Facilitating Long-term Outback Water Solutions
(FLOWS) to support mining in South Australia
Tim Munday, Mat Gilfedder, Y L...
Acknowledgements
1. Traditional owners of the APY Lands

2. Richard Preece, Rex Tjami, Gary McWilliams, Andrew Cawthorn,
B...
Drivers for the Conjunctive use of Geophysics
1. Many areas of active exploration in Australia are
characterised by a pauc...
Water – Key to a Sustainable Minerals Industry


Water is identified as a major challenge facing the
development of the m...
A Receptive Industry
•

The exploration and mining industry is embracing initiatives
that seek to exploit “exploration “ g...
But.....
•

Conjunctive use of exploration data sets is not always
without its problems, because
• Choice of systems
• App...
But.....
•

Conjunctive use of exploration data sets is not always
without its problems, because
• Choice of systems
• App...
Water Resources in Arid regions of SA
Knowledge gaps
Lack of knowledge and
data about the location,
capacity,
quality
and
...
FLOWS (Goyder - Facilitating Long-Term
Outback Water Solutions) Objectives:
1. For resource development priority areas,
– ...
Priority areas for
Stage 1
Musgrave Block

North/Western Gawler

Frome
Priority areas for
Stage 2

North Eyre Peninsula
Musgrave Province
APY Lands – Aquifer Systems
Groundwater in the APY Lands occurs in the weathered and fractured
sections of the Precambrian...
Groundwater Quality – Review (Varma 2012)
Existing AEM Data
Fragmented coverage
Different systems
Philosophy:
1. Accurate system
characterisation
2. Calibration
3. Common inversion
approach
Using AEM to Understand Palaeovalley Structure
and Relation with Current Landscape
Complex Palaeolandscape
Current topo

Palaeo topo

Litho-Structural
Control
Combine with magnetics
Conceptual Hydrogeology
Pre-Pliocene landscape in the
west and central Musgrave
Province.

Contemporary
landscape in the w...
Examine with contemporary topography

Multi-resolution Valley Bottom Flatness index (MrVBF) (Gallant and
Dowling, 2003).
C...
Combine with regional topographic trends
An offset Palaeovalley thalweg
Contemporary Landscape Reflects
Palaeolandscape
AEM Palaeovalley vs Contemporary
Topography
Hydrogeological framework model
Magnetics informs the framework model

Palaeozoic sediments in in Levenger
Graben
Upscaling
Framework and contemporary sand cover
Framework and Hydraulic Gradient
Groundwater residence using isotopes and
anthropogenic gases
4He
81Kr
36Cl
14C

39Ar

CFC's, SF6
85Kr

3H/3He

0.1

3

1

...
Framework and 4He
Inferred groundwater flow paths
Trends across APY Lands
In the northern area, groundwater wells are predominantly
screened to the regolith of the Precambr...
Method
1.

It has been tested in the
Musgrave province of South
Australia.

2.

Has application in other parts
of outback ...
Follow-up Hydrogeological Investigations: A
Possible Workflow

Physical
Hydrogeology
• A framework for
ground investigatio...
Summary (cont)
1. Conjunctive use of exploration geophysical data sets
providing input into conceptual hydrogeological mod...
Summary
1. Encouraging companies and contractors to ask for and
supply that information, even though water/aquifer
charact...
Key Gaps in Knowledge
Very little information on the hydrogeology of the palaeovalley
aquifers
– Materials
– Transmissivit...
What/where next....?
Using Geophysics ...
Tells us about aquifers....
Further Data Acquisition Options/Opportunities Build on Exploration Company activity

Add new lines

Extend Survey lines

...
Thank you
Tim Munday
CSIRO Earth Science and
Resource Exploration

t
e
w

+61 8 6436 8634
tim.munday@csiro.au
www.csiro.au...
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Tim Munday, CSIRO: Facilitating long-term outback water solutions to support mining in South Australia – The Goyder Institute’s FLOWS Project

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Tim Munday, Senior Research Scientist, CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Water for a Healthy Country & Minerals Down Under Flagships delivered this presentation at the 2013 Mining South Australia conference. The conference has been produced specifically for the South Australian mining and regional development community and represents a unique opportunity to hear the latest developments from the major projects, mines and explorers in South Australia. For more information on the annual event, please visit the conference website: http://www.informa.com.au/miningsa2013

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Tim Munday, CSIRO: Facilitating long-term outback water solutions to support mining in South Australia – The Goyder Institute’s FLOWS Project

  1. 1. Facilitating Long-term Outback Water Solutions (FLOWS) to support mining in South Australia Tim Munday, Mat Gilfedder, Y Ley Cooper, Tania Abdat, Kevin Cahill, Fred Leaney, Andrew Taylor and Adrian Costar WATER FOR A HEALTHY COUNTRY/GOYDER INSTITUTE
  2. 2. Acknowledgements 1. Traditional owners of the APY Lands 2. Richard Preece, Rex Tjami, Gary McWilliams, Andrew Cawthorn, Brian Dodson 3. DEWNR, Neil Power and Adrian Costar 4. DMITRE, Ted Tyne, Miles Davis, Steve Hill, Ian Hopton 5. Goyder Institute, Tony Minns 6. CSIRO, Glen Walker, Ian Jolly
  3. 3. Drivers for the Conjunctive use of Geophysics 1. Many areas of active exploration in Australia are characterised by a paucity of information on the groundwater resources present. 2. This lack of knowledge commonly extends to the aquifers present, the water they contain, variability and sustainability of the resource and its relationship to environmental and cultural assets.
  4. 4. Water – Key to a Sustainable Minerals Industry  Water is identified as a major challenge facing the development of the mining industry  Annual water demand across the SA Resource Industry is forecast to increase from ~43,000 ML in 2010 to ~130,000 ML in 2019. • In WA is demand is expected to increase from ~250,000 ML in 2009 to ~382,000 ML per year by 2020
  5. 5. A Receptive Industry • The exploration and mining industry is embracing initiatives that seek to exploit “exploration “ geophysical data sets for environmental purposes including, particularly where groundwater is concerned. AEM Data Gravity Data
  6. 6. But..... • Conjunctive use of exploration data sets is not always without its problems, because • Choice of systems • Approaches to data interpretation are not necessarily the same. Fast approximate transforms versus.......
  7. 7. But..... • Conjunctive use of exploration data sets is not always without its problems, because • Choice of systems • Approaches to data interpretation are not necessarily the same. Full Inversion • Accurately define conductivity structure, aquifer character, and groundwater quality......
  8. 8. Water Resources in Arid regions of SA Knowledge gaps Lack of knowledge and data about the location, capacity, quality and (ecological) sensitivities of non prescribed groundwater resources in the SA’s arid areas. Groundwater resources in these region do not have a high level of modern replenishment and may already be in decline.
  9. 9. FLOWS (Goyder - Facilitating Long-Term Outback Water Solutions) Objectives: 1. For resource development priority areas, – identify the location, geometry and characteristics of key aquifers, – their potential capacity, and – the quality and variability of the contained groundwater resources through the integrated analysis and interpretation of geological and airborne geophysical data 2. Develop a spatial understanding of the recharge and discharge processes and rates across the priority areas 3. Desktop study groundwater dependant ecosystems, cultural assets and high value environmental assets in arid parts of State
  10. 10. Priority areas for Stage 1 Musgrave Block North/Western Gawler Frome
  11. 11. Priority areas for Stage 2 North Eyre Peninsula
  12. 12. Musgrave Province
  13. 13. APY Lands – Aquifer Systems Groundwater in the APY Lands occurs in the weathered and fractured sections of the Precambrian bedrock, palaeovalley sands, calcrete and alluvial and aeolian sediments, and the onlapping sediments of the Officer Basin in the south eastern part of the area
  14. 14. Groundwater Quality – Review (Varma 2012)
  15. 15. Existing AEM Data Fragmented coverage Different systems
  16. 16. Philosophy: 1. Accurate system characterisation 2. Calibration 3. Common inversion approach
  17. 17. Using AEM to Understand Palaeovalley Structure and Relation with Current Landscape
  18. 18. Complex Palaeolandscape Current topo Palaeo topo Litho-Structural Control
  19. 19. Combine with magnetics
  20. 20. Conceptual Hydrogeology Pre-Pliocene landscape in the west and central Musgrave Province. Contemporary landscape in the west and central Musgrave Province.
  21. 21. Examine with contemporary topography Multi-resolution Valley Bottom Flatness index (MrVBF) (Gallant and Dowling, 2003). Classifies degrees of flatness using a DEM and operates at range of scales combining the results into a single index.
  22. 22. Combine with regional topographic trends
  23. 23. An offset Palaeovalley thalweg
  24. 24. Contemporary Landscape Reflects Palaeolandscape
  25. 25. AEM Palaeovalley vs Contemporary Topography
  26. 26. Hydrogeological framework model
  27. 27. Magnetics informs the framework model Palaeozoic sediments in in Levenger Graben
  28. 28. Upscaling
  29. 29. Framework and contemporary sand cover
  30. 30. Framework and Hydraulic Gradient
  31. 31. Groundwater residence using isotopes and anthropogenic gases 4He 81Kr 36Cl 14C 39Ar CFC's, SF6 85Kr 3H/3He 0.1 3 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Approximate Groundwater Age (years) 1000000 10000000
  32. 32. Framework and 4He
  33. 33. Inferred groundwater flow paths
  34. 34. Trends across APY Lands In the northern area, groundwater wells are predominantly screened to the regolith of the Precambrian basement rock of the ranges – Higher rates of recharge – direct and diffuse – A modern groundwater age - mean residence time <50 yrs – Fresh groundwater associated with localised recharge from episodic rainfall events In the central/southern area away from the ranges, groundwater wells are screened to Tertiary and Quaternary sediments – Lower rates of recharge where diffuse recharge dominates – Groundwater ages derived from 14C, high concentrations of 4He and higher Cl– indicate much older groundwater
  35. 35. Method 1. It has been tested in the Musgrave province of South Australia. 2. Has application in other parts of outback South Australia, including the SAA Lands, but also other parts of the Alinytjara Wilurara NRM Region. 3. Also be applicable to the Northern Eyre Peninsula.
  36. 36. Follow-up Hydrogeological Investigations: A Possible Workflow Physical Hydrogeology • A framework for ground investigation • Target – industrial scale groundwater resource? Ground EM soundings to locate thick sequences of sediment Drilling Resource Characterisation
  37. 37. Summary (cont) 1. Conjunctive use of exploration geophysical data sets providing input into conceptual hydrogeological model development  Critical data sets – AEM – Mag – DEM 2. Re-Processing AEM with common inversion kernels providing the basis for comparison of results from different areas, but accurate system description is important –  Will not generate seamless maps
  38. 38. Summary 1. Encouraging companies and contractors to ask for and supply that information, even though water/aquifer characterisation maybe less important in the first instance! 2. Work with companies on extending data acquisition – not expensive, but information will add significant knowledge ref groundwater and geology 3. Linking data with an understanding of groundwater age, and recharge through collection of isotopic and tracer data is important -> better conceptual hydrogeological models
  39. 39. Key Gaps in Knowledge Very little information on the hydrogeology of the palaeovalley aquifers – Materials – Transmissivity – Water quality – Quantity – Yields
  40. 40. What/where next....?
  41. 41. Using Geophysics ...
  42. 42. Tells us about aquifers....
  43. 43. Further Data Acquisition Options/Opportunities Build on Exploration Company activity Add new lines Extend Survey lines •$ Cost relatively low – eg 10kms for ~$1500-2000 •No Mob costs •Value to State
  44. 44. Thank you Tim Munday CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Exploration t e w +61 8 6436 8634 tim.munday@csiro.au www.csiro.au WATER FOR A HEALTHY COUNTRY

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