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handwriting recognition

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handwriting recognition

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handwriting recognition

  1. 1. 2011/2012 1
  2. 2. • Idée générale• Définition• Le principe de boosting• Historique• AdaBoost – LAlgorithme de AdaBoost – ILLUSTRATION – Les avantages et les inconvénients pratiques de AdaBoost• Conclusion 2
  3. 3. Exemple: détecter des mots au pluriel Règle Forte Règle faible 2 Règle faible 1 3
  4. 4. • Le mot boosting s’applique à des méthodes générales capables de produire des décisions très précises à partir d’un ensemble de règles de décision « faibles ». « Le boosting combine des hypothèses dites faibles en une hypothèse dite forte » 4
  5. 5. • Faire simple pour faire compliqué il est facile de trouver des règles simples, généralement justes. il est très difficile de trouver une règle "fortes" qui est vérifiée dans tous les cas.• Le principe est issu de la combinaison de classifieurs (appelés également hypothèses). 5
  6. 6. • La catégorisation• Détection et classement d’objet dans des images• Le filtrage de texte• Bioinformatique 6
  7. 7. Drucker & alSchapire Premièresalgorithme mises en de weak œuvres réelles Freund Freund & learner Algorithme optimal par Schapire votes Adaboost pondérés 1989 1990 1992 1996 7
  8. 8. • Adaboost (Adaptive Boosting, R.Scharpire, Y.Freund, 1996) est une méthode de boosting (intelligence artificielle, apprentissage automatique) introduite par Yoav Freund et Robert Schapire.• Adaboost consiste à transformer, d’une manière efficace, un classifieur «faible» en un classifieur «fort» en réduisant les taux d’erreur. 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. InitialisationExemple 11
  12. 12. Étape 1:::: 12
  13. 13. Étape 2Z = 0.827 13
  14. 14. Étape 3 14
  15. 15. = = 15
  16. 16. Les avantages:• très rapide.• Simple et facile à programmer.• Une seul paramètre à régler.• Permet de trouver les exemples aberrants.Les inconvénients: Les performances d’ADABOOST sont influencées par :• Le choix du weak learner.• La nature des données d’apprentissage. 16
  17. 17. Le boosting est un outil efficace expérimentalementBasé sur une théorie mathématique et trois principesessentiels: 1- Combiner les estimations de différents experts. 2- Modifier, avant chaque ajout d’un expert, la distribution des exemples. 3- Au final, utiliser une moyenne des « votes » des experts, pondérée par leurs fiabilités respectives.• Permet d’obtenir un très bon classifieur enassociant des classifieurs « faibles » 17
  18. 18. Merci de votre attention 18

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