iNform ACADEMY
Hip and Lower Limb Function
PRESENTED BY:
 Max MARTIN BAppSc (Hons) AEP
Scott WOOD BAppSc AEP
Gluteus Maximus
Primary hip extensor and external rotator
Important for maintaining upright posture
Stabiliser of SIJ via ...
Gluteus Medius
Primary abductor  and controller of rotation of the hip
Plays rotator cuff-like role:
sucks femoral head in...
Tensor Fascia Latae
Primary functions are hip flexion, internal rotation and abduction (via ITB)
Works in synergy with glu...
Iliotibial Band
Thick, lateral aspect of fascia lata
Attachment point for glute max, TFL
Indirect insertion onto patella
A...
Piriformis
Primarily lateral rotator of the hip
In hip flexion, will also abduct the hip
Secondary phasic stabiliser of th...
External Hip Rotators
Include obturators (externus and internus), the gemelli (superior and inferior) and the quadratusfem...
VastusMedialis
Primary action is knee extension in inner range- 15-20deg of knee flexion
Provides medial stability to pate...
VastusLateralis
Primary action is knee extension in inner range- 15-20deg of knee flexion
Provides lateral stability to pa...
Hip Knee Foot Dysfunction
Site of chronic injury often not the cause.
Dysfunction at proximal sites often predispose more ...
Single Legged Squat
Functional strength exercise
Assessment tool
SLSq Research
22 male, 22 female athletes
FPPA measured
Women > FPPA
Weakness in external rotators correlated most clos...
SLSq Research
Claiborne et al (2006)investigated valgus/varus in SLQ
Strength around hip and knee investigated
Hip abducto...
SLSq Research
Similar findings by Zeller (2003)
Women > adduction, valgus and pronation
♀ Greater MVC in all muscles ex...
Hip Strength and Injury
Trendelenburg gait highly implicated in LBP
TbG associated with:
Weak gluteus medius and minimus (...
Hip Strength and Injury
Noehren et al (2007) investigated biomechanics associated with ITBS (female runners)
Injured runne...
Hip Strength and Injury
PFP common in active and non-active individuals
Can result from abnormal motions of femur and tibi...
Clinically Evidenced Dysfunction of the Hip and Lower Limb
Abduction dysfunction – ITB and piriformis adaptations
Gl Med m...
Clinically Evidenced Dysfunction of the Hip and Lower Limb
Glute Medius TrP/tightness and poor alignment of pelvis and kne...
Clinically Evidenced Dysfunction of the Hip and Lower Limb
Knee as a ‘dumb’ joint??
structure > movement primarily in o...
Function of the Hip and the lower limb: The relationship between injuries and function of the hip, knee, ankle and foot
Function of the Hip and the lower limb: The relationship between injuries and function of the hip, knee, ankle and foot
Function of the Hip and the lower limb: The relationship between injuries and function of the hip, knee, ankle and foot
Function of the Hip and the lower limb: The relationship between injuries and function of the hip, knee, ankle and foot
Function of the Hip and the lower limb: The relationship between injuries and function of the hip, knee, ankle and foot
Function of the Hip and the lower limb: The relationship between injuries and function of the hip, knee, ankle and foot
Function of the Hip and the lower limb: The relationship between injuries and function of the hip, knee, ankle and foot
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Function of the Hip and the lower limb: The relationship between injuries and function of the hip, knee, ankle and foot

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Presentation for WAFIC 2011 by Max Martin AEP, Director of Corrective Exercise Australia.

Learn about the functional relationship between the hip, knee and foot, and how dysfunction in one typically affects injury patterns of the others.

Interestingly, a significant portion of chronic injuries below then hip are caused by hip dysfunction.

At the presentation you will learn why, what the research has to say about this, and how to prevent injuries to this complex of joints!

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
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  • Max, I am a retired track & field coach and I am very interested in the functionality relatiopnship of the ankle, knee, and hip in running. Can you point me in the direction of more stuff?
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Function of the Hip and the lower limb: The relationship between injuries and function of the hip, knee, ankle and foot

  1. 1. iNform ACADEMY Hip and Lower Limb Function PRESENTED BY: Max MARTIN BAppSc (Hons) AEP Scott WOOD BAppSc AEP
  2. 2. Gluteus Maximus Primary hip extensor and external rotator Important for maintaining upright posture Stabiliser of SIJ via attachment to TLF Supports hip and knee via ITB attachment Functional role in stepping, running, climbing etc.
  3. 3. Gluteus Medius Primary abductor and controller of rotation of the hip Plays rotator cuff-like role: sucks femoral head into acetabulum Akin to supraspinatus, ie abductor, commonly injured. Functionally supports pelvis during SL stance and gait- preventing hip adduction, dropping of unsupported side Strongest in neutral or slight adduction
  4. 4. Tensor Fascia Latae Primary functions are hip flexion, internal rotation and abduction (via ITB) Works in synergy with glute max: Tighten ITB to extend knee joint Control movements of pelvis on femur and femur on tibia when weight bearing
  5. 5. Iliotibial Band Thick, lateral aspect of fascia lata Attachment point for glute max, TFL Indirect insertion onto patella Anatomically impossible to stretch effectively
  6. 6. Piriformis Primarily lateral rotator of the hip In hip flexion, will also abduct the hip Secondary phasic stabiliser of the SIJ Close relationship to sciatic nerve Piriformis syndrome
  7. 7. External Hip Rotators Include obturators (externus and internus), the gemelli (superior and inferior) and the quadratusfemoris Strong rotators at zero degrees MA changes with flexion/extension Parallel MFO to neck of femur- strong joint compressors (rotator cuff like role)
  8. 8. VastusMedialis Primary action is knee extension in inner range- 15-20deg of knee flexion Provides medial stability to patella
  9. 9. VastusLateralis Primary action is knee extension in inner range- 15-20deg of knee flexion Provides lateral stability to patella
  10. 10. Hip Knee Foot Dysfunction Site of chronic injury often not the cause. Dysfunction at proximal sites often predispose more distal sites to excessive trauma. Injured site must receive best practice care. Origin of dysfunction must be addressed. Powers, 2003
  11. 11. Single Legged Squat Functional strength exercise Assessment tool
  12. 12. SLSq Research 22 male, 22 female athletes FPPA measured Women > FPPA Weakness in external rotators correlated most closely to FPPA Such alignment can predispose ACL injury, PFP From Willson et al 2006.
  13. 13. SLSq Research Claiborne et al (2006)investigated valgus/varus in SLQ Strength around hip and knee investigated Hip abductor strength most important for resisting valgus alignment
  14. 14. SLSq Research Similar findings by Zeller (2003) Women > adduction, valgus and pronation ♀ Greater MVC in all muscles except glute med and biceps fem. 2 reasons predisposing ♀ athletes to ACL path. Glute med shown to be latent in poor SLQ (Crossley, 2006) Abduction strength and Trendelenburg test shows correlation to SLSqperf.
  15. 15. Hip Strength and Injury Trendelenburg gait highly implicated in LBP TbG associated with: Weak gluteus medius and minimus (atrophy, tear, TrP) Predominance for TFL/ITB abduction stabilisation Sciatica and LBP like symptoms from GlMdTrP profile GTPS and bursitis can result Bewyer & Bewyer
  16. 16. Hip Strength and Injury Noehren et al (2007) investigated biomechanics associated with ITBS (female runners) Injured runners greater peak adduction Greater knee internal rotation
  17. 17. Hip Strength and Injury PFP common in active and non-active individuals Can result from abnormal motions of femur and tibia in frontal and transverse plane Cowan (2006) observed latency in glutemedius and vasti group in PFP patients
  18. 18. Clinically Evidenced Dysfunction of the Hip and Lower Limb Abduction dysfunction – ITB and piriformis adaptations Gl Med main abductor (stabiliser of pelvis) but tonic and typically inhibited more phasic Gl Max and TFL use the ITB sling to stabilise the pelvis However, typically evidenced dysfunction of Gl Max. This results in the TFL being the primary active muscle the body looks for an external rotator of the hip to act as a force-couple for the TFL > piriformis
  19. 19. Clinically Evidenced Dysfunction of the Hip and Lower Limb Glute Medius TrP/tightness and poor alignment of pelvis and knee common posture adaptations is an anterior tilted pelvis and the associated medial knee rotation This position separates the attachment points of the posterior fibres of Gl med. Increased tension and potential TrP tends to lead to hypotonicity in these fibres leading to increased adduction and internal rotation of the hip on single leg. ensure good postural alignment (especially of the pelvis) during corrective exercise prescription
  20. 20. Clinically Evidenced Dysfunction of the Hip and Lower Limb Knee as a ‘dumb’ joint?? structure > movement primarily in one plane (sagittal). Overuse injuries often due to misalignment (deviation from this plane) of the joint. Due to structure and geographical location it is very likely that such misalignments will be influenced by the two joint complexes it is directly associated to, i.e. the hip and ankle/foot. function and alignment at these two areas should be addressed prior to, or at least in conjunction to addressing knee pathologies.

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