Dust Explosions
From an Emergency Services perspective.
Date of issue: April 14
Document number: DEx 3.5
Version number: 2...
Dust Explosions Conference:
The AIM of this presentation:
 Is to discuss my experiences of fires in organic
dust storage ...
Firefighting:
Building and
system
constructions? and
Fire science?
Dust Explosions
Recent MFS events:
 April 1998 - Grain storage Facility fire.
 September 2010 - Grain storage facility
fire.
 February ...
Recent MFS events:
April 1998
Dust explosions
Recent MFS events:
Dust explosions
Dust explosions
In summary
Sept 2010
Operational Overview.
Aerial view of storage area
Sept 2010
NORTH
By the nature of the information available -
Summary
The Front End Loader stopped directly under a skylight
(approximately 15metres above).
The skylight failed
Constru...
Plan:
Dust explosions
What was our plan?
 The Strategy.
 The Intel.
 The Outcome.
This was very time
consuming to
under...
Recent MFS events:
February 2012,
Fire origin area
February 2012
Area affected by fire
Smoke staining of
windows
Fire affected area
February 2012
Dust explosions
Recent MFS events:
Feed mill
March 2012,
Dust explosions
March 2012
March 2012
Critical fire ground factors –
Overview
Feed mill approx. layout:
Dust explosions
Feed mill, fire origin
Screw conveyor
Elevator
Slide
Storage Silo
Feed mill:
Dust explosions
Feed mill, fire origin
Screw conveyor
Elevator
Slide
Storage Silo
The Screw Conveyor – was fire...
Feed mill:
Dust explosions
Fire
A large problem was that, this silo was connected to others via the top and
also, via the ...
Feed mill:
Dust explosions
Fire
Duct work, which
is shared to
Various parts of
plant
This potentially enabled a pathway fo...
Feed mill:
Dust explosions
What was our plan?
Initially it was to undertake a defensive position and
monitor the temperatu...
Were there Risks of a Dust Explosion at any of
these events?
ABSOLUTELY YES
Dust Explosions
From a Firefighting perspective:
What risks exist?
 There a Five conditions for a Dust explosion.
1. Fuel
2. Oxygen
3. Co...
Explosive environments:
Of the five elements considered for an explosive
environment,
IGNITION SOURCES are the most
likely...
Remove Ignition sources:
A Fire Service is at the event probably as a result
of a fire or a known risk of fire.
Therefore,...
Investigate:
Any Fire Service should seek as much
information as possible prior to
developing an action plan which
involve...
General Firefighting activities:
 Removal of the ignition source will
reduce the risk!
 With the right conditions
 A pr...
Situational Awareness
 We should NEVER assume that a initial
event has removed the possibility of a
further flash fire or...
Practical Firefighting Risks:
Fire Services attendance
Is the present situation a potential precursor to a
flash fire or a...
Practical Firefighting Risks:
 Types of events.
 Process fires:
Dust Explosions
Practical Firefighting Risks:
Dust Explosions
Storage fires:
Fires in storage devices for the
finished or primary products.
Practical Firefighting Risks:
 Oxygen limiting, closed or semi-
closed
 Open
Dust Explosions
Practical Firefighting Risks:
Oxygen limiting, closed or semi-
closed
Dust Explosions
Regional Communications
Common Silo arrangement
Product entry or inspection
point
Regional Communications
Common Silo arrangement
Product entry or inspection
point
Air space
Regional Communications
Common Silo arrangement
Product entry or inspection
point
Air space
Stored product
Regional Communications
Common Silo arrangement
Product entry or inspection
point
Air space
Stored product
Discharge point
Regional Communications
Common Silo arrangement
Product entry
or inspection
point
Air space
Stored
product
Discharge
point...
 Ignition source
 Result
Common Silo arrangement
Product entry
or inspection
point
Air space
Stored
product
Discharge
po...
Practical Firefighting Risks:
 What now
occurs?
Dust Explosions
Product entry
or inspection
point
CO
Stored
product
Disch...
Practical Firefighting Risks:
As the product moves, dust may
evolve
Dust Explosions
Product entry
or inspection
point
CO
S...
Practical Firefighting Risks:
This dust, in the right
concentrations, may rapidly and
violently ignite (Flash Fire)
Dust E...
Practical Firefighting Risks:
This will dramatically increase the
pressure within the container.
This pressure could force...
Practical Firefighting Risks:
Failure?
Where could Firefighters
be conducting fire
suppression activities?
Dust Explosions
Practical Firefighting Risks:
Dust ExplosionsImperial sugar 2008
Storage containers:
Open
Dust Explosions
Practical Firefighting Risks:
Open or Oxygen limiting?
How can we know?
or
Dust Explosions
Practical Firefighting Risks:
 There are numerous possibilities for
ignition sources with all installations
 Friction
 ...
Practical Firefighting Risks:
Dust Explosions
The ignition source has
probably already been
established prior to our
arriv...
Stakeholder expectations?
Putting the fire out.
Dust Explosions
Subjectively, all fire go out,
Stakeholder expectations?
Technically, the fire service has
been called to the event to
mitigate the risks!
Dust Explosion...
Tactical solutions
All Fire Services understand the
principals of dynamic risk
assessments,
particularly risk vs benefit.
...
Tactical Solutions
 Approach
 Consequences
 Comparisons
Regardless, in the right conditions the
initial consequences ca...
Tactical Solutions
 Measures
 Flammability
 Measuring a precursor to a dust explosion
Dust Explosions
Tactical Solutions
Firefighter safety will always be
paramount.
Heavy consultation to industry
experts
Dust Explosions
Tactical Solutions
Any Fire Services Tactical plans
will always provide a safe exit
pathway and effective exposure
control...
Thank you,
Any questions?
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Greg Staple - SOUTH AUSTRALIAN METROPOLITAN FIRE SERVICE - Combustible dust from an Emergency Services Responder position

633 views

Published on

Greg Staple delivered the presentation at the 2014 Dust Explosions Conference.

The 2014 Dust Explosions Conference examined industrial hazards, the means to control or eliminate dust and analysed the latest technology to ensure the maximum protection and safety of organizations. The event also featured recent industrial case studies and new safety recommendations.

For more information about the event, please visit: http://www.informa.com.au/dust14

Published in: Engineering, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
633
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
27
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Greg Staple - SOUTH AUSTRALIAN METROPOLITAN FIRE SERVICE - Combustible dust from an Emergency Services Responder position

  1. 1. Dust Explosions From an Emergency Services perspective. Date of issue: April 14 Document number: DEx 3.5 Version number: 2.0 Review Date: April 15 Authorised by: Commander Greg Staple South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service (MFS)
  2. 2. Dust Explosions Conference: The AIM of this presentation:  Is to discuss my experiences of fires in organic dust storage and process facilities from an Emergency Services perspective, including:  Case studies and the broad MFS Investigations  Emergency Service personnel Expectations and  Assumptions Dust Explosions
  3. 3. Firefighting: Building and system constructions? and Fire science? Dust Explosions
  4. 4. Recent MFS events:  April 1998 - Grain storage Facility fire.  September 2010 - Grain storage facility fire.  February 2012 - Grain storage facility fire.  March 2012 - Feed mill processing facility fire. Dust explosions
  5. 5. Recent MFS events: April 1998 Dust explosions
  6. 6. Recent MFS events: Dust explosions
  7. 7. Dust explosions In summary
  8. 8. Sept 2010 Operational Overview. Aerial view of storage area
  9. 9. Sept 2010 NORTH
  10. 10. By the nature of the information available -
  11. 11. Summary The Front End Loader stopped directly under a skylight (approximately 15metres above). The skylight failed Construction Fires impact Firefighting
  12. 12. Plan: Dust explosions What was our plan?  The Strategy.  The Intel.  The Outcome. This was very time consuming to undertake safely
  13. 13. Recent MFS events: February 2012, Fire origin area
  14. 14. February 2012 Area affected by fire Smoke staining of windows Fire affected area
  15. 15. February 2012 Dust explosions
  16. 16. Recent MFS events: Feed mill March 2012, Dust explosions
  17. 17. March 2012
  18. 18. March 2012 Critical fire ground factors – Overview
  19. 19. Feed mill approx. layout: Dust explosions Feed mill, fire origin Screw conveyor Elevator Slide Storage Silo
  20. 20. Feed mill: Dust explosions Feed mill, fire origin Screw conveyor Elevator Slide Storage Silo The Screw Conveyor – was fire damaged The Elevator – was fire damaged The silo was approximately 2/3 full of fine dusty organic material With the aid of thermal imaging – the external surface of the silo was 150 degrees Celsius, at about 2/3 up from the bottom
  21. 21. Feed mill: Dust explosions Fire A large problem was that, this silo was connected to others via the top and also, via the discharge devices, dust collection devices and duct work, which resulted in a shared air space Duct work, which is shared to Various parts of plant
  22. 22. Feed mill: Dust explosions Fire Duct work, which is shared to Various parts of plant This potentially enabled a pathway for any products of combustion to be dispersed to other areas, OR IF, An event was to occur in the fire effected container (explosion), this could be shared by other plant and vessels with catastrophic consequences
  23. 23. Feed mill: Dust explosions What was our plan? Initially it was to undertake a defensive position and monitor the temperatures within the silo Fortunately management was on hand and remained so as an extremely valuable reference and information source Once established that the fire was contained only to the silo, a plan was established to remove the product This was very difficult and time consuming to undertake safely, discuss
  24. 24. Were there Risks of a Dust Explosion at any of these events? ABSOLUTELY YES Dust Explosions
  25. 25. From a Firefighting perspective: What risks exist?  There a Five conditions for a Dust explosion. 1. Fuel 2. Oxygen 3. Confinement 4. Ventilation and the ability to suspend and mix, and 5. IGNITION SOURCES Dust Explosions
  26. 26. Explosive environments: Of the five elements considered for an explosive environment, IGNITION SOURCES are the most likely that a Firefighter may initially control.
  27. 27. Remove Ignition sources: A Fire Service is at the event probably as a result of a fire or a known risk of fire. Therefore, there potentially has been or still is an ignition source.
  28. 28. Investigate: Any Fire Service should seek as much information as possible prior to developing an action plan which involves a crews tactical deployment.
  29. 29. General Firefighting activities:  Removal of the ignition source will reduce the risk!  With the right conditions  A primary and then possibly a secondary explosion may occur.
  30. 30. Situational Awareness  We should NEVER assume that a initial event has removed the possibility of a further flash fire or explosion. Dust Explosions
  31. 31. Practical Firefighting Risks: Fire Services attendance Is the present situation a potential precursor to a flash fire or a deflagration? Dust Explosions
  32. 32. Practical Firefighting Risks:  Types of events.  Process fires: Dust Explosions
  33. 33. Practical Firefighting Risks: Dust Explosions Storage fires: Fires in storage devices for the finished or primary products.
  34. 34. Practical Firefighting Risks:  Oxygen limiting, closed or semi- closed  Open Dust Explosions
  35. 35. Practical Firefighting Risks: Oxygen limiting, closed or semi- closed Dust Explosions
  36. 36. Regional Communications Common Silo arrangement Product entry or inspection point
  37. 37. Regional Communications Common Silo arrangement Product entry or inspection point Air space
  38. 38. Regional Communications Common Silo arrangement Product entry or inspection point Air space Stored product
  39. 39. Regional Communications Common Silo arrangement Product entry or inspection point Air space Stored product Discharge point
  40. 40. Regional Communications Common Silo arrangement Product entry or inspection point Air space Stored product Discharge point Ignition source
  41. 41.  Ignition source  Result Common Silo arrangement Product entry or inspection point Air space Stored product Discharge point Ignition source
  42. 42. Practical Firefighting Risks:  What now occurs? Dust Explosions Product entry or inspection point CO Stored product Discharge point Ignition source
  43. 43. Practical Firefighting Risks: As the product moves, dust may evolve Dust Explosions Product entry or inspection point CO Stored product Discharge point Ignition source
  44. 44. Practical Firefighting Risks: This dust, in the right concentrations, may rapidly and violently ignite (Flash Fire) Dust Explosions dust
  45. 45. Practical Firefighting Risks: This will dramatically increase the pressure within the container. This pressure could force the container to fail at the weakest point This inadvertently will create more dust adding to the fuel load Dust Explosions Ignited dust
  46. 46. Practical Firefighting Risks: Failure? Where could Firefighters be conducting fire suppression activities? Dust Explosions
  47. 47. Practical Firefighting Risks: Dust ExplosionsImperial sugar 2008
  48. 48. Storage containers: Open Dust Explosions
  49. 49. Practical Firefighting Risks: Open or Oxygen limiting? How can we know? or Dust Explosions
  50. 50. Practical Firefighting Risks:  There are numerous possibilities for ignition sources with all installations  Friction  Mechanical or electrical failure  Chemical reaction  Human error  Lighting strikes  Foreign objects  Etc etc Dust Explosions
  51. 51. Practical Firefighting Risks: Dust Explosions The ignition source has probably already been established prior to our arrival,
  52. 52. Stakeholder expectations? Putting the fire out. Dust Explosions Subjectively, all fire go out,
  53. 53. Stakeholder expectations? Technically, the fire service has been called to the event to mitigate the risks! Dust Explosions There is an expectation that we will put the fire out and make the area safe.
  54. 54. Tactical solutions All Fire Services understand the principals of dynamic risk assessments, particularly risk vs benefit. Dust Explosions
  55. 55. Tactical Solutions  Approach  Consequences  Comparisons Regardless, in the right conditions the initial consequences can be similar. Dust Explosions
  56. 56. Tactical Solutions  Measures  Flammability  Measuring a precursor to a dust explosion Dust Explosions
  57. 57. Tactical Solutions Firefighter safety will always be paramount. Heavy consultation to industry experts Dust Explosions
  58. 58. Tactical Solutions Any Fire Services Tactical plans will always provide a safe exit pathway and effective exposure controls. Dust Explosions
  59. 59. Thank you, Any questions?

×