Heavy Haul Rail 2013 Paper on Freight Train Spring
Brakes
1/8/13
2
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
AGENDA
• CON...
How things have changed for
handbrakes
• Wagons are twice as heavy & only half the
wheels can be used.
• Additional compli...
Runaway Ashburys UK., 4/5/10 (Ref 3)
• TICKING TIME BOMB
• MISLEADING FEEDBACK TO STAFF
• OPPORTUNITY TO ADJUST OUT (REMOV...
Runaway Enfield Yard, Sydney 3/5/11
(Ref 2)
• STAFF FOOLED INTO THINKING HANDBRAKES
WERE HOLDING THE RAKE
• AIR BRAKE HAD ...
Consequences
• Subsequent testing by major operators have
found the same poor handbrake performance
across fleets.
• Handb...
Body Mounted Brake Cylinder Foundation Rigging with Handbrake
Clifton Derailment 23/11/2011 (Ref 7)
Unanderra S.P.A.D. 7/2/11 (Ref 8)
• Driver release and re-applied air brakes without
leaving enough time to re-charge back...
Shift from ISO 31000 to model WHS
act (Ref 9)
• Engineers Australia Draft Safety Case
Guideline, Third Edition, How to eng...
Bogie Mounted Brake Cylinder without
Handbrake
Close UP
STARTING POINT FOR SPRING PARK
BRAKES (BFC Loco Tread Brake)
SPRING BRAKE HELD OFF WITH
COMPRESSED AIR
16
NO AIR IN THE WAGON/TRAIN SO
SPRING BRAKE APPLIES
17
PULL RING TO RELEASE SPRING BRAKE
18
HEAVY HAUL
19
UP TO 23 T.A.L. (DIRN & Narrow)
20
21
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
WAGON EQUIP...
Advantages of SPB
• FAILSAFE
• NO ADJUSTMENT
• NO WHEEL FLATS
• ENCLOSED
• CONSISTENT
Anti-compounding of brake cylinder
and park brake
• Avoids handbrakes being fully applied on top
of a full air brake appli...
Wagon Loading and Unloading
• Wagon(s) may be stationary, stop start indexed or slowly
moving during loading or unloading....
25
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
ECP BENEFIT...
26
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
AAR 320-W30...
27
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
AAR 320-W30...
SPRING BRAKE POTENTIAL?
1. LIMP HOME’ ECP BACKUP
2. NOW ECP ONLY CONTROLS THE AIR BRAKE SO NO AIR,
NO BRAKE
3. SPRING BRAK...
Discussion on Potential Applications of
Illustrated SPB
• The Newlands Coal Line in north
Queensland has a long steep
grad...
Summing Up
A STOPPED TRAIN IS A SAFE TRAIN
&
THE POWER TO STOP GIVES THE
POWER TO SPEED
References
1. Transport Safety Victoria Alert No. 2011-03 dated 21/7/11
2. OTSI Reference 04514, 2011:- Office of Transpor...
Bogie Mounted Brake Cylinder without
Handbrake
Close UP
STARTING POINT FOR SPRING PARK
BRAKES (BFC Loco Tread Brake)
SPRING BRAKE HELD OFF WITH
COMPRESSED AIR
35
NO AIR IN THE WAGON/TRAIN SO
SPRING BRAKE APPLIES
36
PULL RING TO RELEASE SPRING BRAKE
37
HEAVY HAUL
38
UP TO 23 T.A.L. (DIRN & Narrow)
39
40
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
WAGON EQUIP...
Advantages of SPB
• FAILSAFE
• NO ADJUSTMENT
• NO WHEEL FLATS
• ENCLOSED
• CONSISTENT
Anti-compounding of brake cylinder
and park brake
• Avoids handbrakes being fully applied on top
of a full air brake appli...
Wagon Loading and Unloading
• Wagon(s) may be stationary, stop start indexed or slowly
moving during loading or unloading....
44
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
ECP BENEFIT...
45
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
AAR 320-W30...
46
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + +
AAR 320-W30...
SPRING BRAKE POTENTIAL?
1. LIMP HOME’ ECP BACKUP
2. NOW ECP ONLY CONTROLS THE AIR BRAKE SO NO AIR,
NO BRAKE
3. SPRING BRAK...
Discussion on Potential Applications of
Illustrated SPB
• The Newlands Coal Line in north
Queensland has a long steep
grad...
Summing Up
A STOPPED TRAIN IS A SAFE TRAIN
&
THE POWER TO STOP GIVES THE
POWER TO SPEED
References
1. Transport Safety Victoria Alert No. 2011-03 dated 21/7/11
2. OTSI Reference 04514, 2011:- Office of Transpor...
Brad Doyle, Faiveley Transport: A look into the advantages of spring park brakes as an alternative to handbrakes in the he...
Brad Doyle, Faiveley Transport: A look into the advantages of spring park brakes as an alternative to handbrakes in the he...
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Brad Doyle, Faiveley Transport: A look into the advantages of spring park brakes as an alternative to handbrakes in the heavy haul context

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Brad Doyle, Freight Technical Manager, Faiveley Transport delivered this presentation at the 2013 Heavy Haul Rail conference. The highly anticipated event is the annual meeting place for mining and rail representatives from around the country to discuss all the latest rail projects in the heavy haul sector. For more information about the event, please visit the conference website: http://www.informa.com.au/hhrail14

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Brad Doyle, Faiveley Transport: A look into the advantages of spring park brakes as an alternative to handbrakes in the heavy haul context

  1. 1. Heavy Haul Rail 2013 Paper on Freight Train Spring Brakes 1/8/13
  2. 2. 2 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + AGENDA • CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES • BFCB-F Combined Bogie Mounted Brake Cylinders & Spring Park Brakes • ECP Electronic Controlled Pneumatic Brakes • AAR 320-W302 Long Life Sintered Metallic Brake Blocks • Combining the above.
  3. 3. How things have changed for handbrakes • Wagons are twice as heavy & only half the wheels can be used. • Additional complicated chain pulley systems are needed, all exposed to the elements. • Not fail safe as energy stored wants to release. • Can lock wheels on empty wagons causing wheel flats & when loaded high impacts on wheels & rail with every turn of the wheels.
  4. 4. Runaway Ashburys UK., 4/5/10 (Ref 3) • TICKING TIME BOMB • MISLEADING FEEDBACK TO STAFF • OPPORTUNITY TO ADJUST OUT (REMOVE) ANY HANDBRAKE PERFORMANCE
  5. 5. Runaway Enfield Yard, Sydney 3/5/11 (Ref 2) • STAFF FOOLED INTO THINKING HANDBRAKES WERE HOLDING THE RAKE • AIR BRAKE HAD TO BE RELEASED TO CHANGE BRAKE BLOCK PRECIPITATING RUNAWAY • HALF THE HANDBRAKES RETROSPECTIVELY TESTED DID NOT HAVE 1/3 EXPECTED PERFORMANCE • ANOTHER ASHBURYS IF RAKE HAD NOT BEEN TOUCHED
  6. 6. Consequences • Subsequent testing by major operators have found the same poor handbrake performance across fleets. • Handbrakes can be brought up to spec. but only after extensive cleaning and lubrication. • Lubricant holds contaminants so handbrake performance drops 1/3 p.a. so after 3 years back to same problem. • No maintainer has allowed for this on-going.
  7. 7. Body Mounted Brake Cylinder Foundation Rigging with Handbrake
  8. 8. Clifton Derailment 23/11/2011 (Ref 7)
  9. 9. Unanderra S.P.A.D. 7/2/11 (Ref 8) • Driver release and re-applied air brakes without leaving enough time to re-charge back along the train. • Brake pipe pressure dropped below 250 kPa so locomotive Dynamic Brake (DB) shut off on a 1:30 decent. • Over 500 metres S.P.A.D. onto the main line. • 4 Locomotives should have been used for the trailing tonnage with 2 just for air brake but only 2 were used. DB would have cut out on all 4 anyway.
  10. 10. Shift from ISO 31000 to model WHS act (Ref 9) • Engineers Australia Draft Safety Case Guideline, Third Edition, How to engineer safety due diligence under the provisions of the model WHS Act • Table on page 14 “Precaution based Due Diligence” versus “Hazard based ISO 31000”
  11. 11. Bogie Mounted Brake Cylinder without Handbrake
  12. 12. Close UP
  13. 13. STARTING POINT FOR SPRING PARK BRAKES (BFC Loco Tread Brake)
  14. 14. SPRING BRAKE HELD OFF WITH COMPRESSED AIR 16
  15. 15. NO AIR IN THE WAGON/TRAIN SO SPRING BRAKE APPLIES 17
  16. 16. PULL RING TO RELEASE SPRING BRAKE 18
  17. 17. HEAVY HAUL 19
  18. 18. UP TO 23 T.A.L. (DIRN & Narrow) 20
  19. 19. 21 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + WAGON EQUIPMENT Brake Control Valves, Multi-Chambered Reservoirs, Bogie Mounted Brake Cylinders with Spring Park Brake, Load Sensors, Cocks, Brake Blocks (and handbrakes)
  20. 20. Advantages of SPB • FAILSAFE • NO ADJUSTMENT • NO WHEEL FLATS • ENCLOSED • CONSISTENT
  21. 21. Anti-compounding of brake cylinder and park brake • Avoids handbrakes being fully applied on top of a full air brake application compounding the force on brake blocks well in excess of specifications. • Avoids when the air leaks off there is significant tension in the handbrake system that if released in an uncontrolled manner can cause handbrake gear box and/or chain damage.
  22. 22. Wagon Loading and Unloading • Wagon(s) may be stationary, stop start indexed or slowly moving during loading or unloading. Handbrakes are applied with stationary wagon(s). • Controlled SPB application and release on a few end wagons of a rake could assist indexing the whole rake. • Have attached an air supply rail vehicle that can remotely vary the air supply while all the wagons are drawn through the unloading facility. Such a process does not use locomotives so frees them up for other operations.
  23. 23. 25 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ECP BENEFITS What installing the ECP equipment can offer you: •AAR-4200 compliant system •Interoperable with competitors’ head end units and CCDs •Ability to quickly and simply retrofit relayed brake systems – the majority of the Australian fleet •Opportunity to actively manage wagon critical faults – before they cause major incidents
  24. 24. 26 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + AAR 320-W302 SINTERED BLOCKS SINTERED BLOCKS • Sintered metal brake blocks - Individual materials such as Iron/ Copper/ Carbon and other ceramics are combined with a binder are fired at high temperatures. • Fine control over specific braking qualities not available by any other manufacturing method. • Sintered blocks excel in high energy braking. W30 and W302 materials have been developed specifically for highly loaded freight wagons. • Removal of heat from the wheel tread through the blocks results in consistent, low wheel wear. • W302 offers minimal change in braking performance over temperature, speed and brake application force, reducing inter wagon forces and less wear on couplers and draft gear.
  25. 25. 27 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + AAR 320-W302 BENEFITS What using W302 Sintered Blocks can offer you: • Increased periods between block changes – Increase of 3 - 5 times between block change over commonly used organic material blocks. 20 times for cast iron • Increased periods between wheel maintenance and replacement. • Designed for operation up to 120 km/h in excess of 40T axle loads. • Reduced noise, dust particles and smoke. • Application specific solutions possible – Tailoring of composition and block thickness of our standard products can provide significant reductions in brake block usage and wheel wear. •Exceeds AAR requirements – The W302 can be considered a direct replacement for existing AAR blocks.
  26. 26. SPRING BRAKE POTENTIAL? 1. LIMP HOME’ ECP BACKUP 2. NOW ECP ONLY CONTROLS THE AIR BRAKE SO NO AIR, NO BRAKE 3. SPRING BRAKE IS FAILSAFE SO ECP COULD PUSH SPRINGS OFF 4. COMBINE AIR & SPRINGS FOR EMERGENCY BRAKE (1 kW/wheel) 5. SINTERED METAL BLOCKS HOLD BACK 25% OF THE HEAT SO COULD EMETGENCY STOPPING DISTANCES BE REDUCED? 6. SHORTEN SIGNALLING HEADWAY & INCREASE HEAVY HAUL CORRIDOR CAPACITY
  27. 27. Discussion on Potential Applications of Illustrated SPB • The Newlands Coal Line in north Queensland has a long steep grade that causes trains to not use a passing loop half way down thereby halving the capacity of the line.
  28. 28. Summing Up A STOPPED TRAIN IS A SAFE TRAIN & THE POWER TO STOP GIVES THE POWER TO SPEED
  29. 29. References 1. Transport Safety Victoria Alert No. 2011-03 dated 21/7/11 2. OTSI Reference 04514, 2011:- Office of Transport Safety Investigations (OTSI) N.S.W. Rail Safety Investigation Report, Runaway of Rolling Stock, Enfield Yard, 3 May 2011, Investigation Reference 04514 3. RAIB Report No. 07/2011:- Rail Accident Investigation Branch (RAIB), U.K. Department for Transport Runaway Ashburys 4 May 2010,Report 07/2011,March 2011 4. OTSI 28/7/09:- Office of Transport Safety Investigations (OTSI) N.S.W. Rail Safety Investigation Report, Runaway Grain Wagon, Temora 28 July 2009 5. Formenton 2009:- Improving Operational Performance of Freight Trains using Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking, presented to The Institution of Railway Signal Engineers (IRSE) Inc., Australasian Section Incorporated, Sydney, 13 November 2009. 6. WSC, 2008:- Wingecarribee Shire Council (WSC) submission to the Inquiry into Australian Future Infrastructure Requirements, Australian Government – Infrastructure Australia, September 2008. 7. OTSI 23/11/11:- Office of Transport Safety Investigations (OTSI) N.S.W. Derailment of Pacific National Service MC92, Clifton. 8. OTSI 7/2/11:- Office of Transport Safety Investigations (OTSI) N.S.W. Uncontrolled Movement of El Zorro Grain Service 3996, Unanderra. 9. Engineers Australia (EA) Draft SAFETY CASE GUIDELINE, 2013
  30. 30. Bogie Mounted Brake Cylinder without Handbrake
  31. 31. Close UP
  32. 32. STARTING POINT FOR SPRING PARK BRAKES (BFC Loco Tread Brake)
  33. 33. SPRING BRAKE HELD OFF WITH COMPRESSED AIR 35
  34. 34. NO AIR IN THE WAGON/TRAIN SO SPRING BRAKE APPLIES 36
  35. 35. PULL RING TO RELEASE SPRING BRAKE 37
  36. 36. HEAVY HAUL 38
  37. 37. UP TO 23 T.A.L. (DIRN & Narrow) 39
  38. 38. 40 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + WAGON EQUIPMENT Brake Control Valves, Multi-Chambered Reservoirs, Bogie Mounted Brake Cylinders with Spring Park Brake, Load Sensors, Cocks, Brake Blocks (and handbrakes)
  39. 39. Advantages of SPB • FAILSAFE • NO ADJUSTMENT • NO WHEEL FLATS • ENCLOSED • CONSISTENT
  40. 40. Anti-compounding of brake cylinder and park brake • Avoids handbrakes being fully applied on top of a full air brake application compounding the force on brake blocks well in excess of specifications. • Avoids when the air leaks off there is significant tension in the handbrake system that if released in an uncontrolled manner can cause handbrake gear box and/or chain damage.
  41. 41. Wagon Loading and Unloading • Wagon(s) may be stationary, stop start indexed or slowly moving during loading or unloading. Handbrakes are applied with stationary wagon(s). • Controlled SPB application and release on a few end wagons of a rake could assist indexing the whole rake. • Have attached an air supply rail vehicle that can remotely vary the air supply while all the wagons are drawn through the unloading facility. Such a process does not use locomotives so frees them up for other operations.
  42. 42. 44 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ECP BENEFITS What installing the ECP equipment can offer you: •AAR-4200 compliant system •Interoperable with competitors’ head end units and CCDs •Ability to quickly and simply retrofit relayed brake systems – the majority of the Australian fleet •Opportunity to actively manage wagon critical faults – before they cause major incidents
  43. 43. 45 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + AAR 320-W302 SINTERED BLOCKS SINTERED BLOCKS • Sintered metal brake blocks - Individual materials such as Iron/ Copper/ Carbon and other ceramics are combined with a binder are fired at high temperatures. • Fine control over specific braking qualities not available by any other manufacturing method. • Sintered blocks excel in high energy braking. W30 and W302 materials have been developed specifically for highly loaded freight wagons. • Removal of heat from the wheel tread through the blocks results in consistent, low wheel wear. • W302 offers minimal change in braking performance over temperature, speed and brake application force, reducing inter wagon forces and less wear on couplers and draft gear.
  44. 44. 46 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + AAR 320-W302 BENEFITS What using W302 Sintered Blocks can offer you: • Increased periods between block changes – Increase of 3 - 5 times between block change over commonly used organic material blocks. 20 times for cast iron • Increased periods between wheel maintenance and replacement. • Designed for operation up to 120 km/h in excess of 40T axle loads. • Reduced noise, dust particles and smoke. • Application specific solutions possible – Tailoring of composition and block thickness of our standard products can provide significant reductions in brake block usage and wheel wear. •Exceeds AAR requirements – The W302 can be considered a direct replacement for existing AAR blocks.
  45. 45. SPRING BRAKE POTENTIAL? 1. LIMP HOME’ ECP BACKUP 2. NOW ECP ONLY CONTROLS THE AIR BRAKE SO NO AIR, NO BRAKE 3. SPRING BRAKE IS FAILSAFE SO ECP COULD PUSH SPRINGS OFF 4. COMBINE AIR & SPRINGS FOR EMERGENCY BRAKE (1 kW/wheel) 5. SINTERED METAL BLOCKS HOLD BACK 25% OF THE HEAT SO COULD EMETGENCY STOPPING DISTANCES BE REDUCED? 6. SHORTEN SIGNALLING HEADWAY & INCREASE HEAVY HAUL CORRIDOR CAPACITY
  46. 46. Discussion on Potential Applications of Illustrated SPB • The Newlands Coal Line in north Queensland has a long steep grade that causes trains to not use a passing loop half way down thereby halving the capacity of the line.
  47. 47. Summing Up A STOPPED TRAIN IS A SAFE TRAIN & THE POWER TO STOP GIVES THE POWER TO SPEED
  48. 48. References 1. Transport Safety Victoria Alert No. 2011-03 dated 21/7/11 2. OTSI Reference 04514, 2011:- Office of Transport Safety Investigations (OTSI) N.S.W. Rail Safety Investigation Report, Runaway of Rolling Stock, Enfield Yard, 3 May 2011, Investigation Reference 04514 3. RAIB Report No. 07/2011:- Rail Accident Investigation Branch (RAIB), U.K. Department for Transport Runaway Ashburys 4 May 2010,Report 07/2011,March 2011 4. OTSI 28/7/09:- Office of Transport Safety Investigations (OTSI) N.S.W. Rail Safety Investigation Report, Runaway Grain Wagon, Temora 28 July 2009 5. Formenton 2009:- Improving Operational Performance of Freight Trains using Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking, presented to The Institution of Railway Signal Engineers (IRSE) Inc., Australasian Section Incorporated, Sydney, 13 November 2009. 6. WSC, 2008:- Wingecarribee Shire Council (WSC) submission to the Inquiry into Australian Future Infrastructure Requirements, Australian Government – Infrastructure Australia, September 2008. 7. OTSI 23/11/11:- Office of Transport Safety Investigations (OTSI) N.S.W. Derailment of Pacific National Service MC92, Clifton. 8. OTSI 7/2/11:- Office of Transport Safety Investigations (OTSI) N.S.W. Uncontrolled Movement of El Zorro Grain Service 3996, Unanderra. 9. Engineers Australia (EA) Draft SAFETY CASE GUIDELINE, 2013

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