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Flexibility: stretching vs SMFR PRESENTED BY: Max MARTIN BAppSc (Hons) AEP
Please keep your phone ON!! & This is a                                                                                  Friendly session! @ iNformMaxMartin Corrective Exercise Australia
Why flexibility Allow joints to align in anatomically correct way. Pain has greater correlation to joint stiffness than misalignment. ,[object Object],Neuromuscular dysfunction results in:  ,[object Object]
Gross movers typically become hypertonic/facilitated – ‘driving’ faulty posture,[object Object]
Why do people stretch Overall flexibility Muscle lengthening - Joint mobility Release tension Prevent delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) Injury prevention Performance preparation
Stretching: To elongate, increase in length. The implied meaning is that the muscle is not beyond its normal length Kendall et al. 2005
Stretching for Joint ROM Harvey, Herbert & Crosbie (2002) 13 studies of poor to moderate scientific quality Various stretching methods used ,[object Object]
tighter muscles greatest measured improvements.
Consistency of >3weeks for ‘plastic’changes.,[object Object],[object Object]
 4 min run
 passive stretch
 run & stretch
 run, stretch & practice jumpsResult: 1. run  1b. run, stretch & jump 3. Run & stretch 4. control 5. Passive stretch
Inconclusive whether or not to stretch before exercise ,[object Object],Shrier (2004)  ,[object Object]
found no effects of acute stretching,
but positive effects of regular stretching away from event on strength, jump height and running speed.Stretching and Performance  cont.
Effects of Stretching on DOMS: Herbert & Gabriel (2002), LaRoche & Connolly (2006), Dawson et al. (2005) ,[object Object],Dawson, et al. (2005) ,[object Object],Reisman et al. (2005) ,[object Object],[object Object]
Need very high intensity to produce risk of injuryMost conducted studies suggest no change in  injury rates Different sports require different joint flexibility leading to inconclusive results in literature
Warm ups and injury Faigenbaum et al. 2006 ,[object Object]
Dynamic warm ups increase performance in children and athletes compared to static stretching alone
Dynamic warm up achieved higher anaerobic performance than static stretching protocols,[object Object]
The Physiology of Tightness Joint ROM can be limited by the following factors (Hutton, 1992): Joint constraints Subcutaneous connective tissue. Neurogenic constraints (voluntary and reflexive) Myogenic constraints
Muscle Fibres (myogenic effect) Can stretch to at least 50% greater length that resting (last cross bridges intact). Magnesium deficiency can cause tightness (cramping) as magnesium facilitates actin-myosin release.
Muscle Spindles (neurogenic effect) Primary stretch receptors in the muscles. reflexive capabilities via alpha-motoneuron. Strong phasic contraction upon detection of stretch, followed by controlled tonic contraction. Regular stretching may decrease sensitivity of muscle spindles This may explain acute performance decreases post-passive stretch
Continuous structure that surrounds and integrates tissues and structures Can affect relationship amongst structures Composed of collagen and elastin, providing tensile and elastic properties. Fascia
Contributes >40% of resistance to movement Immobilisation decreases space between collagen fibres- causing a sticking together Muscle overactivity can result in increased fibroblast activity (>collagen deposition). Interconnectedness of fascia can result in patterns of tightness in muscle slings. Fascia cont’d

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Flexibiliy: Stretching vs Self-myofascial Release. From research to practice in the fitness industry

  • 1. Flexibility: stretching vs SMFR PRESENTED BY: Max MARTIN BAppSc (Hons) AEP
  • 2. Please keep your phone ON!! & This is a Friendly session! @ iNformMaxMartin Corrective Exercise Australia
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5. Why do people stretch Overall flexibility Muscle lengthening - Joint mobility Release tension Prevent delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) Injury prevention Performance preparation
  • 6. Stretching: To elongate, increase in length. The implied meaning is that the muscle is not beyond its normal length Kendall et al. 2005
  • 7.
  • 8. tighter muscles greatest measured improvements.
  • 9.
  • 10. 4 min run
  • 12. run & stretch
  • 13. run, stretch & practice jumpsResult: 1. run 1b. run, stretch & jump 3. Run & stretch 4. control 5. Passive stretch
  • 14.
  • 15. found no effects of acute stretching,
  • 16. but positive effects of regular stretching away from event on strength, jump height and running speed.Stretching and Performance cont.
  • 17.
  • 18. Need very high intensity to produce risk of injuryMost conducted studies suggest no change in injury rates Different sports require different joint flexibility leading to inconclusive results in literature
  • 19.
  • 20. Dynamic warm ups increase performance in children and athletes compared to static stretching alone
  • 21.
  • 22. The Physiology of Tightness Joint ROM can be limited by the following factors (Hutton, 1992): Joint constraints Subcutaneous connective tissue. Neurogenic constraints (voluntary and reflexive) Myogenic constraints
  • 23. Muscle Fibres (myogenic effect) Can stretch to at least 50% greater length that resting (last cross bridges intact). Magnesium deficiency can cause tightness (cramping) as magnesium facilitates actin-myosin release.
  • 24. Muscle Spindles (neurogenic effect) Primary stretch receptors in the muscles. reflexive capabilities via alpha-motoneuron. Strong phasic contraction upon detection of stretch, followed by controlled tonic contraction. Regular stretching may decrease sensitivity of muscle spindles This may explain acute performance decreases post-passive stretch
  • 25. Continuous structure that surrounds and integrates tissues and structures Can affect relationship amongst structures Composed of collagen and elastin, providing tensile and elastic properties. Fascia
  • 26. Contributes >40% of resistance to movement Immobilisation decreases space between collagen fibres- causing a sticking together Muscle overactivity can result in increased fibroblast activity (>collagen deposition). Interconnectedness of fascia can result in patterns of tightness in muscle slings. Fascia cont’d
  • 27. Myofascial restriction: Restriction in normal muscle function due to injury or biomechanical force imbalance
  • 28. Trigger points Discrete, focal, hyperirritable spot in taut band of muscle Occurring in all patients with musculoskeletal pain Can be active or latent Symptoms: Painful on compression Referred pain/tenderness Motor dysfunction No evidence for development mechanism of Trigger Points Acute and chronic trauma, chronic lengthening, sleep disturbance, anxiety
  • 29. Myofascialrelease – the alternative Similar to massage Uses palpation, pressure and tissue stretch to relieve tension and improve: Muscle tone, Length, Timing, Strength, Endurance, Control Can be used on various soft tissue abnormalities: Local increased muscle tone Trigger points Muscle shortness Fascial tightness Deficits in motor activity or control Can result in pro-inflammatory effect and decreased fibroblast activity (short-term).
  • 30. Exercise and myofascial release Exercise is vital for myofascial release treatment Resets neurological programming Both needed for permanent change
  • 31. Self Myo-Fascial and Trigger Point Release Interactive soft tissue release requiring feedback from patient to determine correct position, amount of pressure and duration of stretch Uses body weight on tool i.e. foam roller or tennis ball Penetrates into muscle and or fascia Easy and effective Releases tightness and trigger points Can be painful Research to prove efficacy is poor and inherently difficult to achieve.
  • 32.
  • 34. Dynamic warm up with progressive loading
  • 35.
  • 37. SMFR
  • 38.