You	
  can	
  change	
  this	
  image	
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  be	
  
appropriate	
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  your	
  topic	
  by	
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an	
  imag...
62%	
  of	
  our	
  people	
  hold	
  
university	
  degrees	
  	
  
2000	
  doctorates	
  	
  	
  
500	
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$50...
FOOD,	
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&	
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  SCIENCE	
  	
  
	
  
ENVIRONMENT	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
 ...
Australian	
  Coal	
  Industry	
  Overview	
  
World’s second largest exporter – about 28% of world coal market
2010-2011
...
CSIRO	
  Coal	
  Mining	
  Research	
  	
  
to	
  maximise	
  the	
  benefits	
  from	
  Australia’s	
  coal	
  resources	
...
Mining ROM/CPPP Loadout Transport Port Ship
	
  
	
  
Issues	
  that	
  have	
  been	
  iden4fied	
  are:
• S"cky	
  coal:	...
Trains	
  are	
  loaded	
  for	
  transport	
  to	
  the	
  coal	
  ports.	
  Coals	
  which	
  give	
  
problems	
  durin...
Non	
  	
  s4cky	
  coals	
  unload	
  well	
  from	
  boPom	
  dump	
  rail	
  wagons.	
  
S4cky	
  coals	
  give	
  hang	
  up	
  	
  which	
  impedes	
  unloading	
  
Loading method and loadout design contributed to coal
hangup during unloading.
Loaded with a front end loader Loaded with ...
The	
  RG	
  Tanna	
  Coal	
  Terminal	
  (Gladstone)	
  
determined	
  that	
  many	
  mines	
  provided	
  
s4cky	
  coa...
What	
  makes	
  some	
  coal	
  s/cky?	
  
Coal properties? (moisture, fines, ash content)
Wagon design? (slope sheet ang...
Quantifying coal handleability- laboratory testing
Consolidating pressure (t/m2
)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Discharge(kg)
0
10
20
30...
Centre sill
Coal arch
Acoustic
Measuring
devices
Video
camera
Arch profile in a rail wagon.
Arch profile in CSIRO lab scal...
Issues associated with the unloading of coal wagons are quite
complex. To develop solutions to complex problems require bu...
Remnant	
  Coal	
  Detec/on	
  
Undesirable	
  residual	
  coal	
  in	
  the	
  wagons	
  
of	
  emp4ed	
  coal	
  trains	...
1.  RCD	
  is	
  a	
  system	
  that	
  monitors	
  coal	
  train	
  wagons,	
  looking	
  for	
  coal	
  
hangups	
  (cur...
Remnant	
  Coal	
  Detec/on	
  
	
  Enabling Technology for
Detection & Measurement
• Several eye-safe
commercial options
...
Remnant	
  Coal	
  Detec/on	
  
Remnant	
  Coal	
  Detec/on	
  
Port	
  efficiency:	
  As	
  the	
  port	
  is	
  area	
  constrained	
  they	
  need	
  to	
  
maximize	
  the	
  use	
  of...
We	
  are	
  currently	
  undertaking	
  a	
  Laser	
  Stockpile	
  Mapping	
  Trial	
  at	
  
the	
  R.G.	
  Tanna	
  Coa...
Modeling	
  is	
  an	
  important	
  tool	
  for	
  op4mizing	
  material	
  transfer	
  
opera4ons.	
  	
  
Computa4onal	...
Coal	
  Discharge	
  from	
  Rail	
  Wagons	
  
Coal	
  transport	
  from	
  mine	
  to	
  terminal	
  is	
  vital	
  to	
...
Coal	
  Discharge	
  from	
  Rail	
  Wagons	
  
Bradken	
  Rail	
  Wagon	
  Design	
  
	
  Dimensions	
  of	
  a	
  single...
Coal	
  Flow	
  in	
  Rail	
  Wagons	
  
DEM	
  Coal	
  par5cles	
  
	
  
Real	
  coal	
  mass	
  with	
  a	
  top	
  size...
Coal	
  Discharge	
  from	
  a	
  Rail	
  Wagon	
  
•  Sloping end walls provide strong resistance to flow. End compartmen...
Dust dispersal modelling on a conveyor chute using a coupled discrete element and CFD method, CFD 2011, Trondheim, June 20...
Par4culates	
  comes	
  from	
  many	
  different	
  
sources:	
  
•  Natural	
  sources	
  
–  sea	
  spray	
  
–  animal	...
Mackay	
  Ports	
  
•  	
  Part	
  of	
  	
  a	
  large	
  study	
  being	
  conducted	
  
•  Assisted	
  a	
  coal	
  pro...
Air	
  Par/culates	
  –	
  Size	
  Does	
  Mafer	
  
	
  
Gets	
  trapped	
  by	
  
the	
  body’s	
  
natural	
  defense	
...
•  14	
  bit	
  colour	
  images	
  are	
  collected	
  
using	
  an	
  air	
  lens	
  
•  Images	
  are	
  mosaiced	
  to...
50µm
Unidentified
Mineral
Coal
Soot
Paint
50µm
Unidentified
Mineral
Coal
Soot
Spore
2 images collected as part of a
study ...
Analysis	
  of	
  a	
  Dust	
  Sample	
  from	
  Mackay	
  
Image	
  Collec/on	
  
500µm
50µm
100 Images
mosaiced together...
Analysis	
  of	
  a	
  Dust	
  Sample	
  
Original	
  Image	
  
Analysis	
  of	
  a	
  Dust	
  Sample	
  
Characterised	
  Image	
  
Coal
Non-coal
Par/cle	
  informa/on	
  
	
  
Image Characterised image
Area
(pixels)
Area
(um)^2
Particle
width (um)
Particle
length (um...
Results	
  of	
  Analysis	
  by	
  Size	
  (volume	
  %)	
  
	
  
SIZE	
   AMOUNT	
  COAL	
  	
   AMOUNT	
  NON-­‐COAL	
  ...
Size	
  distribu/on	
  of	
  par/cles	
  
0	
  
10	
  
20	
  
30	
  
40	
  
50	
  
60	
  
<2.5	
   2.5<10	
   10<30	
   30...
Analysis	
  of	
  a	
  Dust	
  Sample	
  from	
  Brisbane	
  
Image	
  Collec/on	
  
Over 100 mages collected of 3mm
diame...
•  Informa4on	
  determined	
  on	
  in	
  excess	
  of	
  2000	
  par4cles	
  
•  Less	
  than	
  1%	
  of	
  par4cles	
 ...
Analysis	
  of	
  a	
  Dust	
  Sample	
  
Example	
  Par/culates	
  at	
  200x	
  magnifica/on	
  
50µm
Mineral
Coal
Soot
Q...
Analysis	
  of	
  a	
  Dust	
  Sample	
  
Example	
  Par/culates	
  at	
  500x	
  magnifica/on	
  
10µm
Coal
Mineral
Flyash...
 	
   	
  	
   Non-­‐Coal	
  
Total	
  
No	
  of	
  
grains	
  Size	
  class	
   Grain	
  class	
   Coal	
   Fly	
  ash	
 ...
 	
   	
  	
   Non-­‐Coal	
  
Total	
  
No	
  of	
  
grains	
  Size	
  class	
   Grain	
  class	
   Coal	
   Fly	
  ash	
 ...
 
	
  
To	
  improve	
  the	
  safely	
  and	
  efficiency	
  of	
  coal	
  transporta4on	
  from	
  mine	
  to	
  
port	
  ...
 	
  
	
  	
  
	
  	
  
Graham	
  O'Brien	
  
	
  	
  
CSIRO	
  Energy	
  Flagship	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
 ...
Graham O’Brien, CSIRO, CSIRO’s Coal Logistics Findings
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Graham O’Brien, CSIRO, CSIRO’s Coal Logistics Findings

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Graham O'Brien delivered the presentation at 2014 Bulk Materials Handling Conference.

The 11th annual Bulk Materials Handling Conference is an expert led forum focusing on the engineering behind the latest expansions and upgrades of bulk materials facilities. This conference will evaluate the latest engineering feats that are creating record levels of throughput whilst minimising downtime.

For more information about the event, please visit: http://www.informa.com.au/bulkmaterials14

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Graham O’Brien, CSIRO, CSIRO’s Coal Logistics Findings

  1. 1. You  can  change  this  image  to  be   appropriate  for  your  topic  by  inser4ng   an  image  in  this  space  or  use  the   alternate  4tle  slide  with  lines.   Note:  only  one  image  should  be  used   and  do  not  overlap  the  4tle  text.   Enter  your  Business  Unit  or  Flagship   name  in  the  ribbon  above  the  url.     [delete  instruc4ons  before  use]      CSIRO’s  Coal  Logis/cs  Findings   GRAHAM    O‘BRIEN  
  2. 2. 62%  of  our  people  hold   university  degrees     2000  doctorates       500  masters   $500M+    annual   revenue  generated   from  external  sources   Top  1%  of  global  ins4tu4ons  in   14  of  22  research  fields         Industry  focus:  1600  Australian     companies,  350+  Mul4-­‐na4onals   Darwin   Alice  Springs   Geraldton     2  sites   Atherton   Townsville   2  sites   Rockhampton   Toowoomba   GaPon   Myall  Vale   Narrabri   Mopra   Parkes   Griffith   Belmont   Geelong   Hobart   Sandy  Bay   Wodonga   Newcastle   Armidale    2  sites   Perth   3  sites   Adelaide   2  sites   Sydney    5  sites   Canberra    7  sites   Murchison   Cairns   Irymple   Melbourne  5  sites     CSIRO:  Who  we  are   Werribee  2  sites   Brisbane   6  sites     Bribie     Island   People   Divisions   Loca/ons   Flagships   Budget   6500   12   58   11   $1B+  
  3. 3. FOOD,  HEALTH     &  LIFE  SCIENCE       ENVIRONMENT                           MANUFACTURING,   MATERIALS  &     MINERALS                     ENERGY                         INFORMATION  &     COMMUNICATIONS                       What  we  do:  our  domain  focus   12Research  Divisions  11Na4onal  Research  Flagships   +Na4onal  Research Facilities and Collections +Transforma4onal     Capability  Pla]orms
  4. 4. Australian  Coal  Industry  Overview   World’s second largest exporter – about 28% of world coal market 2010-2011 Coal production raw black coal: 454Mt saleable black coal: 345Mt Exports •  283Mt ($A44 billion) Black and brown coal account for 75% of Australia’s electric power Australia’s major resources and energy exports, 2010-11
  5. 5. CSIRO  Coal  Mining  Research     to  maximise  the  benefits  from  Australia’s  coal  resources  in  an   environmentally  and  socially  responsible  manner.   Research Stream Scope Mining engineering Development of new mining systems, design and operational control techniques Mining automation Development of automation of mining equipment, sensing and communication systems Mine environmental technologies Development of new mining environment mitigation methods and remedial techniques Coal processing and Logistics Development of new coal cleaning methods and rail and port engagements. Largest coal mining research program in Australia More than 70 CSIRO researchers 4 key research areas Established a solid track record of success and delivered significant benefits
  6. 6. Mining ROM/CPPP Loadout Transport Port Ship     Issues  that  have  been  iden4fied  are: • S"cky  coal:  Issues  with  transfer  hoppers,  conveyors,  rail  wagon  loading   and  unloading,  and  shiploading  and  unloading. • Cost  and  efficiency,    scheduling,  op4mizing  rail  transport  and  port   throughput   • Environmental.  Noise,  dust,  water,  spontaneous  combus4on.   Efficient    material  transfer  is    cri4cal  at  all  parts  of  the  coal  chain.   Our  coal  logis4cs    ini4a4ve  specifically  focuses  on  issues  from  rail   loadout  through  to  shiploading.        
  7. 7. Trains  are  loaded  for  transport  to  the  coal  ports.  Coals  which  give   problems  during    unloading  are  known  colloquially  as  s/cky  coals.    
  8. 8. Non    s4cky  coals  unload  well  from  boPom  dump  rail  wagons.  
  9. 9. S4cky  coals  give  hang  up    which  impedes  unloading  
  10. 10. Loading method and loadout design contributed to coal hangup during unloading. Loaded with a front end loader Loaded with an impact loader
  11. 11. The  RG  Tanna  Coal  Terminal  (Gladstone)   determined  that  many  mines  provided   s4cky  coal  products.     In  2005  GPA  es4mated  that  s4cky  coal  cost   approximately  2%  of  port  throughput   (approximately  800,000  tonnes/  year).     Other  QLD  coal  ports  had  similar  issues   with  s4cky  coal.         Factors Outside of GPA Control Wagon Design (134tph) Waiting Dozers Relocate Tripper Sticky Coal Barcode Resolution (wrong barcode, no barcode, damaged barcode) Split Trains QR Delays Incorrect Mine Advice Train Speed GPA Can Influence by GPA can Control:- Correct unloading procedure, skill levels, automation, design, allocation of responsib. System performance - delays of 60% Electronic barcode Reporting weekly to QRMonitoring, partnering Scheduling Scheduling Monitor/report Reporting Ploughing Electronic data transfer 14% (218tph) 10% 6% 8% 1% 1% Average of 660tph per split connote 5 Percent of trains jack hammered by mine Jackhammer Trains by Mine 2003/2004 Start Train/End Train HJ Roll. 1% Callide 0% SBW 6% Gregory 4% Yarrabee 10% Moura 2% Kestral 5% Oakey Crk 1% Ensham 10% Cook 3% BlackWater 11% Curragh 24% Jellinbah 23%
  12. 12. What  makes  some  coal  s/cky?   Coal properties? (moisture, fines, ash content) Wagon design? (slope sheet angle, door width, wall material) Loading forces? (loading method, drop height) Travel forces? ( vibration, travel time, adverse weather) Field and laboratory work was conducted to identify and quantify these factors. This work was supported by the coal producers, Qld Rail and the coal ports.
  13. 13. Quantifying coal handleability- laboratory testing Consolidating pressure (t/m2 ) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Discharge(kg) 0 10 20 30 40 50 A B C D E F.2 (PP) G1 H1 (thermal) H2 (PCI) Free flowing coalsSticky coals Lab scale test which uses approx 90 kgs of coal replicates the arches formed in full scale wagons. It enables us to benchmark coals and determine size and moisture effects. We  developed  a  laboratory  scale  and  a  pilot  scale  test  for  assessing  coals.  
  14. 14. Centre sill Coal arch Acoustic Measuring devices Video camera Arch profile in a rail wagon. Arch profile in CSIRO lab scale test unit. The  lab  test  unit  shows  same  arch  profile  as  observed  in  rail  wagons  
  15. 15. Issues associated with the unloading of coal wagons are quite complex. To develop solutions to complex problems require buy in from all parties. To a large extent this was achieved for this research. Sticky coal is currently less of an issue than it was previously. Changes made at one position in the chain can impact on other links in the chain. New coals with different properties will come into the system in the next few years. Unknown at this stage is whether they will be sticky. Project  findings  
  16. 16. Remnant  Coal  Detec/on   Undesirable  residual  coal  in  the  wagons   of  emp4ed  coal  trains   •  Reduced  capacity  of  coal  wagons  –reduced   produc4vity   •  Causes  cross-­‐contamina4on  of  coal  with  other   mines:  poten4ally  reject  wagons   •  Dries  out  eventually,  causing  coal  dust   pollu4on  from  the  trains   •  Coal  can  jam  in  the  wagon  doors,  leading  to   spills  and  derailments   •  Large  coal  “hangups”  can  occur:  the  load  fails   to  dump,  hanging  in  a  bridge  that  breaks  later,   causing  spillage  and  poten4al  derailment  
  17. 17. 1.  RCD  is  a  system  that  monitors  coal  train  wagons,  looking  for  coal   hangups  (currently  installed  on  two  dump  sta4ons  at  GPC—R  G   Tanna).   2.  GPC  have  also  given  considera4on  to  a  proposed  future  automa"c   cleaning  system,  with  remote  operator  supervision,  will  engage  the   jackhammers  to  clear  the  detected  hangup.   Remnant  Coal  Detec/on  System  
  18. 18. Remnant  Coal  Detec/on    Enabling Technology for Detection & Measurement • Several eye-safe commercial options • Single-point laser scans using a rotating mirror to develop a 2D line • Movement of target can create a 3D profile
  19. 19. Remnant  Coal  Detec/on  
  20. 20. Remnant  Coal  Detec/on  
  21. 21. Port  efficiency:  As  the  port  is  area  constrained  they  need  to   maximize  the  use  of  their  footprint.  Also  shown  are  dust  monitoring   sites.  
  22. 22. We  are  currently  undertaking  a  Laser  Stockpile  Mapping  Trial  at   the  R.G.  Tanna  Coal  Terminal  to  assist  them  to  op/mise  the  use  of   their  footprint,  and  hence  improve  annual  port  capacity.     The low reflectivity of coal is a major limitation on the use of conventional laser range measurement systems for mapping coal stockpiles.
  23. 23. Modeling  is  an  important  tool  for  op4mizing  material  transfer   opera4ons.     Computa4onal  Modelling   Applica4ons  in  Coal  Transport   and  dust  genera4on.   This  work  was  done  by  Paul   Cleary’s  research  group  in   Melbourne.     Paul.Cleary@csiro.au         Presenta4on  4tle    |    Presenter  name  
  24. 24. Coal  Discharge  from  Rail  Wagons   Coal  transport  from  mine  to  terminal  is  vital  to  Na4onal  Coal  Industry.     The  unloading  4me  for  a  single  wagon  constrains  the  rate  at  which  coal  can  be   delivered.     •  Discharge  4me  depends  on  coal   flowability  which  depends  on:     –     par4cle  size  distribu4on   –     par4cle  shape  distribu4on   –     material  proper4es   –     cohesive  forces  between  wet  coal   Improvements  in  rail  wagon  design  require  deeper  understanding  of  the  interac4on   between  granular  coal  mass  and  the  internal  geometry  of  the  wagon.  
  25. 25. Coal  Discharge  from  Rail  Wagons   Bradken  Rail  Wagon  Design    Dimensions  of  a  single  wagon   –   Height  =  3.7  m   –   Length  =  14.6  m   –   Width  =  3.0  m    5  compartments,  8  doors  which  are  scheduled  to  open  in  pairs    Coal  unloads  while  the  train  is  in  mo4on.   –  Adjacent  pairs  of  doors  are  triggered  to  open  mechanically  in  a  coal  terminal   by  a  fixed  mechanism  beside  the  rail  line.     –  The  4me  interval  between  each  set  of  doors  opening  is  determined  by  the   speed  of  the  train  through  the  terminal.    
  26. 26. Coal  Flow  in  Rail  Wagons   DEM  Coal  par5cles     Real  coal  mass  with  a  top  size  of  50  mm  was  modelled  using   cohesive,  oversized  80  mm  DEM  par4cles     485,000  par4cles     DEM  superquadrics   –  Shape  distribu"on:  3.0  –  6.0     –  Aspect  ra"os  from  0.5  –  1.0   A  cohesion  Bond  number  of  0.5  was  used  (based  on  comparison   between  a  50  mm  DEM  simula4on  and  pilot  hopper  experiments)   Pairs  of  wagon  doors  were  scheduled  to  open  at  6  s  intervals    
  27. 27. Coal  Discharge  from  a  Rail  Wagon   •  Sloping end walls provide strong resistance to flow. End compartments slower to fully discharge than inner compartments •  Considerable flow between compartments around and through the baffles. Preferential central flow through each door with coal mass retarded at walls. •  In the inner compartments, active regions of rapid coal flow are observed to extend from discharging door up to the coal surface
  28. 28. Dust dispersal modelling on a conveyor chute using a coupled discrete element and CFD method, CFD 2011, Trondheim, June 2011     Model   –  Physically  realis4c  dust  model   –  Based  on  experimentally  derived  expression   Computa4onal  method   –  Combined  DEM/CFD  method   Dust  Modelling  
  29. 29. Par4culates  comes  from  many  different   sources:   •  Natural  sources   –  sea  spray   –  animal  and  plant  maPer   –  wind  blown  stone  dust   –  wildfires   –  etc.   •  Human  sources   –  Mining  ac4vi4es   –  plas4c  and  paint   –  fuel  combus4on   –  rust   –  etc.   Introduc/on  to  Air  Par/culates  (Dust)   200µm 10µm
  30. 30. Mackay  Ports   •   Part  of    a  large  study  being  conducted   •  Assisted  a  coal  producer  address  a  community   complaint       Newcastle   •  Assessment  of  rou4ne  samples   •  Assessment  of  compliance  samples   Gladstone   •  Assisted  with  Port  community  complaints   Brisbane   •  Assisted  with  community  concerns   Current  studies   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:Australian_Energie_ressources_and_major_export_ports_map.svg
  31. 31. Air  Par/culates  –  Size  Does  Mafer     Gets  trapped  by   the  body’s   natural  defense   mechanisms   Does  not  enter   body   Small  enough  to   enter  the  airways   Gets  trapped  in   the  lungs   Small  enough  to   enter  the  blood   vessels   Gets  deposited   around  the  body   in  various  organs   Nuisance  Dust   SePles  quickly  and  can  easily  be   seen   Respirable  Dust   Stays  suspended  for  a  long  4me  and   is  too  small  to  see   Smaller  than  2.5  microns  Small  than  10  microns   Typically  of  industrial  origin   Total   airborne   par/culates   Bigger  than  10  microns   Typically  of  natural  origin   “Dust”   PM10   PM2.5   Category   Technical  Name   Size   Origin   Health   Implica/ons  
  32. 32. •  14  bit  colour  images  are  collected   using  an  air  lens   •  Images  are  mosaiced  together  to   provide  detail  on  mul4ple  complete   par4cles.     •  Depending  on  magnifica4on  used  1   pixel  in  the  images  represents  0.32  or   0.12  microns.   •  This  provides  informa4on  on  each   individual  par4cle  in  the  sample.         CSIRO’s  Coal  Petrography  Laboratory  uses  op4cal  reflected  light   micro.scopy    for  the  analysis  of  dust  samples  
  33. 33. 50µm Unidentified Mineral Coal Soot Paint 50µm Unidentified Mineral Coal Soot Spore 2 images collected as part of a study of dust from the Mackay region 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 % Random Vitrinite Reflectance (%) Reflectance histogram of the coal particles indicate that the coal dust came from multiple sources
  34. 34. Analysis  of  a  Dust  Sample  from  Mackay   Image  Collec/on   500µm 50µm 100 Images mosaiced together covering an area of 4.5x3.5 mm
  35. 35. Analysis  of  a  Dust  Sample   Original  Image  
  36. 36. Analysis  of  a  Dust  Sample   Characterised  Image   Coal Non-coal
  37. 37. Par/cle  informa/on     Image Characterised image Area (pixels) Area (um)^2 Particle width (um) Particle length (um) Grain Class 227 23.2 4 10 non-coal 1055 108.0 11 16 non-coal 475 48.6 7 10 coal 621 63.6 7 13 non-coal 24113 2469.2 49 85 non-coal 297 30.4 6 10 non-coal 1871 191.6 14 21 non-coal 9015 923.1 32 48 coal 3024 309.7 20 31 non-coal 348 35.6 6 13 non-coal 284 29.1 6 10 non-coal 1090 111.6 12 13 non-coal 1085 111.1 11 25 non-coal 235 24.1 5 8 non-coal 1026 105.1 11 24 non-coal 1613 165.2 12 23 non-coal 360 36.9 6 9 non-coal 3762 385.2 24 36 non-coal 6046 619.1 24 55 non-coal 1361 139.4 13 19 non-coal
  38. 38. Results  of  Analysis  by  Size  (volume  %)     SIZE   AMOUNT  COAL     AMOUNT  NON-­‐COAL     TOTAL   NUMBER    OF  GRAINS   PM2.5*   (>2.5um)   0*   0*   0*   10*   PM10   (2.5><-­‐10um)   1   18   19   8155   Nuisance  Dust   (>10um)   3   78   81   4667   Total   4   96   100   12832   *Limited  data  available  on  -­‐2.5  micron  par4cles  as  images  were  collected  with  20x  lens   •  Coal  only  4%  of  the  sample   •  Only  ¼  of  the  coal  present  <10micron   •  More  than  80%  of  the  sample  is  nuisance  dust  (greater  than  10  micron)   •  Limited  data  on  the  >2.5micron  at  200x  magnifica4on   •  Results  validated  through  manual  point  coun4ng      
  39. 39. Size  distribu/on  of  par/cles   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   <2.5   2.5<10   10<30   30<60   60<100   100<140   Volume  %   Size  (microns)   Size  Distribu/on   coal   non-­‐coal  
  40. 40. Analysis  of  a  Dust  Sample  from  Brisbane   Image  Collec/on   Over 100 mages collected of 3mm diameter circle containing sample
  41. 41. •  Informa4on  determined  on  in  excess  of  2000  par4cles   •  Less  than  1%  of  par4cles  iden4fied  as  coal   •  Reflectance  values  for  the  coal  par4cles  was  around  0.5%   –  This  is  consistent  with  literature  values  for  low  rank  thermal  coals  from  West   Moreton  Coal  Fields  which  are  railed  through  Brisbane  to  the  Port  of   Brisbane   •  Majority  of  non-­‐coal  par4cles  appeared  to  be  soot  with  a  median  size  of  20µm       Results  of  Analysis  –  Brisbane  Sample    
  42. 42. Analysis  of  a  Dust  Sample   Example  Par/culates  at  200x  magnifica/on   50µm Mineral Coal Soot Quartz 50µm Unidentified Mineral Coal Soot Spore
  43. 43. Analysis  of  a  Dust  Sample   Example  Par/culates  at  500x  magnifica/on   10µm Coal Mineral Flyash Plastic Coal Paint 10µm Mineral
  44. 44.         Non-­‐Coal   Total   No  of   grains  Size  class   Grain  class   Coal   Fly  ash   Soot   Bright   Minerals   Dark   Minerals   Unidentified   Nuisance   +30   13.9   0.1   0.3   0.0   1.0   0.0   15.3   58   Nuisance     -­‐30  +  10   45.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   3.8   0.0   49.1   1056   Inhalable   -­‐10  +  2.5   28.4   0.0   0.0   0.0   5.2   0.0   33.6   6449   Respirable   -­‐2.5   1.6   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.4   0.0   2.0   1883       Total   88.9   0.4   0.3   0.0   10.3   0.0   100.0   9,446   Example image (one of about 2,000) collected during the analysis of a sample of dust from a sampling station at a coal port.
  45. 45.         Non-­‐Coal   Total   No  of   grains  Size  class   Grain  class   Coal   Fly  ash   Soot   Bright   Minerals   Dark   Minerals   Unidentified   Nuisance   +30   0.0   0.0   0.0   6.7   29.9   1.9   38.5   61   Nuisance     -­‐30  +  10   0.1   0.2   0.1   20.1   28.4   1.3   50.1   535   Inhalable   -­‐10  +  2.5   0.1   0.0   0.0   3.4   7.3   0.0   10.9   1260   Respirable   -­‐2.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.1   0.5   0.0   0.5   333       Total   0.2   0.2   0.1   30.2   66.2   3.1   100.0   2,189   Example image (one of about 2,000) collected during the analysis of a sample of dust from a sampling station a distance from the coal port.
  46. 46.     To  improve  the  safely  and  efficiency  of  coal  transporta4on  from  mine  to   port  and  onto  markets  in  a  socially  responsible  manner  which  has  zero   environmental  impact,  requires  commitment  from  all  stakeholders.     We  believe  that  applied  research  is  an  important  component  for   obtaining  incremental  improvement  for  exis4ng  opera4ons  and  step   change  improvement  for  greenfield  opera4ons.                   Conclusions  
  47. 47.             Graham  O'Brien       CSIRO  Energy  Flagship                                                                                       Stream  Leader-­‐  Enhanced  Coal  Cleaning  and    Logis/cs                     Queensland    Centre  of  Advanced  Technologies                                                                                                                                      1  Technology  Court  phone                                                                                            +61  733274457   Pullenvale  4069                                                                                                                                        mobile  0417612374   Brisbane  QLD  Australia                                                                                                                Graham.O’Brien@csiro.au                                                                                                                                                             Thank you. Questions?

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