence and read more, keep massaging the draft until you have enough to move on, or:2) Go back to week one and rethink which sort of paper you can write with what you do have.
Editing is part of the process, not an end point: there is no such thing as 'writing' - only 'rewriting’There's not room to deal with the whole topic here, so here are two techniques
Don't despair if it's rejected.A 'soft rejection' is when amendments are requested.If rejected outright, consider sending to another journal.
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A writing and productivity presentation for PhD students from @thesiswhisperer