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Report of-the-teap-xxi-9-task-force

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Report of-the-teap-xxi-9-task-force

  1. 1. 11 Report of the TEAP XXI/9 Task ForceReport of the TEAP XXI/9 Task Force Lambert Kuijpers Miguel Quintero Dan Verdonik Shiqiu Zhang TF Co-chairs TEAP members UNEP OEWG-30UNEP OEWG-30 Decision XXI/9Decision XXI/9 GenevaGeneva 15 June 201015 June 2010
  2. 2. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 22 Decision XXI/9 Taken at MOP-21Decision XXI/9 Taken at MOP-21 1. To request the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP), in its May 2010 Progress Report and subsequently in its 2010 full assessment, to provide the latest technical and economic assessment of available and emerging alternatives and substitutes to HCFCs; and the Scientific Assessment Panel (SAP) in its 2010 assessment to assess, using a comprehensive methodology, the impact of alternatives to HCFCs on the environment, including on the climate; and both the SAP and the TEAP to integrate the findings in their assessments into a synthesis report;
  3. 3. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 33 Decision XXI/9 Paragraph 2Decision XXI/9 Paragraph 2 To request the Technology and Economic AssessmentTo request the Technology and Economic Assessment PanelPanel (2a) To list all sub-sectors using HCFCs, with concrete(2a) To list all sub-sectors using HCFCs, with concrete examples of technologies where low-GWP alternativesexamples of technologies where low-GWP alternatives are used, indicating what substances are used,are used, indicating what substances are used, conditions of application, their costs, relative energyconditions of application, their costs, relative energy efficiency of the applications and, to the extent possible,efficiency of the applications and, to the extent possible, available markets and percentage share in thoseavailable markets and percentage share in those markets, to compare these alternatives with other existingmarkets, to compare these alternatives with other existing technologies, in particular, high-GWP technologies thattechnologies, in particular, high-GWP technologies that are in use in the same sectors;are in use in the same sectors;
  4. 4. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 44 Decision XXI/9 Paragraph 2Decision XXI/9 Paragraph 2 (2b) To identify and characterize the implemented(2b) To identify and characterize the implemented measures for ensuring safe application of low-GWPmeasures for ensuring safe application of low-GWP alternative technologies and products as well asalternative technologies and products as well as barriers to their phase-in, in the different sub-sectors,barriers to their phase-in, in the different sub-sectors, collecting concrete information from various sources;collecting concrete information from various sources;
  5. 5. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 55 Decision XXI/9 Paragraph 2Decision XXI/9 Paragraph 2 (2c) To provide a categorization and reorganization of the(2c) To provide a categorization and reorganization of the information previously provided in accordance withinformation previously provided in accordance with decision XX/8 as appropriate, to inform the Parties of thedecision XX/8 as appropriate, to inform the Parties of the uses for which low- or no-GWP and/or other suitableuses for which low- or no-GWP and/or other suitable technologies are or will soon be commercialized,technologies are or will soon be commercialized, including to the extent possible the predicted amount ofincluding to the extent possible the predicted amount of high-GWP alternatives to ozone-depleting substanceshigh-GWP alternatives to ozone-depleting substances uses that can potentially be replaced.uses that can potentially be replaced.
  6. 6. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 66 ProcessProcess  TEAP established a Task Force to update dataTEAP established a Task Force to update data contained in the XX/8 report and to report on thecontained in the XX/8 report and to report on the other issues requested in paragraph 2 of XXI/9other issues requested in paragraph 2 of XXI/9  Task Force was co-chaired by TEAP membersTask Force was co-chaired by TEAP members Kuijpers, Verdonik, Quintero and ZhangKuijpers, Verdonik, Quintero and Zhang  12 Chapter Lead Authors and 27 Reviewing Authors12 Chapter Lead Authors and 27 Reviewing Authors participatedparticipated  TEAP review took place in April 2010 (Madrid), wasTEAP review took place in April 2010 (Madrid), was followed by a final TF review and agreement byfollowed by a final TF review and agreement by consensusconsensus
  7. 7. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 77 Kyoto Protocol and GWPsKyoto Protocol and GWPs  The Kyoto Protocol uses GWP values as specified inThe Kyoto Protocol uses GWP values as specified in the Second IPCC Assessment Report (SAR) and hasthe Second IPCC Assessment Report (SAR) and has not considered later IPCC revisions of GWP valuesnot considered later IPCC revisions of GWP values  Values are based on a 100 year time horizonValues are based on a 100 year time horizon  GWPs of very short lived substances are notGWPs of very short lived substances are not addressed in the latest IPCC AR4; important issue isaddressed in the latest IPCC AR4; important issue is that local effects dominate over global total mixingthat local effects dominate over global total mixing  The Kyoto Protocol has never defined “high-GWP” andThe Kyoto Protocol has never defined “high-GWP” and “low-GWP”; they are comparative in nature“low-GWP”; they are comparative in nature
  8. 8. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 88 Classification on a GWP ScaleClassification on a GWP Scale The TEAP proposes the following classification:The TEAP proposes the following classification:  LOW GWP: <LOW GWP: < 300300 ♦ GWP <GWP < 3030 ultra lowultra low ♦ GWP <GWP < 100100 very lowvery low  MODERATEMODERATE GWP:GWP: 300-1,000300-1,000  HIGH GWP: >HIGH GWP: > 1,0001,000 ♦ GWP >GWP > 3,0003,000 very highvery high ♦ GWP >GWP > 10,00010,000 ultra highultra high
  9. 9. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 99 Toxicity and FlammabilityToxicity and Flammability  HighHigh oror ModerateModerate GWP substances orGWP substances or mixtures may be required whenmixtures may be required when LowLow GWPGWP toxic or flammable substances cannot betoxic or flammable substances cannot be applied in certain types of products, or underapplied in certain types of products, or under certain circumstancescertain circumstances  NewNew LowLow GWP substances are underGWP substances are under developmentdevelopment  Future development changes in equipmentFuture development changes in equipment design will be determining which chemicals candesign will be determining which chemicals can be selectedbe selected
  10. 10. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 1010 Methods and MetricsMethods and Metrics  Ultimate choice of technology to phase out HCFCs willUltimate choice of technology to phase out HCFCs will be based on ozone depletion and on climate, health,be based on ozone depletion and on climate, health, safety, affordability and availability aspects (XIX/6)safety, affordability and availability aspects (XIX/6)  Choosing the lowest GWP substance will not alwaysChoosing the lowest GWP substance will not always be the best selection (energy use in manufacturingbe the best selection (energy use in manufacturing and during operation is also important)and during operation is also important)  Life-Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) is the mostLife-Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) is the most comprehensive methodcomprehensive method  LCCP models need more development to beLCCP models need more development to be transparent and adaptable to local ambient conditionstransparent and adaptable to local ambient conditions
  11. 11. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 1111 Domestic refrigerators and freezersDomestic refrigerators and freezers  About 63% of new refrigerators employ HFC-134a  About 36% employ hydrocarbons, mainly HC-600a (isobutane)  It is predicted that, within 10 years, under business-as- usual, at least 75% of all new production will apply hydrocarbons; required changes in standards are underway and regulations could ease transition  No identified technology can compete for cost or efficiency with conventional vapour compression technology for mass production
  12. 12. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 121214 July 200914 July 2009 1212 Commercial RefrigerationCommercial Refrigeration  Commercial refrigeration includes three differentCommercial refrigeration includes three different categories of systems: stand-alone equipment,categories of systems: stand-alone equipment, condensing units, and supermarket centralisedcondensing units, and supermarket centralised systemssystems  The populations of vending machines, stand-aloneThe populations of vending machines, stand-alone equipment, and condensing units are about 20, 32 andequipment, and condensing units are about 20, 32 and 34 million units, respectively34 million units, respectively  Solutions to replaceSolutions to replace HCFC-22HCFC-22 depend on the specificdepend on the specific applications in each categoryapplications in each category  The majority of stand-alone equipment based onThe majority of stand-alone equipment based on HFC-HFC- 134a134a technology; energy efficiencytechnology; energy efficiency HCsHCs isis comparablecomparable
  13. 13. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 131314 July 200914 July 2009 1313 Commercial Refrigeration (2)Commercial Refrigeration (2)  Condensing units have as the dominantCondensing units have as the dominant HCFC-22HCFC-22 replacementsreplacements HFC-134aHFC-134a andand R-404A;R-404A; it is a costit is a cost driven market;driven market; HCs, ammonia and carbonHCs, ammonia and carbon dioxidedioxide tested and installed in a number oftested and installed in a number of supermarketssupermarkets  Centralised systems are using indirect systems; the HCFC-22 replacements are R-404A, HFC-134a, ammonia, HCs, carbon dioxide and low-GWP HFCs blended with HFC-32  Important current trend consists of cascading systems with HFC-134a in the high temperature and carbon dioxide in the low temperature loop
  14. 14. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 141414 July 200914 July 2009 1414 Transport refrigerationTransport refrigeration  Majority of equipment utilisesMajority of equipment utilises high-GWP HFCshigh-GWP HFCs  HCFC-22HCFC-22 is used mainly in aging vessels and roadis used mainly in aging vessels and road transport in developing countriestransport in developing countries  Development of systems withDevelopment of systems with low-GWP chemicalslow-GWP chemicals is underway but faces technical challenges becauseis underway but faces technical challenges because of robustness, low weight, corrosion resistance andof robustness, low weight, corrosion resistance and safety requirementssafety requirements  The most promisingThe most promising low-GWP substanceslow-GWP substances areare hydrocarbonshydrocarbons andand carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide
  15. 15. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 1515 Large Size RefrigerationLarge Size Refrigeration  AmmoniaAmmonia has been used as THE refrigerant for a longhas been used as THE refrigerant for a long time, with significant regional variationstime, with significant regional variations  In applications where the toxicity ofIn applications where the toxicity of ammoniaammonia isis unacceptable,unacceptable, carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide has been anhas been an alternativealternative  HCFC-22HCFC-22 “drop-ins” have not been commercialised“drop-ins” have not been commercialised  High-GWP HFCsHigh-GWP HFCs are not widely used in large sizeare not widely used in large size refrigeration systems; if adopted then they have beenrefrigeration systems; if adopted then they have been used in low charge systemsused in low charge systems  It is unlikely that theIt is unlikely that the low-GWP HFCslow-GWP HFCs developed fordeveloped for other applications will be used in this sectorother applications will be used in this sector
  16. 16. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 1616 Unitary ACUnitary AC  Nearly all air cooled AC usedNearly all air cooled AC used HCFC-22HCFC-22 before 2000,before 2000, and the transition is complete or well underway inand the transition is complete or well underway in developed countriesdeveloped countries  In developed countries,In developed countries, high-GWP HFCshigh-GWP HFCs have beenhave been the dominant replacements, withthe dominant replacements, with R-410AR-410A the mostthe most widely used (withwidely used (with R-407CR-407C in certain regions);in certain regions); hydrocarbonshydrocarbons are applied in low charge applicationsare applied in low charge applications  In developing countries, short term replacements willIn developing countries, short term replacements will bebe R-407CR-407C andand R-410AR-410A, with, with hydrocarbonshydrocarbons forfor lower charge applicationslower charge applications
  17. 17. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 1717 Unitary ACUnitary AC  HFC-32HFC-32 is a lower GWP alternative foris a lower GWP alternative for HCFC-22HCFC-22 thanthan R-410 AR-410 A (one third of the GWP)(one third of the GWP)  As experience with flammability increases,As experience with flammability increases, HFC-32HFC-32 is likely to become the futureis likely to become the future HCFC-22HCFC-22 substitute,substitute, rather thanrather than R-410AR-410A  Usage ofUsage of hydrocarbonshydrocarbons is expected to increaseis expected to increase  Low-GWP HFCsLow-GWP HFCs might become replacements formight become replacements for thethe high-GWP HFC blendshigh-GWP HFC blends ; however, lower; however, lower vapour density will impact equipment dimensions andvapour density will impact equipment dimensions and costscosts  Carbon dioxideCarbon dioxide will increase in use for lowerwill increase in use for lower ambient temperaturesambient temperatures
  18. 18. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 1818 ChillersChillers  Centrifugals employCentrifugals employ HFC-134aHFC-134a andand HCFC-123HCFC-123 (very(very low GWP); at this time it is not known whether low-GWPlow GWP); at this time it is not known whether low-GWP options (such asoptions (such as low-GWP HFCs, e.g. HFC-low-GWP HFCs, e.g. HFC- 1234yf1234yf) will be found suitable for chillers) will be found suitable for chillers  AmmoniaAmmonia chillers are more common in the smallerchillers are more common in the smaller sizes with different compressor types; there aresizes with different compressor types; there are HCsHCs inin a limited number of chiller applications; safety concernsa limited number of chiller applications; safety concerns are largely overcome in certain regionsare largely overcome in certain regions  Carbon dioxideCarbon dioxide is an alternative for chillers that alsois an alternative for chillers that also produce hot waterproduce hot water
  19. 19. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 1919 Chillers (2)Chillers (2)  HydrocarbonsHydrocarbons are used in a limited number ofare used in a limited number of small air-cooled chiller installations in Europe.small air-cooled chiller installations in Europe. Safety issues are of concern particularly forSafety issues are of concern particularly for indoor chiller installations. In regions whereindoor chiller installations. In regions where companies, governments, and the public supportcompanies, governments, and the public support hydrocarbon solutions, safety concerns havehydrocarbon solutions, safety concerns have been largely overcome by engineering,been largely overcome by engineering, technician training, and changes in regulationstechnician training, and changes in regulations  Water (R-718)Water (R-718) has been applied in a fewhas been applied in a few casescases
  20. 20. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 2020 Mobile Air ConditioningMobile Air Conditioning  HCFCsHCFCs are mainly applied in bus and train AC; theare mainly applied in bus and train AC; the alternatives arealternatives are HFC-134aHFC-134a andand carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide  The replacement ofThe replacement of HFC-134aHFC-134a in passenger cars willin passenger cars will proceedproceed  The originalThe original HFC-134aHFC-134a replacement options withreplacement options with GWP<150 areGWP<150 are carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide andand HFC-152aHFC-152a; the; the most important current alternative ismost important current alternative is HFC-1234yfHFC-1234yf  All options have comparable energy efficiencyAll options have comparable energy efficiency  The emerging global car manufacturers’ apparent choice is HFC-1234yfHFC-1234yf
  21. 21. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 212115 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 2121 FoamsFoams  Foams compete with other product types in manyFoams compete with other product types in many insulation and other applications; mineral fibre continuesinsulation and other applications; mineral fibre continues to be the most important insulation type in most regionsto be the most important insulation type in most regions  Low thermal conductivity foams gain market share,Low thermal conductivity foams gain market share, which is 30-40% in most regionswhich is 30-40% in most regions  In polyurethane,In polyurethane, hydrocarbonshydrocarbons are the mainare the main replacements forreplacements for HCFC-141bHCFC-141b and also forand also for high-GWPhigh-GWP HFCsHFCs  High-GWP HFCHigh-GWP HFC foams are more expensive thanfoams are more expensive than hydrocarbonhydrocarbon foamsfoams  Many low-GWP options are emerging and being appliedMany low-GWP options are emerging and being applied
  22. 22. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 222215 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 22222222 Low GWP alternatives for PULow GWP alternatives for PU FoamsFoams Pros (+) Cons (-) Hydrocarbons Negligible GWP Good availability Low operating cost High flammability -> high conversion cost (Preblended hydrocarbons?) Not for spray foam Low GWP HFCs (short lived HFCs) Negligible GWP Non-flammable Availability and cost? Limited use experience Methyl Formate Negligible GWP Limited use experience Flammability? Methylal Negligible GWP Co-blowing agent data Limited experience as sole BA Flammability? CO2 Use as co-blowing Alternative for spray foam Insulation value End-product cost
  23. 23. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 232315 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 232314 July 200914 July 2009 UNEP Dialogue - Decision XX/8UNEP Dialogue - Decision XX/8 2323 XPS FoamsXPS Foams  Demand for energy saving measures is driving theDemand for energy saving measures is driving the growth of insulating XPS foamsgrowth of insulating XPS foams  In developing countries preferred blowing agents haveIn developing countries preferred blowing agents have beenbeen HCFC-22HCFC-22 andand HCFC-142bHCFC-142b for XPSfor XPS  In one developing country, Turkey,In one developing country, Turkey, HFC-1234zeHFC-1234ze isis being used in one pilot projectbeing used in one pilot project  In developed countries, the range of alternativesIn developed countries, the range of alternatives includesincludes COCO22 andand hydrocarbonshydrocarbons in Europe andin Europe and Japan; the USA also appliesJapan; the USA also applies HFCs - HFCHFCs - HFC// COCO22 mixturesmixtures
  24. 24. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 2424 Fire ProtectionFire Protection  ForFor halon 1301halon 1301 systems, the replacement HCFCsystems, the replacement HCFC Blend A (Blend A (HCFC-22, -124HCFC-22, -124,, -123-123) has achieved very) has achieved very minor market shareminor market share  Replacements for Blend A areReplacements for Blend A are dry chemicals, waterdry chemicals, water oror foams, CO2, inert gasesfoams, CO2, inert gases andand fluoroketone 5-fluoroketone 5- 1-121-12  ForFor halon 1211halon 1211 portable extinguishers HCFC Blend Bportable extinguishers HCFC Blend B (mixture of(mixture of HCFC-123HCFC-123,, PFC-14PFC-14 andand argonargon) has) has achieved limited market share; no low-GWP chemicalsachieved limited market share; no low-GWP chemicals presently commercialised to replace Blend Bpresently commercialised to replace Blend B  AnAn unsaturated HBFCunsaturated HBFC is currently being testedis currently being tested
  25. 25. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 2525 SolventsSolvents  HCFC solvents areHCFC solvents are HCFC-141bHCFC-141b andand HCFC-225HCFC-225 caca/cb/cb  HCFC-141bHCFC-141b phased out in developed countries, but itsphased out in developed countries, but its use may still be increasing in developing countriesuse may still be increasing in developing countries  Two HFC solvents currently available areTwo HFC solvents currently available are HFC-43-HFC-43- 10mee10mee andand HFC-c447efHFC-c447ef ♦ For a variety of applications blends are made withFor a variety of applications blends are made with HFC-43-10meeHFC-43-10mee and several other chemicals;and several other chemicals; ♦ HFC-c447efHFC-c447ef remains in a niche use (mainlyremains in a niche use (mainly electronics);electronics); ♦ Costs of high-GWP solvents will limit useCosts of high-GWP solvents will limit use
  26. 26. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 2626 SolventsSolvents  HCFC and HFC alternatives areHCFC and HFC alternatives are NIK systems,NIK systems, hydrocarbons, alcohols, chlorocarbons and n-hydrocarbons, alcohols, chlorocarbons and n- propyl bromide (n-PB)propyl bromide (n-PB)  No single option available to completely replaceNo single option available to completely replace HCFCsHCFCs andand HFCsHFCs  Large scale conversion to chlorinated solvents isLarge scale conversion to chlorinated solvents is unlikely; conversion tounlikely; conversion to n-PBn-PB is possible but withis possible but with toxicity concernstoxicity concerns  HFE-449slHFE-449sl andand HFE-569sf2HFE-569sf2 are used asare used as replacements forreplacements for CFCsCFCs,, but the relatively high costbut the relatively high cost prohibits large scale useprohibits large scale use
  27. 27. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 27272727 Inhaled therapyInhaled therapy  Metered dose inhalers (MDIs),Metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalersdry powder inhalers (DPIs)(DPIs) and novel delivery systems play anand novel delivery systems play an important role in treatment of asthma and COPDimportant role in treatment of asthma and COPD  No single delivery system universally acceptableNo single delivery system universally acceptable  A range of therapeutic options is importantA range of therapeutic options is important  Based on current consumption and estimated growthBased on current consumption and estimated growth rates for MDIs,rates for MDIs, HFC-134aHFC-134a andand HFC-227eaHFC-227ea consumption is estimated at 7,000-10,500 tonnes byconsumption is estimated at 7,000-10,500 tonnes by 20152015  Switching all MDIs toSwitching all MDIs to DPIsDPIs implies an emissionimplies an emission reduction of 13 Mtonnes COreduction of 13 Mtonnes CO22 eq. annuallyeq. annually
  28. 28. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 28282828 ConclusionsConclusions  TEAP proposes a classification of GWPs as HIGH >1000, MODERATE 300 – 1000 and LOW < 300  Each Sector / Subsector has a variety of low or moderate GWP alternatives available or under development  Some Sectors / Subsectors may also have not-in-kindSome Sectors / Subsectors may also have not-in-kind alternatives that are not Global Warming Substancesalternatives that are not Global Warming Substances  Parties may wish to select alternatives with the lowestParties may wish to select alternatives with the lowest Climate Impact based upon life cycle analyses, such asClimate Impact based upon life cycle analyses, such as LCCP andLCCP and notnot based solely on GWP, as energy use orbased solely on GWP, as energy use or other life cycle emissions may contribute significantly toother life cycle emissions may contribute significantly to the total carbon equivalent emissionsthe total carbon equivalent emissions
  29. 29. 15 June 201015 June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 2929 Thank you !Thank you !

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