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[Un]intended consequences of educational change: The need to focus on literacy development - Allison Littlejohn - LILAC 2019 keynote address

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[Un]intended consequences of educational change: The need to focus on literacy development - Allison Littlejohn - LILAC 2019 keynote address

  1. 1. Professor Allison Littlejohn Dean for Learning & Teaching, College of Social Sciences, University of Glasgow UK @allisonl The [un]intended consequences of innovation in HE: Tensions of profitability & social mobility #LILAC19 University of Nottingham
  2. 2. For the public good….?
  3. 3. For the public good….?
  4. 4. Nardi, B. A., (1999) Chapter 7 in Nardi, B. A., & O'Day, V. Information ecologies: Using technology with heart. Mit Press. Why librarians?
  5. 5. Why literacies?
  6. 6. Littlejohn, A.; Beetham, H. and McGill, L. (2012). Learning at the digital frontier: a review of digital literacies in theory and practice. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(6) pp. 547–556. Littlejohn, Allison; Beetham, Helen and McGill, Lou (2013). Digital literacies as situated knowledge practices: academics’ influence on learners’ behaviours. In: Goodfellow, Robin and Lea, Mary R. eds. Literacy in the Digital University: Critical Perspectives on Learning, Scholarship, and Technology. Routledge. Littlejohn, Allison; Falconer, Isobel; McGill, Lou and Beetham, Helen (2014). Open networks and bounded communities: Tensions inherent in releasing Open Educational Resources. In: Littlejohn, Allison and Pegler, Chris eds. Reusing Open Resources: Learning in Open Networks for Work, Life and Education. Routledge. Helen Beetham, Lou McGill & Allison Littlejohn (2009) Small-scale JISC study, Final report May 09 Starting point?
  7. 7. Littlejohn, Allison and Hood, Nina (2018). Reconceptualising Learning in the Digital Age: The [un]democratising potential of MOOCs. SpringerBriefs in Open and Distance Education. Singapore: Springer. • Normalising the status quo rather than disrupting education. • Requiring students to follow pre-defined rather than self-determined pathways. • Exploiting opportunity for global reach, at the expense of opening access Starting point?
  8. 8. FROM REINFORCING NORMS… 1 NORMALISING VS DISRUPTING The people that were driving the MOOC hype never really had an interest in the MOOC landscape. They were trying to position for a new technology product. George Siemens (2014) http://www.universityaffairs.ca/features/feature-article/an-interview-with-canadian-mooc-pioneer-george-siemens
  9. 9. DISRUPTING HOW MIDWIVES LEARN www.moocformidwives.com Annette Daalsgaard, University of Aalbourg, Denmark, & UTS, Australia 2098 students from countries in Europe, Asia, America, Africa & Australasia Professionals exchange knowledge on midwifery practice in their country. Shared ideas on distinctive forms of practice across regional settings. 3 NORMALISING VS DISRUPTING
  10. 10. FROM FOLLOWING TUTOR PATHWAYS 2 PRE-DEFINED VS SELF-DETERMINED
  11. 11. TO LEARNERS DECIDING THEIR PATHS 2 PRE-DEFINED VS SELF-DETERMINED
  12. 12. FROM REINFORCING GLOBAL PRESENCE 3 GLOBAL REACH VS OPENING ACCESS
  13. 13. TO OPENING ACCESS TO EDUCATION www.kiron.ngo NGO partnering with universities to offer MOOCs to refugees in Germany Combine MOOCs with in-person learner support. Each learner selects a cluster of MOOCs bundled into programmes. Kiron negotiates RPL with universities using European Credit Transfer & Accumulation System (ECATS). MOOC-based study means refugees continue to learn when they move. 3 GLOBAL REACH VS OPENING ACCESS
  14. 14. FROM REINFORCING NORMS… TO 1 NORMALISING VS DISRUPTING
  15. 15. Who edits? • Over 29 million volunteer editors • Over five million articles (English version) • Sixty thousand spend 1hr per day working • No financial compensation
  16. 16. The Big Agenda at Edinburgh Uni? 1. Increasing the number of women editors; 2. Improving representation of women online.
  17. 17. The Big Agenda at Edinburgh Uni?
  18. 18. Editing • Supported sessions on creating a page, editing a page & referencing. • Collective decision which pages to create then individuals take responsibility for a page • Page individually or co- constructed.
  19. 19. Representing • Co-research online & in university archives (with archivists). • Co-creating media of relevant locations (with media specialists). • Writing pages. (alone or co-construction)
  20. 20. • Does the editathon lead to the formation of a network of practice? Method: SNA of digital traces in wikipedia • How do participants learn to construct the wikisites? Method: interview 9 /47 participants. Thematic analysis. The Investigation?
  21. 21. Social network analysis? • 47 participants in the editathon. • 20 individuals (42.55%) actively contributed to 31 wiki sites of 66 womens medical education (46.96 %). • 11 new wikis created. • 2 mode analysis of wikipedia data
  22. 22. Representing Women Online? 1. Emerging roles researching archives & creating representations. 2. Growing awareness of new responsibilities. 3. Editing becomes personal & emotional.
  23. 23. “I had to dig and dig and dig and dig and eventually I found a tiny, tiny, tiny, little classified advert in a Birmingham newspaper that was offering a £50 scholarship.. and it was a leading suffragette who sponsored this. It was a Whoopie! moment when we found it, everybody clustered round the table.” Anita 1 Emerging roles: researching archives
  24. 24. “I did like the idea of finding things that people hadn’t found before. I also enjoyed seeing colleagues really excited about finding things. It was nice to get involved in a community in that way.” Elizabeth 1 Emerging roles: researching archives
  25. 25. “[In a conversation] I was having with a colleague who was talking about Sophie Jex- Blake as a ‘battleaxe’. Then somebody else was saying ‘Yeah but she does look like a ‘battleaxe’ in the picture’” “[I was] thinking we don’t have to use this one image that is used everywhere. There are other, better images of her which we can use, we can upload.” Jessica 1 Emerging roles: researching archives
  26. 26. 2 Awareness of responsibilities “With the formatting there’s plenty of guidance and support. So that really wasn't a problem at. I find writing challenging.” Margaux “I thought well you know it’s just writing text on a Wiki page – how hard can this be? When you’re writing about a person that first sentence, making it clear. I hadn’t really anticipated that [level of difficulty].” Anita
  27. 27. “I learned stuff about the history of the institution I work in and it’s the institution I studied in as well. So there’s an extra dimension there for me because 150 years before I might not have had that opportunity.” Anita 2 Awareness of responsibilities: learning becomes personal
  28. 28. “One thing that I really realised was that newspapers at the time were not like newspapers are now…Big public fall out would be published.” “It also made me realise the parallels between the kind of trolling you get online now and the same sort of thing there, you know the slight intimidation.” “They had obscene letters put through their letter box.” Jessica 2 Awareness of responsibilities: learning becomes personal
  29. 29. More women editors? 1. Anxiety around editing responsibilities. 2. Fear of being silenced. 3. Excitement & anxiety of the Big Agenda
  30. 30. “As children girls are often told to be quiet, whereas boys being boys is more” Elizabeth With women editors, we feel that our voice isn’t perhaps as important or as valuable” Jessica I didn’t even really type anything. I just don’t like the idea of one representation of myself, Natalie 1 Anxiety around editing responsibilities
  31. 31. “We had had a lot of conversations about the sort of trolling that can happen on Wikipedia, so …I had my reservations” Jessica 2 Fear of publishing & trolling
  32. 32. “So pressing the publish button …did feel a bit nerve-wracking.I definitely proof read it a million times… and edited it a million times. There were a few things that made it more nerve-wracking. Firstly the Wikipedia community were immediately on to it, so I was worried I might get it taken down or something.” Sarah 2 Fear of publishing & trolling
  33. 33. 3 Excitement of being part of a Big Agenda “If we’re trying to achieve getting our women on Wikipedia, great. If we’re trying to achieve getting more female Wikipedia editors, great. But is it both?” “I think … trying to fix it with the same brush or bolt … was confusing and potentially alienating for some.” Elizabeth
  34. 34. Margaux Elisabeth Natalie edited other websites Sarah did no edit
  35. 35. Wikipedia as a site for literacy learning? 1. As people engage in tasks, growing awareness of new responsibilities. 2. Emerging roles around publishing & ensuring accurate representation. 3. Learning becomes personal, triggering forms of agency.
  36. 36. FROM FOLLOWING TUTOR PATHWAYS… TO… 2 PRE-DEFINED VS SELF-DETERMINED
  37. 37. Scenario 4 Introduction To Data Science University of Washington Coursera 40,000 registered learners 788 responses from 79 countries 303 professionals, 141 students 59 both, 285 neither 30 follow up interviews
  38. 38. “This class motivated me to do whatever was required to get the certificate … When I first took the course I thought I would use the course certificate and whatnot to add to my LinkedIn profile. I did do that” (LSRL, 783) “So now it’s got to the stage where I am prioritising courses that offer certificates” (LSRL, 236). LSRL tended to want to complete the course certificate :
  39. 39. “The most important factor because maybe it’s not even how much I learn, but how big the impact of my work can be to the outside world” (HSRL, 119) “Getting the certification of completion is less important in the end, it’s nice in the short term, but I think it’s the artefacts that are left over that is a measure of achievement” (HSRL, 135). HSRL motivations tended to be linked to work performance or personal interest:
  40. 40. HSRL tend to link learning goals with work: We’ve got a contract with the health service … so they’re trying to move all our skills into a different area. We’ve been encouraged to learn a new database technology like NoSQL, analytics and so this course just fitted that learning requirement. (HSRL, 481) And are strategic about where they focus effort: “The way to approach it [learning] is to follow what interests me and not worry too much about trying to keep a complete overview of the area… I plan to complete all of the assignments [but] I won’t be too worried if I don’t.”(HSRL, 428)
  41. 41. In contrast to HSRL who tend to be strategic about where they focus effort: LSRL tend to try to carry out all (or most) activities: “Yes my goal is definitely to watch all the videos and the content provided and try to solve all the assignments, although not necessarily I will try to take part in the additional optional assignments” ( LSRL, 603). “Aspects of it [the MOOC]. Carefully curated parts. So not as a whole, I’m going to be picking through what nuggets are of use to me in particular contexts” (HSRL 505).
  42. 42. Scenario 4 Clinical Trials Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard Catalyst. EdX Platform 24,000 registered learners 350 survey respondents (week 5/ 14) 30 interviews http://www.gcu.ac.uk/academy/pl-mooc/
  43. 43. [My aim was to gain] ‘the certificate, yes, although I don’t really need it, but I go for it”… [My goal was] ”to attend all the lectures. Not so much to participate in the forum although I do. I read things, I don’t write so much.” (LSRL, 22) HSRL and LSRL tend to focus on gaining certificate. Influences goal-setting & learning (task) strategies:
  44. 44. LSRL tended follow the course ‘pathway’: “I do download the study material which is provided by the course website, but while I watch the video I do not have a habit of making notes and I am a person who is organised in a mess. So even if I make a note I don’t recollect and read those notes.” (LSRL, 295) “I’ve tried to go through the questions first and then go back and review the text to see…and that forces me to kind of focus on the topics a little bit more as opposed to if I go to the lecture and then try to do the questions I find myself zoning out during it.” (LSRL, 360)
  45. 45. HSRL more strategic in how they focus their time: “I don’t put too much effort into what I'm learning, but this course – looking at the videos I get to take my time to understand. Sometimes I watch the video twice, which has really helped me to have a better understanding when I'm learning.” (HSRL, 284)
  46. 46. Datascience Motivation For those reporting good SRL, primary focus on producing code. For those reporting they prefer to be regulated by the ‘other’, primary focus on gaining a qualification or certificate. Clinical Trials Motivation For those reporting either good or poor SRL, primary focus on gaining a Harvard Certificate.
  47. 47. Finance Informal Data Science MOOC Health MOOC Midwife MOOC Couns -elling Informal Data Science MOOC (Students) Description self-efficacy X X confidence in learning capacity. goal-setting ability to use and adapt goals to plan learning. task interest X X X X X X interest and readiness to determine wide value of learning. In midwifery termed ‘expansive critical thinking’. learning strategy X X X X X X ability to plan learning and adopt a repertoire of learning approaches. learning strategy ability to integrate new with existing knowledge help seeking seeking help from other people or resources self- evaluation/ satisfaction X X X X X X compare own performance against an external goal & satisfaction from this comparison. Related to ‘self- reflection’ learning challenge X resilience to challenging learning situations. Hood, Nina; Littlejohn, Allison and Milligan, Colin (2015). Context counts: How learners' contexts influence learning in a MOOC. Computers & Education, 91 pp. 83–91.
  48. 48. Task interest Self-evaluation/ satisfaction Learning Strategy Learning Opportunities Learning Activities Littlejohn, Allison; Hood, Nina; Milligan, Colin and Mustain, Paige (2016). Learning in MOOCs: Motivations and self-regulated learning in MOOCs. The Internet and Higher Education, 29 pp. 40–48.
  49. 49. ME MY GOALS
  50. 50. ME MY GOALS
  51. 51. ME MY GOALS
  52. 52. ME MY GOALS MY GOALS
  53. 53. ME MY GOALS
  54. 54. ME MY GOALS
  55. 55. ME MY GOALS Useful resources, Useful people
  56. 56. answer questions receive score receive feedback (relative to others) active less active 0 1 2 3 4 F: ORGANISATI… F: STRATEGIC PLANNING F: GOAL F: TASK P: ELABORATION P: HELP SEEKING SR: SELF- SATISFACTION SR: SELF- EVALUATION
  57. 57. FROM REINFORCING GLOBAL PRESENCE 3 GLOBAL REACH VS OPENING ACCESS
  58. 58. 2 Design, Deliver and Evaluate Learning Events to build capacity in AMR surveillance in LMICs 3 Develop a longer-term approach - topics, methods, modes of delivery for learning around AMR in LMICs for Year 2-Year 4 1 Learn about the context what skills and knowledge are needed, how people in LMICs best learn Objective 1.0 - Development of 2 initial learning products Objective 2.0 - Define and agree scope / parameters of learning requirements Objective 3.0 - Learning needs analysis Objective 4.0 - Design and deliver learning events Objective 5.0 - Develop roadmap for learning approach Year 1: What did we do
  59. 59. Phase 2 Country visits Professional Roles Country 1 Countr y 2 Countr y 3 Laboratory Professionals 9 10 5 Senior Laboratory Professionals 10 4 2 Clinical Services Professionals 1 - - Senior Management Staff in Clinical Services 1 - 1 Policymaker 3 6 4 AMR Community / Expert 1 1 2 Total 25 21 14
  60. 60. Knowledge & skills gap Category name 1 Diagnostics Stewardship 2 Good Laboratory Practice 3 Foundations in Microbiology 4 Molecular Advanced Microbiology 5 Data Use & Interpretation for diagnosis in Clinical and Vet Services 6 Data Use & interpretation for Public Health Policy 7 Communication, Collaboration & Advocacy 8 Surveillance System Planning & Implementation 9 One Health Multisectoral
  61. 61. Workplace Structure Knowledge & skills
  62. 62. Event B: Foundations in Microbiology • Lab Professionals, Senior Lab Professionals. • 8-week OU OpenLearn course ‘Understanding antibiotic resistance’ • Focus on Bhutan • Objectives: appreciate the issues surrounding antibiotic resistance know about the challenges in developing new antibiotics know about alternative approaches to tackling infectious diseases. Two pilot events Event A: Data Use and Interpretation • Lab professionals, Senior Lab Professionals, (Senior) Clinical Services Professionals, (Senior) Vet Services Professionals • (Perhaps) existing resources on data use and interpretation with additional learning and assessment developed in order to provide a more contextualised response. • Objectives: Understand basic interpretation / analysis Identify how to apply this to your needs How data can be used to support your work Develop a plan to implement data use in practice Engage in knowledge sharing to support change in practice, challenges / successes
  63. 63. BUT NOT HOW THEY LEARN KEY MESSAGES
  64. 64. Significance for LILAC19 1. LIteracy Learning is a vital aspect of innovation, but it has to be in ways that support social mobility over profitability. 2. Authentic learning activities motivate learners. 3. Context is important to ensure literacy is learned as an embedded practice We rely on the keystone species…
  65. 65. Professor Allison Littlejohn Dean for Learning & Teaching, College of Social Sciences, University of Glasgow UK @allisonl The [un]intended consequences of innovation in Higher Education: Tensions of profitability and social mobility

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