PROXIMITY DETECTION SYSTEMS MANDATING FITMENT IN QUEENSLAND UNDERGROUND MINES 
Peter Herbert, Senior Inspector of Mines -E...
OUTLINE 
Queensland Background 
 Incident Statistics 
Technology 
Current Status 
Change Management 
2
Successfully Detected Proximity Tag 
3 
1 All continuous miners, bolters and shuttle cars are to be fitted with a proximit...
QLD BAKGROUND 
Continuous 
Miner 
9 April 2007 Easter Monday 
4
QLD BAKGROUND 
Recommendation 4 
That underground coal mines review arrangements in relation to the 
interaction between p...
QLD BAKGROUND 
Recommendation 7 
That coal mining operations and the 
Department (as the approval body) move 
quickly with...
INCIDENT STATISTICS 
Remote Controlled Continuous Mining Machine Fatal Accident Analysis Report Of Victim’s Physical Locat...
INCIDENT STATISTICS 
8 
Data supplied 
by Sandvik 
EQUIPMENT / PERSONNEL- AWARENESS RELATED FATALITIES 
57% Human Error 
P...
INCIDENT STATISTICS 
9 
FA 
SBI 
SBI 
SBI 
SBI 
SBI 
SBI SBI SBI 
FA 
FA 
FA 
SBI 
Date Type of 
injury 
Details 
09/04/20...
6 Objects of Act 
The objects of this Act are— 
(a) to protect the safety and health of persons at mines and persons who m...
PDS 
NOW 
? 
TECHNOLOGY 
11
WHAT IS THE PROXIMITY DETECTION SYSTEM TO DO? 
GIVE OPERATOR INFORMATION TO MAKE A DECISION OR 
ALLOW SYSTEM TO CONTROL ...
TECHNOLOGY 
13 
DIAGRAMS FROM DRAFT MDG 
CAT Zone for a shuttle car 
PAT Zone for a shuttle car 
PDT Zone for a shuttle ca...
RFID – tags and readers 
Radar 
‘Magnetic bubble’ 
Laser scanning 
GPS – surface only 
Cameras 
Combination of the above 
...
TECHNOLOGY 
ZONE VALUES CONFIGURABLE BY MINE - Becker. 
1 
2 
3 
Zone Range Proximity 
Critical 
Zone 
0m – 
10m 
In the C...
16 
TECHNOLOGY 
POLAR DIAGRAM OF UNDERGROUND TESTS
TECHNOLOGY 
17 
MACHINE 
CM/SC 
SUPPLIER 
OWN 
SYSTEM 
FIT OR ASSIST 
THIRD PARTY 
MACHINE 
CONTROL 
JOY NO YES YES 
CATER...
TECHNOLOGY 
18 
TYPICAL SHUTTLE CAR INSTALLATION – InfoTronix CWS 
Fully certified IECEx Exi I for use in Qld Coal mines 
...
TECHNOLOGY 
19 
Generators in XP housing 
Silent zone generator 
Control Box 
Tracking Display POD 
PAD 
TYPICAL COMPONENT...
Successfully Detected Proximity Tag 
TECHNOLOGY 
20 
MST/STRATA 
•RFID 
•MAGNETIC BUBBLE
TECHNOLOGY 
21 
© 2011 Becker Mining Systems 
21 
Operator Interface 
Power supply& RS 485 bus interface 
TYPICAL MINER SY...
TECHNOLOGY 
COMPANY 
OUTER ZONE 
Caution 
Long Range 
Vehicle-Vehicle 
Take CAUTION 
CENTRAL 
Warning 
Raise ALARM 
INNER ...
CURRENT STATUS 
23 
UG MINES QUEENSLAND - STATUS 
Number of mines with fitted operating systems 
Nil 
Number of mines tria...
CURRENT STATUS 
24 
TYPICAL TEST/INCIDENT SCENARIOS (Peabody NGC) 
NGC Trial
CURRENT STATUS 
25 
INSTALLATION ISSUES 
Antenna/Receiver placement and mounts on machine are critical to reliable detecti...
No silver bullet but collision awareness/avoidance systems will help in creating a higher level of safety 
CHANGE MANAGEME...
CHANGE MANAGEMENT 
27
CONCLUSION 
•Proximity detection systems do protect persons. 
•In Qld the Inspectorate will continue to support and encour...
CONCLUSION 
FOR A FATAL ACCIDENT THERE IS NO CURE: THERE IS ONLY PREVENTION 
Further enquiries can be directed to 
Peter H...
CONCLUSION 
Every miner home safe and healthy every day 
Commissioner for Mine Safety and Health - Stewart Bell 
30
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Peter herbert, department of natural resources and mines queensland

  1. 1. PROXIMITY DETECTION SYSTEMS MANDATING FITMENT IN QUEENSLAND UNDERGROUND MINES Peter Herbert, Senior Inspector of Mines -Electrical
  2. 2. OUTLINE Queensland Background  Incident Statistics Technology Current Status Change Management 2
  3. 3. Successfully Detected Proximity Tag 3 1 All continuous miners, bolters and shuttle cars are to be fitted with a proximity detection system to prevent the crushing, jamming or striking of persons within the vicinity of the machine. 2 The machine will stop operation when a person is within one metre of any part the machine. 3 All new continuous miners, bolters and shuttle cars are to be fitted with a proximity detection system by 1 July 2015. 4 All existing continuous miners, bolters and shuttle cars are to be fitted with a proximity detection system at their first overhaul after 1 July 2015 but no later than 1 January 2017. Should Legislation with the above intent be prepared? QLD BAKGROUND
  4. 4. QLD BAKGROUND Continuous Miner 9 April 2007 Easter Monday 4
  5. 5. QLD BAKGROUND Recommendation 4 That underground coal mines review arrangements in relation to the interaction between pedestrians and machinery and, following a suitable risk assessment process, revise and to the extent necessary, establish No Go and Restricted Zones to govern the interaction. Where this occurs, coal mine workers should be trained in them and they should be enforced. To assist, where appropriate, the No Go and Restricted Zones should be represented in pictorial form and made available in crib rooms and other such locations to act as a reminder for coal mine workers. Ultimately, operators of mobile equipment must ensure that it is safe to move equipment before they do so. NO GO ZONES 5 ADMINISTRATION CONTROLS HUMAN FACTORS
  6. 6. QLD BAKGROUND Recommendation 7 That coal mining operations and the Department (as the approval body) move quickly with manufacturers and other appropriate bodies to have developed, tested and approved proximity detection devices for use in underground coal mines to detect the presence of pedestrians in and around mobile equipment including shuttle cars. PROXIMITY DETECTION 6 ENGINEERING CONTROLS
  7. 7. INCIDENT STATISTICS Remote Controlled Continuous Mining Machine Fatal Accident Analysis Report Of Victim’s Physical Location With Respect to the Machine Original Report Dated April 26, 2002 Updated April 5, 2013 Prepared By: Chad Huntley, Electrical Engineer “X” indicates general location of fatality. 35 7 US STATISTICS
  8. 8. INCIDENT STATISTICS 8 Data supplied by Sandvik EQUIPMENT / PERSONNEL- AWARENESS RELATED FATALITIES 57% Human Error Prevention by active system 43%awareness/visibility Prevention by passive system CM SC LHD MT 71% CM & SC
  9. 9. INCIDENT STATISTICS 9 FA SBI SBI SBI SBI SBI SBI SBI SBI FA FA FA SBI Date Type of injury Details 09/04/2007 Fatality An employee was fatally injured when he was crushed between the rib and the shuttle car. (Safety Alert SA 161) SBI SBI SBI Walkway AUSTRALIAN STATISTICS
  10. 10. 6 Objects of Act The objects of this Act are— (a) to protect the safety and health of persons at mines and persons who may be affected by operations; and (b) to require that the risk of injury or illness to any person resulting from operations is at an acceptable level. 26 What is an acceptable level of risk (1) For risk to a person from operations to be at an acceptable level, the operations must be carried out so that the level of risk from the operations is— (a) within acceptable limits; and (b) as low as reasonably achievable. CURRENT LEGISLATION (QLD) 10 INCIDENT STATISTICS
  11. 11. PDS NOW ? TECHNOLOGY 11
  12. 12. WHAT IS THE PROXIMITY DETECTION SYSTEM TO DO? GIVE OPERATOR INFORMATION TO MAKE A DECISION OR ALLOW SYSTEM TO CONTROL MACHINE TECHNOLOGY 12 SITUATION ACTION PERSON TO VEHICLE Warn person of vehicle either stationary or moving within detection range VEHICLE TO PERSON Warn vehicle operator of a person in the vehicle detection range VEHICLE TO VEHICLE LV to HV HV to HV Warn vehicle operator of another moving or stationary vehicle in the detection range VEHICLE TO FIXED OBJECT Warn vehicle operator of fixed hazard in the vehicle detection range eg void
  13. 13. TECHNOLOGY 13 DIAGRAMS FROM DRAFT MDG CAT Zone for a shuttle car PAT Zone for a shuttle car PDT Zone for a shuttle car
  14. 14. RFID – tags and readers Radar ‘Magnetic bubble’ Laser scanning GPS – surface only Cameras Combination of the above Selection of technology(ies) critical for effective control of collision hazards and resultant risks TECHNOLOGY 14
  15. 15. TECHNOLOGY ZONE VALUES CONFIGURABLE BY MINE - Becker. 1 2 3 Zone Range Proximity Critical Zone 0m – 10m In the Critical Zone the configured vehicle will be forced to stop Warning Zone 10m – 20m In the Warning Zone both parties are warned of the potential collision. Caution Zone 20m - 100m Miners are cautioned to take note and to stay clear of the operating vehicles in their proximity. The vehicle operator is notified when a new tag is detected. 15
  16. 16. 16 TECHNOLOGY POLAR DIAGRAM OF UNDERGROUND TESTS
  17. 17. TECHNOLOGY 17 MACHINE CM/SC SUPPLIER OWN SYSTEM FIT OR ASSIST THIRD PARTY MACHINE CONTROL JOY NO YES YES CATERPILLAR NO YES YES SANDVIK NO YES NO PROXIMITY DETECTION SYSTEMS
  18. 18. TECHNOLOGY 18 TYPICAL SHUTTLE CAR INSTALLATION – InfoTronix CWS Fully certified IECEx Exi I for use in Qld Coal mines •RFID •MAGNETIC BUBBLE
  19. 19. TECHNOLOGY 19 Generators in XP housing Silent zone generator Control Box Tracking Display POD PAD TYPICAL COMPONENTS OF MST/STRATA HazardAvert SYSTEM
  20. 20. Successfully Detected Proximity Tag TECHNOLOGY 20 MST/STRATA •RFID •MAGNETIC BUBBLE
  21. 21. TECHNOLOGY 21 © 2011 Becker Mining Systems 21 Operator Interface Power supply& RS 485 bus interface TYPICAL MINER SYSTEM - Becker UCAS 430 Electromagnetic/ Radar antenna EPOD 300 DPOD430 RFID UHF Omni UHF Electromagnetic/ Radar antenna EPOD 300 Electromagnetic/ Radar antenna EPOD 300 Electromagnetic/ Radar antenna EPOD 300 •RFID •MAGNETIC BUBBLE
  22. 22. TECHNOLOGY COMPANY OUTER ZONE Caution Long Range Vehicle-Vehicle Take CAUTION CENTRAL Warning Raise ALARM INNER ZONE Critical Short Range Vehicle-Person STOP machine MINE SITE TECHNOLOGIES HazardAvert Wi-Fi RFID 60-120m 20-40m corners Warning and create awareness Magnetic field Collision imminent 0 to 15m BECKER UCAS430 RFID UHF 0-100m +/- 8m RFID Radar 0-50m +/- 0.5m (time of flight) Electromagnetic 0-10m approx 1m INFOTRONIX CWS RFID Long 50m +/-10% Close 18+/- 1m Magnetic antenna Up to 15m TECHNOLOGY 22
  23. 23. CURRENT STATUS 23 UG MINES QUEENSLAND - STATUS Number of mines with fitted operating systems Nil Number of mines trialling any system on the surface 2 Number of mines to trial any system in UG 2 Number of mines relying on corporate fix 6 Number of mines relying on other mines 5
  24. 24. CURRENT STATUS 24 TYPICAL TEST/INCIDENT SCENARIOS (Peabody NGC) NGC Trial
  25. 25. CURRENT STATUS 25 INSTALLATION ISSUES Antenna/Receiver placement and mounts on machine are critical to reliable detection Integration of tags in cap lamps can be an issue Test tags with all technologies in use eg UHF, Radar, magnetic Tags need to have 3 dimensional antennas the orientation of a tag can have an effect on detection What are the signal strengths in relation to the initiation of explosives? Have the units been tested? CSIRO ACARP Project C22012 Project Aim: Introduce an Open Communications Specification for Underground Collision Avoidance Systems to Achieve Product Interoperability. Primary Outcomes Interoperability - of Collision Avoidance and Proximity Detection products with OEM systems Communications Standards – development of protocols required for a device to interact with other devices in a Collision Avoidance System
  26. 26. No silver bullet but collision awareness/avoidance systems will help in creating a higher level of safety CHANGE MANAGEMENT 26
  27. 27. CHANGE MANAGEMENT 27
  28. 28. CONCLUSION •Proximity detection systems do protect persons. •In Qld the Inspectorate will continue to support and encourage the fitment of proximity detection systems •NO GO Zones and associated procedures will continue to be enforced •Substantial commitment is required to get systems operating effectively. •Operator acceptance will be critical to success •Regular testing of the system performance will be a critical operations process. •Look for the positive injury prevention experiences and share them. •Legislation to mandate fitment of PD systems is being considered. The principle of a reasonably achievable and acceptable level of risk will be applied. •End users who have conducted trials of various systems-the Mines Inspectorate applauds you. 28
  29. 29. CONCLUSION FOR A FATAL ACCIDENT THERE IS NO CURE: THERE IS ONLY PREVENTION Further enquiries can be directed to Peter Herbert – Senior Inspector of Mines (Electrical) peter.herbert@dnrm.qld.gov.au Acknowledgements: photographs, schematics, brochures, data Glencore North Goonyella mine Mine Safety Institute Mine Site Technologies Becker Infotronix Sandvik Caterpillar CSIRO 29
  30. 30. CONCLUSION Every miner home safe and healthy every day Commissioner for Mine Safety and Health - Stewart Bell 30

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