Douglas Bell
1.1.1.1. Defining MultimodalityDefining MultimodalityDefining MultimodalityDefining Multimodality2.2.2.2. Components of Mu...
Very popular term in MelbourneMultimodal ticketing system (since mid1980’s)Define in terms of:◦ People or◦ Trips or◦ Network
TRAIN (at leastonce a month)TRAM (at leastonce a month)BUS (at leastonce a month)sample % ofPopulation% of PTUsers77 13% 2...
Public TransportTrainTramBusCarWalkTaxiCycleTicketingInformationExperience Other ?????
Walking Cycling Taxi & Car Public TransportBarriers Variability in needs& preferencesAverage responsetimeFrequency of serv...
EquityChoiceEfficiencyLiveabilityConsumerBenefits
Choice:Choice:Choice:Choice: PeoplePeoplePeoplePeople who are unable towho are unable towho are unable towho are unable to...
A variety of data sources can assist in quantifying theA variety of data sources can assist in quantifying theA variety of...
Mode CombinationTrips (per day)Bus/Other 171,900Tram/Other 166,600Tram/Bus/other 13,000Train/Other 203,200Train/Bus/Other ...
Source: Metlink OD Survey (2009)0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%Inner City InterchangeStationsCity Loop Northern Clifton Hill...
Source: Metlink OD Survey (2009)y = 0.2042ln(x) - 0.2355R² = 0.55370%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%0 10 20 30 40 50 60%caracc...
Source: Metlink OD Survey (2009)(a) PT GrowthTrain travel up by 94% in last 12 years;Tram travel up by 52% in last 12 year...
Source: PTV Journey Planner
Source: PTV Journey Planner & Google MapsKooyong to South Melbourne (distance = 11 km)Train &TramTrain &CycleCar : peak(wi...
Source: PTV Journey PlannerPTV’s Journey Planner confirms thereseveral competitive routesthe car is 16 min. faster than pu...
Source: PTV Journey PlannerMode Train & Tram Car Train & CycleWalk/wait 17 5Train 26 26Tram 24Car 44Bicycle 40TOTAL 67 49 ...
Source: Zenith & VISTA (2007)Travel models use measures ofgeneralised cost (GC) to predictmode choiceGC includes a “transf...
#### ThemeThemeThemeTheme ExamplesExamplesExamplesExamples1111 AccessPark’n’ride at Doncaster, bicycle storage2222 Interch...
1.1.1.1. “Melbourne’s railway stations are badly designed,“Melbourne’s railway stations are badly designed,“Melbourne’s ra...
#3 Minimizing waiting times for transfers#3 Minimizing waiting times for transfers#3 Minimizing waiting times for transfer...
1. Dominance of car-based travel needs to beaddressed.2. Community needs a diverse, multimodal transportsystem. The public...
5. Rapid growth in PT usage in the last several years:• 62% of people use PT (at least once per month);• 40% of PT users a...
Multimodality - The importance of multi-modal transport in cities
Multimodality - The importance of multi-modal transport in cities
Multimodality - The importance of multi-modal transport in cities
Multimodality - The importance of multi-modal transport in cities
Multimodality - The importance of multi-modal transport in cities
Multimodality - The importance of multi-modal transport in cities
Multimodality - The importance of multi-modal transport in cities
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Multimodality - The importance of multi-modal transport in cities

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Doug Bell, Principal, from Multi-modal Transport Solutions has presented at the Victorian Transport Summit. If you would like more information about the conference, please visit the website: www.statetransportevents.com.au/transport-conference/vic-transport-infrastructure

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Multimodality - The importance of multi-modal transport in cities

  1. 1. Douglas Bell
  2. 2. 1.1.1.1. Defining MultimodalityDefining MultimodalityDefining MultimodalityDefining Multimodality2.2.2.2. Components of Multimodal NetworkComponents of Multimodal NetworkComponents of Multimodal NetworkComponents of Multimodal Network3.3.3.3. Benefits of Multimodal TravelBenefits of Multimodal TravelBenefits of Multimodal TravelBenefits of Multimodal Travel4.4.4.4. Extent of Multimodal Travel in MelbourneExtent of Multimodal Travel in MelbourneExtent of Multimodal Travel in MelbourneExtent of Multimodal Travel in Melbourne5.5.5.5. Examples of Multimodal Travel InExamples of Multimodal Travel InExamples of Multimodal Travel InExamples of Multimodal Travel In MelbMelbMelbMelb....6.6.6.6. Strategies to Improve Multimodal TravelStrategies to Improve Multimodal TravelStrategies to Improve Multimodal TravelStrategies to Improve Multimodal Travel7.7.7.7. ConclusionsConclusionsConclusionsConclusions
  3. 3. Very popular term in MelbourneMultimodal ticketing system (since mid1980’s)Define in terms of:◦ People or◦ Trips or◦ Network
  4. 4. TRAIN (at leastonce a month)TRAM (at leastonce a month)BUS (at leastonce a month)sample % ofPopulation% of PTUsers77 13% 21%45 8% 12%10 2% 3%131 22% 35%27 5% 7%8 1% 2%76 13% 20%nil nil nil 226 38%600 100% 100%374 62%% who are truly multimodal 242 40% 65%People who are public transport users
  5. 5. Public TransportTrainTramBusCarWalkTaxiCycleTicketingInformationExperience Other ?????
  6. 6. Walking Cycling Taxi & Car Public TransportBarriers Variability in needs& preferencesAverage responsetimeFrequency of serviceContinuity Separated facilities Taxis per capita Service coverageWidth and trafficvolumesRoadway cyclingconditionPrice (relative toincome)Reliability, waittime & comfort.Crossing & waittimesParking andchanging facilitiesComfort, reliability,safety, & courtesy.Personal securityPedestrian security special cyclingfacilities, (paths &bike lanes)Taxis for peoplewith disabilitiesComfort (crowding& cleanliness)Those withdisability/luggagePark’n’ride &kiss’n’rideTrip time and costs(relative to income).
  7. 7. EquityChoiceEfficiencyLiveabilityConsumerBenefits
  8. 8. Choice:Choice:Choice:Choice: PeoplePeoplePeoplePeople who are unable towho are unable towho are unable towho are unable to drivedrivedrivedriveEfficiency:Efficiency:Efficiency:Efficiency: ReduceReduceReduceReduce traffic congestion, facilitate costtraffic congestion, facilitate costtraffic congestion, facilitate costtraffic congestion, facilitate costsavings, increase road safety, environmental improvementsavings, increase road safety, environmental improvementsavings, increase road safety, environmental improvementsavings, increase road safety, environmental improvementConsumer Benefits:Consumer Benefits:Consumer Benefits:Consumer Benefits: SavesSavesSavesSaves money, avoids stress,money, avoids stress,money, avoids stress,money, avoids stress,enjoys recreation and exercise, and reduce chauffeuringenjoys recreation and exercise, and reduce chauffeuringenjoys recreation and exercise, and reduce chauffeuringenjoys recreation and exercise, and reduce chauffeuringEquity:Equity:Equity:Equity: ProvidesProvidesProvidesProvides for people who are physically,for people who are physically,for people who are physically,for people who are physically,economically or socially disadvantaged.economically or socially disadvantaged.economically or socially disadvantaged.economically or socially disadvantaged.Liveability:Liveability:Liveability:Liveability: AllowsAllowsAllowsAllows for more community involvementfor more community involvementfor more community involvementfor more community involvementand can increase property values and commercial activityand can increase property values and commercial activityand can increase property values and commercial activityand can increase property values and commercial activity
  9. 9. A variety of data sources can assist in quantifying theA variety of data sources can assist in quantifying theA variety of data sources can assist in quantifying theA variety of data sources can assist in quantifying theamount of multimodal travelamount of multimodal travelamount of multimodal travelamount of multimodal travelAll Trips"VISTA"8% PT in 0716% use 2+ PTTrips to Work"CENSUS"Train Trips"TRAIN OD"15% PT in 06 100% PT51% use 2+ PT 37% use 2+ PT
  10. 10. Mode CombinationTrips (per day)Bus/Other 171,900Tram/Other 166,600Tram/Bus/other 13,000Train/Other 203,200Train/Bus/Other 52,300Train/Tram/Other 44,600Train/Tram/Bus/Other 6,000Car/Other 45,800Car/Bus 10,500Car/Bus/Other 11,000Car/Tram/Other 10,500Car/Tram/Bus/Other 600Car/Train 1,900Car/Train/Other 149,800Car/Train/Bus 1,200Car/Train/Bus/Other 6,200Car/Train/Tram/Other 18,400Car/Train/Tram/Bus/Other 600Public Transport 914,100Source: VISTA (2007)Trips %Public Transport 914,100 8.2%Private Transport 10,300,800 91.8%TOTAL TRIPS 11,214,900 100.0%“Other” = mostly walkMultimodal CombinationsTrain Tram Bus %Walk 203,200 166,600 171,900 59%Car 159,100 30,100 30,100 24%Train 69,600 66,300 15%Tram 20,200 2%Pub. Tpt. 362,300 266,300 288,500 100%
  11. 11. Source: Metlink OD Survey (2009)0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%Inner City InterchangeStationsCity Loop Northern Clifton Hill Burnley Caulfield TOTALWalked all the way Car Cycled Other Tram Bus
  12. 12. Source: Metlink OD Survey (2009)y = 0.2042ln(x) - 0.2355R² = 0.55370%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%0 10 20 30 40 50 60%caraccessDistance to CBDCar Access v distanceEast Malvern Merinda ParkPakenhamStrathmoreToorakUpweyOfficerMentoneDandenongParkdale &RingwoodBonbeachWattle GlenSandown ParkRoxburgh
  13. 13. Source: Metlink OD Survey (2009)(a) PT GrowthTrain travel up by 94% in last 12 years;Tram travel up by 52% in last 12 years;Bus travel up by 34% in last 5 years.(b) PT Mode ChoiceAll trips 8.2% are PT (in 2007)Work trips 14.8% are (in 2006).(c) PT Multimodal62% of people use PT (in month); 40% multimodalAll Trips: 16% of the 8.2% using PT are multimodalWork Trips:51% of the 14.8% using PT are multimodalTrain Trips: 37% are multimodal
  14. 14. Source: PTV Journey Planner
  15. 15. Source: PTV Journey Planner & Google MapsKooyong to South Melbourne (distance = 11 km)Train &TramTrain &CycleCar : peak(with Toll)Car : peak(no Toll)CycleWalk 3 3Train 13 13Walk & Wait 6Tram 6Walk & Wait 3Tram 5Walk 5Cycle 7 43Car 20 34Park 5 5TOTAL 41 23 25 39 43
  16. 16. Source: PTV Journey PlannerPTV’s Journey Planner confirms thereseveral competitive routesthe car is 16 min. faster than publictransport but requires use of Citylinkand a $6.37 toll.The non-tolled route is just 2 minutesfasterThe myki cost is $3.28 (zone 1).
  17. 17. Source: PTV Journey PlannerMode Train & Tram Car Train & CycleWalk/wait 17 5Train 26 26Tram 24Car 44Bicycle 40TOTAL 67 49 66Source: Metlink Journey Planner & Google MapsJourney = 19 kmThe car is 18 minutes faster than public transport.Use of a bicycle for access and egress to the trainand is as fast as the train and tram combination.The myki cost is $5.54 (zone 1+2).
  18. 18. Source: Zenith & VISTA (2007)Travel models use measures ofgeneralised cost (GC) to predictmode choiceGC includes a “transfer penalty”to reflect the dis-benefit ofneeding to changemodes/vehiclesPotential increase in publictransport usage (with seamlessinterchange facilities) can beestimated by reducing the size ofthe “penalty”Elimination of penalty suggeststhat public transport couldincrease from around 8% to 11%.This would translate to anadditional 300,000 publictransport trips.0%2%4%6%8%10%12%0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%ModeSplit arising (fromreduction intransfer penalty)
  19. 19. #### ThemeThemeThemeTheme ExamplesExamplesExamplesExamples1111 AccessPark’n’ride at Doncaster, bicycle storage2222 InterchangesTram superstops, Domain Interchange3333SynchronisedServicesSynchronised Timetables, Smartbus4444 TicketingMultimodal Ticketing (Metcard/myki)5555 InformationTrip Planner6666 Land UseHousing mix, sub-division layout, roadconnections etc.7777 New ModesCycles, ferries, jitneys
  20. 20. 1.1.1.1. “Melbourne’s railway stations are badly designed,“Melbourne’s railway stations are badly designed,“Melbourne’s railway stations are badly designed,“Melbourne’s railway stations are badly designed,unpleasant places that will be incapable of handlingunpleasant places that will be incapable of handlingunpleasant places that will be incapable of handlingunpleasant places that will be incapable of handlingpredicted passenger growth”predicted passenger growth”predicted passenger growth”predicted passenger growth”2.2.2.2. “Limited shelter, poor passenger information, no“Limited shelter, poor passenger information, no“Limited shelter, poor passenger information, no“Limited shelter, poor passenger information, notoilet, no staff, no kiosk, single entry/exit point ….”toilet, no staff, no kiosk, single entry/exit point ….”toilet, no staff, no kiosk, single entry/exit point ….”toilet, no staff, no kiosk, single entry/exit point ….”3.3.3.3. Great railway stations are great placesGreat railway stations are great placesGreat railway stations are great placesGreat railway stations are great places –––– full of lifefull of lifefull of lifefull of lifeand commerce.” SX has set a new standard.and commerce.” SX has set a new standard.and commerce.” SX has set a new standard.and commerce.” SX has set a new standard.4.4.4.4. “A failure to deliver better stations with better“A failure to deliver better stations with better“A failure to deliver better stations with better“A failure to deliver better stations with betterfacilities and intermodal interchange is fundamentallyfacilities and intermodal interchange is fundamentallyfacilities and intermodal interchange is fundamentallyfacilities and intermodal interchange is fundamentallya failure to follow through on our rhetoric ofa failure to follow through on our rhetoric ofa failure to follow through on our rhetoric ofa failure to follow through on our rhetoric ofsustainable cities and the emphasis on publicsustainable cities and the emphasis on publicsustainable cities and the emphasis on publicsustainable cities and the emphasis on publictransport.”transport.”transport.”transport.”
  21. 21. #3 Minimizing waiting times for transfers#3 Minimizing waiting times for transfers#3 Minimizing waiting times for transfers#3 Minimizing waiting times for transfersbetween trips can improve customerbetween trips can improve customerbetween trips can improve customerbetween trips can improve customersatisfaction, which in turn leads to increases insatisfaction, which in turn leads to increases insatisfaction, which in turn leads to increases insatisfaction, which in turn leads to increases inridership and revenuesridership and revenuesridership and revenuesridership and revenues#4 Ticketing#4 Ticketing#4 Ticketing#4 Ticketing –––– Need for a ticketing system thatNeed for a ticketing system thatNeed for a ticketing system thatNeed for a ticketing system thatworks for everyoneworks for everyoneworks for everyoneworks for everyone#5 Information#5 Information#5 Information#5 Information –––– Optimise use of informationOptimise use of informationOptimise use of informationOptimise use of informationsources. Good examples include Journeysources. Good examples include Journeysources. Good examples include Journeysources. Good examples include JourneyPlanner, real time timetablesPlanner, real time timetablesPlanner, real time timetablesPlanner, real time timetables “Tram Tracker”“Tram Tracker”“Tram Tracker”“Tram Tracker”#6 Land Use#6 Land Use#6 Land Use#6 Land Use –––– NeedNeedNeedNeed to consider housing mix,to consider housing mix,to consider housing mix,to consider housing mix,subsubsubsub----division layout, road connections etc.division layout, road connections etc.division layout, road connections etc.division layout, road connections etc.
  22. 22. 1. Dominance of car-based travel needs to beaddressed.2. Community needs a diverse, multimodal transportsystem. The public transport system needs to beaccessible by good quality walking, cycling, car &taxi networks.3. Non-motorized transport (walking, cycling, scootersetc.) plays an important and unique role in anefficient transport system.4. Multimodal travel can offer choice, efficiency,consumer benefits, equity and liveability.
  23. 23. 5. Rapid growth in PT usage in the last several years:• 62% of people use PT (at least once per month);• 40% of PT users are “multimodal”• All trips: 16% of the 8% using PT are multimodal• Work Trips: 51% of the 15% using PT are multimodal• Train Trips: 37% use other PT modes for trip6. Station access now presents itself as one of the greatfrontiers of mass transit research, design, planningand infrastructure development.7. Seamless public transport connections has potentialto increase public transport from 8% to 11%.

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