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Managing Matrix Organization


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PM, Managing Matrix Organization

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Managing Matrix Organization

  1. 2. Agenda <ul><ul><li>Matrix definition, history, types & advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key challenges in culture and communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a productive matrix organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scenarios & solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. The Matrix <ul><ul><li>Project Manager and the Functional Manager share responsibility of assigning priorities and directing the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differs from traditional functional organization since employees report to more than one manager </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Typical Matrix organization
  4. 5. History <ul><ul><li>Emerged in the Aerospace Industry in the 1960s as government projects required a project-based system directly linked to top management. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Why? <ul><ul><li>Creates synergy through shared responsibility and authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure encourages integration of labor rather than division of labor and reduces costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideally suited for project-driven business environments: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>R&D </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biotech </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Types <ul><ul><li>Balanced Matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Matrix </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Balanced Matrix <ul><ul><li>Classic model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees members of two groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equalized power & authority of groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM’s define work and timelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional managers define staff and how tasks accomplished </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Functional Matrix <ul><ul><li>Employees remain full members of functional departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies & Procedures instituted to ensure cross-functional collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM’s limited to coordinating efforts between groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional managers responsible for design and technical requirements </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Project Matrix <ul><ul><li>Employees move between functional & project departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of 2 organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM’s have primary control over resources and project direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional mangers = advisory role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional managers supervise plan and goals as set by PM </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Creating a Productive Matrix <ul><li>A successful matrix organization, though more complex, will realize valuable benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better, smoother integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient use of human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved horizontal communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced territorial conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better overall quality and responsiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved decision making </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Creating a Productive Matrix <ul><li>Benefits : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster trust and value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impeded coordination/collaboration </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Strategy: Institute induction/training programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team building thru cohesion/development of personal relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates management values employees by investing time and resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives team members time to better understand scope of project(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategy: Managers given decision making authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a sense of trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed mangers make the best decisions </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Strategy: Ongoing access to management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings, town halls, newsletter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create horizontal and vertical communication processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategy: Establish clear roles & resonsibilites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign accountability for business/project objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create single point of contact for information and approvals </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><ul><li>Model communication expectations early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve team in planning, setting objectives, schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish team rituals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have successful teams mentor new teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize and reward team level work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-locate members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a new team member orientation package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up a knowledge repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure everyone understands communication technologies (web cast, SharePoints, Outlook) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train team members on facilitation skills, group dynamics, conflict resolution, consensus decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a process for surfacing issues before they become big </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be an umbrella - shield team from politics, noise, and distractions </li></ul></ul>Tips for PMs
  15. 16. <ul><ul><li>You are a new project manager for a cross-matrix team brought together to redesign customer service delivery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All members of the team have full time jobs in their functional areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are preparing to meet with the group for the first time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to this meeting, you reached out to each team member individually and gathered the following information </li></ul></ul>Scenario
  16. 17. Henry : We spend a lot of time meeting and nothing seems to get done. I can’t afford to take time away from my regular job unless this is really going to be an action oriented team. Bob : The team is moving too fast and not taking time to fully discuss issues before moving to solutions. I think we are too concerned about delivering on time and not concerned enough about quality. Cindy: The “high profile/interesting/career building tasks” are being assigned to the same 2 or 3 people and the others are being cut out. Maria: You might want to carefully look at the what each member is bringing to the project in terms of skills and abilities - -a few don’t seem to be adding value - -actually, they don’t even seem to “get it” (purpose of the project) Ivan: I am overloaded. This is a high pressure, highly visible team and I have been asked to take on more than I ever expected. Kayla: Ivan and I knocked ourselves out creating a revised process flow for customer complaints. It was great, but when we were done, others on the team tore it apart. It’s not like they had anything to add either. Don: This is the best cross-matrix team I have been on, and I’ve been on a lot of teams. I would rather be meeting with this team than doing my regular job any day. What Members Told You
  17. 18. <ul><ul><li>What plans might you make for the first meeting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What might you say or do to start off on the “right foot”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What additional information would you want to gather? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? What are the potential issues? </li></ul></ul>Strategy
  18. 19. <ul><li>Keys to Success: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give PMs decision making authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve team members in planning, schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish clear roles & responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish goals and project scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish rules of engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide training and mentorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build trust between team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-actively resolves conflicts </li></ul></ul>Summary
  19. 21. Checklist for High Performing Team Members <ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do I understand the project goals and priorities? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Am I clear on my role and responsibilities? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do I know what I am expected to do and how that work fits in the big picture? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Am I committed to the success of this project? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Checklist for High Performing Team Members <ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do I take responsibility for the quality of my work? My communications? My interaction with others? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do I feel comfortable expressing my ideas to teammates? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do I listen openly to teammate’s ideas and suggestions? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Shoulder to Shoulder: Working Together <ul><ul><li>&quot;Foxhole buddies,&quot; &quot;in the trenches,&quot; and &quot;through a few wars&quot; are common phrases that express the comrades-in-arms feeling that develops among team members who work together to achieve results. The shared experience can develop a bond, a common ground that brings people closer together. This feeling that &quot;we're in it together&quot; is often strengthened by adversity. A common enemy, obstacle, or deadline can often bring a group together quickly. No matter how different members may be, a shared task can give them a way to come together and develop a connection that forges team spirit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On one team that had been growing slowly but was constantly plagued by self-doubt and weak relationship bonds, the turning point came when they had a specific task, that of producing a companywide newsletter. Spending two days in a workroom grouped around three computers going at once, the team hummed. The energy was palpable as they got excited about their product, relied on each other for help, and could see real, tangible progress. They developed columns and crossword puzzles on the spot as their creation emerged before their eyes. &quot;This was our best session yet,&quot; one member commented, getting many nods from teammates. &quot;We got so much done.“ </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Task: Focus on the Product . <ul><ul><li>A ll teams are organized to produce something. Whether the product is as tangible as a report or a machine part, or as intangible as improved communication or increased morale, it represents the team's reason for existing and forms the basis for its goals and objectives. This task focus is one critical cornerstone of the team. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>W hen team members understand clearly what their task is and are committed to it, they can set their course and organize the sequence of their work. </li></ul><ul><li>W hen tasks are unclear or when there is lukewarm enthusiasm about accomplishing the articulated goals, productivity and progress suffer. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Task: Focus on the Product . <ul><ul><li>C ritical questions for teams regarding this dimension are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is our reason for being? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are we supposed to be accomplishing? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are our goals and objectives as a group? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Assessing Your Team's Functioning <ul><ul><li>T eams, like individuals, need to assess how they are doing. The information gained through this checkup is of value when used as a springboard for group discussion. In this way it is similar to the biofeedback process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By their bodily responses such as heart giving individuals information about rate, and blood pressure, biofeedback enables them to begin to control functions that were previously perceived to be automatic. Group feedback works in much the same way for the team. </li></ul><ul><li>S ometimes the &quot;bio- feedback&quot; may be a pat on the back that validates the team. At other times, it may be a kick in the rear that forces the team to do some things differently. </li></ul><ul><li>I n either case, assessing the team and then sharing, the feedback can be catalysts for team growth. Getting information about the team's strengths and weaknesses focuses members' attention on both and begins the process of strengthening the weaker areas. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Matrix Organization and project management <ul><ul><li>I nformation sharing is mandatory in such an organization, and several people may be required for the same piece of work. However, in general, the project manager has the total responsibility and accountability for the success of the project. The functional departments, on the other hand, have functional responsibility to maintain technical excellence on the project. Each functional unit is headed by a department manager whose prime responsibility is to ensure that a unified technical base is maintained and that all available information can be exchanged for each project. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Process Intervention . <ul><ul><li>T eams don't grow only when members work side by side. They can also be built through intervening in the mechanics of how a team works together. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating special learning experiences outside of the regular work of the team at retreats, training sessions, and team meetings is useful for relationship building, developing understanding, and conflict resolution that might not happen in the process of working together on the job every day. These interventions can be used to jump-start a new group, break through a communication block in more mature teams, or stimulate growth on a team at any stage. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a work-group may need to learn how to make decisions; hence, a workshop on using a decision-making matrix might be called for. Another team could be blocked by friction, divisiveness or lack of trust among members, so a sequence of trust-building exercises could be implemented at regular, weekly team meetings . </li></ul>
  27. 29. Process Intervention . <ul><li>F irst, the team created a list of the norms by which they wanted to operate. Then each session's task was preceded by an activity that had team members share attitudes and feelings with others in the group, thereby breaking down some interpersonal barriers and building common ground. Then, during discussions, when polarization seemed imminent or when egos began to get bruised, the facilitator would stop the discussion and have members share responses to such statements as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right now I feel ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I feel listened to when ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I feel discounted when ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What I need from others on this team is ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I need to be more tolerant of... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These process interventions helped group members overcome interpersonal obstacles and build stronger connections with each other. </li></ul></ul>