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Computin and Library ServicesBetween the sheets: the affordances and
limitations of social reading tools and their
potenti...
Aim of the talk
• Definition of social reading and why/how it
was used at the University
• Affordances/limitations of the ...
What is Social reading?
• The collaborative
highlighting and
annotation of an
electronic text using
social reading tools
Transhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/alexvan
oostwaard/5325349228/sizes/m/in/photolist-
97zNN1-f76b4N-c5D8aw-7YK6Mc-dXzTzS-
c...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/edfredned/3592630542
Reading becomes a dynamic
exercise rather than a passive
experience
Why use Social Reading?
http://www.librarything.com/work/11227385
http://www.librarything.com/work/4892782
http://www.libr...
Why social reading?
• Have conversations
about the text inside
of the text
• Experimented with
three tools
• Participation...
Cath’roleICCT Module co-ordinator
Alison’s role
The researcher
Zoe’s Role
The English Librarian
More about social
readinghttp://www.flickr.com/photos/58558794
Practice of Marginalia
https://www.flickr.com/photos/careers/2935
895182
https://www.flickr.com/photos/careers/2935
https://www.flickr.com/photos...
Use in education
• Social annotation tools (Hylighter, Diigo,
Digress.it, eMargin and Eduscom) used in
educational setting...
The tools
Who used the tools?
• 49% neither register or accessed any of the tools
• 33% registered but did not add any of their own
...
Top 3 reasons for non
use of tools
3. Prefer to learn/reflect on their own and
formulate their own conclusions (17%)
2. La...
What would persuade the
students to take part?
3. Recommendations from friends – 20%
2. It was a required part of the asse...
Who were the lurkers?
• Of those who registered but did not
contribute:
–45% registered but got no further
–55% lurked
“I ...
The lurkers
• Top two reasons for non contribution
–Lack of confidence
–Didn’t know how to operate the
technology
Readmill eMargin Goodreads
Registered
students
25% 18% 57%
Contributions 43% 50% 61%
Device needed Kindle eReader;
Kindle ...
Readmill eMargin Goodreads
Social media tie-in Facebook/Twitter
Tumblr
None Facebook/Twitter
Kindle integration Yes No No
...
Goodreads example
Readmill example
eMargin example
Goodreads Readmill eMargin
Reading the comments made by fellow
students
3
Reading the responses made by tutors to
others c...
Readmill and eMargin
• Greatest benefits
– 100% agreed
• They drew my attention to useful quotes
• Helped me decide which ...
Goodreads
• Not so hot on
– Giving them an insight into how they could apply theories to their
chosen text
– Helping them ...
Development of higher order
cognitive/IL skills
Strands 6, 8 and 9 of the Ancil Framework (2011)
• Includes managing infor...
Managing info – presenting and
communicating knowledge
Readmill and eMargin
– They drew my attention to useful quotes – 10...
Know which ideas to focus on/
which ones to discard
...then I could bang in a few thoughts and feelings and
initial sort o...
Benefits of extracting the chosen text
from the rest of the passage
“...when you take it your highlight and
put it into Re...
Helped students organise their
thoughts
...it was all just sitting there whenever I had time to go
and dip in and when I w...
Highlights in context helped them
select/deselect evidence
Quote from the tutor:
...cos they highlighted a lot more than t...
Synthesis and creating new
knowledge
• Helped the student engage in a deeper analysis of their
selected text and applicati...
“Thinking out loud”
...I could go and put it somewhere, get instant access to
it, see what I was thinking the last time I ...
“tight, textual analysis”
The evidence of this analysis could be seen in her final
assignment
“I could see in that paragra...
Scaffolding through the use of
questions
– Tutor intervention was the real key - each student received
personalised feedba...
Why, why, why???
• she’d ask me another question and I’d think
“well actually I’d better go away and have a little
think a...
Synthesized argument
• We’re trying to get them into the way of applying the
theory and then using that application to bui...
Improved marks
https://www.flickr.com/photos/48078450@N04/4727929974
Librarian’s view
• There was a perception that the social reading made her
more visible to students
• Able to observe firs...
Social Reading:
future plans
• Continue with Social reading next year
• Perhaps focus on one tool – Readmill
• Acquire fun...
Social Reading:
the wishlist
• Merge group discussion facility of
Goodreads with the highlighting/annotating
functionality...
Further reading
• Johnson, T. E., Archibald, T. N., and Tenenbaum, G.
(2010) Individual and team annotation effects on stu...
Further reading
• Secker, J., & Coonan, E. (2011). A New Curriculum for Information
Literacy: curriculum and supporting do...
Any Questions??
Here are my contact details:
Alison Sharman
Email: a.sharman@hud.ac.uk
Twitter: asharman
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Between the sheets: the affordances and limitations of social reading tools and their potential role in developing critical and information literacy skills - Alison Sharman

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Between the sheets: the affordances and limitations of social reading tools and their potential role in developing critical and information literacy skills - Alison Sharman

  1. 1. Computin and Library ServicesBetween the sheets: the affordances and limitations of social reading tools and their potential role in developing critical and information literacy skills Alison Sharman University of Huddersfield
  2. 2. Aim of the talk • Definition of social reading and why/how it was used at the University • Affordances/limitations of the technology • Development of students’ higher order cognitive skills • The future of social reading
  3. 3. What is Social reading? • The collaborative highlighting and annotation of an electronic text using social reading tools
  4. 4. Transhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/alexvan oostwaard/5325349228/sizes/m/in/photolist- 97zNN1-f76b4N-c5D8aw-7YK6Mc-dXzTzS- c6xRSo-dXzThU-dXud82-cT8iCb-dXzTj1- dXud8z-dXzTyL-dXud78-dXucPF-dXzTfq- f8ncG2-dyjjeS-bLqM4X-dRCmAP-8MU14c- fjYGpV-fkdSLj-fkdStJ-cXMFeh-cYanwE- b7zRre-bSdqxn-cY4HFY-9Z4Yq6-9Z4YoH- 9Z7TeU-aE7xnj-cSZmyu-cSZmsu-cT8iKN- cT8inj-cXSMsw-aKt51K-aKt55M-aKt542- c2jHWN-c2jJWS/http://www.flickr.com/photos/alexvanoostwaard/5325349228/ Transforms reading from a private to a public activity
  5. 5. http://www.flickr.com/photos/edfredned/3592630542 Reading becomes a dynamic exercise rather than a passive experience
  6. 6. Why use Social Reading? http://www.librarything.com/work/11227385 http://www.librarything.com/work/4892782 http://www.librarything.com/work/13849821
  7. 7. Why social reading? • Have conversations about the text inside of the text • Experimented with three tools • Participation was voluntaryhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/goldberg/8678735016/
  8. 8. Cath’roleICCT Module co-ordinator
  9. 9. Alison’s role The researcher
  10. 10. Zoe’s Role The English Librarian
  11. 11. More about social readinghttp://www.flickr.com/photos/58558794 Practice of Marginalia
  12. 12. https://www.flickr.com/photos/careers/2935 895182 https://www.flickr.com/photos/careers/2935 https://www.flickr.com/photos/careers/2935 895182 895182 https://www.flickr.com/photos/careers/2935895182 Web 2.0 technologies
  13. 13. Use in education • Social annotation tools (Hylighter, Diigo, Digress.it, eMargin and Eduscom) used in educational settings • Positive effect on higher order thinking skills but further research required (Novak et al.2012) • Uni of Leicester, 2009
  14. 14. The tools
  15. 15. Who used the tools? • 49% neither register or accessed any of the tools • 33% registered but did not add any of their own comments • 18% access the tools and added their own highlights/comments
  16. 16. Top 3 reasons for non use of tools 3. Prefer to learn/reflect on their own and formulate their own conclusions (17%) 2. Lack of time (21%) 1. Don’t like reading text electronically on the screen (38%)
  17. 17. What would persuade the students to take part? 3. Recommendations from friends – 20% 2. It was a required part of the assessment – 22% 1. You heard that students got higher marks – 30% Interestingly, only 9% said recommendation from the tutor!
  18. 18. Who were the lurkers? • Of those who registered but did not contribute: –45% registered but got no further –55% lurked “I think there were a lot of people that loitered round the edges of what was going on. Didn’t necessarily contribute but did still benefit”
  19. 19. The lurkers • Top two reasons for non contribution –Lack of confidence –Didn’t know how to operate the technology
  20. 20. Readmill eMargin Goodreads Registered students 25% 18% 57% Contributions 43% 50% 61% Device needed Kindle eReader; Kindle app on any device; Readmill app on iPad Any device with Internet access Any device with internet access Inside or outside the text Inside Inside Outside Ease of set up Some issues with software/device compatibility Set up by tutor – time consuming downloading the texts Easy – set up by tutor Ease of use Easy Medium Easy – similar to Facebook
  21. 21. Readmill eMargin Goodreads Social media tie-in Facebook/Twitter Tumblr None Facebook/Twitter Kindle integration Yes No No Push notifications (alerts) Yes No Yes Public/private Public Private Private Scored by students 1st 3rd 2nd Scored by staff 1st 2nd 2nd
  22. 22. Goodreads example
  23. 23. Readmill example
  24. 24. eMargin example
  25. 25. Goodreads Readmill eMargin Reading the comments made by fellow students 3 Reading the responses made by tutors to others comments 2 2 3 Making my own comments 2 3 Getting tutor feedback direct to my responses 1 1 1 The feature that enables comments to be made next to the text to which they relate 2 Seeing what fellow students had highlighted in the text Making my own highlights in the text 2 2 Opportunity to engage in discussions with others online 3 3 * Observing the tags that have been used * * Reading the text in another form 3
  26. 26. Readmill and eMargin • Greatest benefits – 100% agreed • They drew my attention to useful quotes • Helped me decide which sections of the text would be useful to my assignment – 80% agreed • It gave me an insight into how I could apply the theories to my chosen text • It helped me to better understand the text • Not so good – 25% felt reassured that fellow students were struggling with similar issues to them (50% in GRs)
  27. 27. Goodreads • Not so hot on – Giving them an insight into how they could apply theories to their chosen text – Helping them better understand the text (25%) • Not effective with – Drawing their attention to useful quotes – Deciding which sections of the text would be useful to their assignment (0%)
  28. 28. Development of higher order cognitive/IL skills Strands 6, 8 and 9 of the Ancil Framework (2011) • Includes managing information; presenting and communicating knowledge, synthesis and creating new knowledge Sconul 7 pillars • evaluate, manage and present Bloom’s Taxonomy • analysis, synthesis and evaluation
  29. 29. Managing info – presenting and communicating knowledge Readmill and eMargin – They drew my attention to useful quotes – 100% – Helped me decide which sections of the text would be useful to my assignment – 100%
  30. 30. Know which ideas to focus on/ which ones to discard ...then I could bang in a few thoughts and feelings and initial sort of observations about that particular highlight and then get feedback. Which just helped me to, it just snowballed so once someone would help me to discard it or help me to realise it wasn’t really supporting what I wanted to say in the first place. It was interesting but not for what I wanted. Or they just helped me to keep digging until I got to the crux of what it was saying for me and why it was relevant to what I was trying to write...
  31. 31. Benefits of extracting the chosen text from the rest of the passage “...when you take it your highlight and put it into Readmill the rest of the page falls away so it’s only your highlight sitting there”.
  32. 32. Helped students organise their thoughts ...it was all just sitting there whenever I had time to go and dip in and when I was really you know when I was really attacking it when I was sat there with all my notes out and my book out and everything else that was just there I could have that open in a separate window, look through that try and develop it straight onto the page it was just so much easier! Look I can’t tell you how useful it was – really and I’ve never ever I never would have been able to get to the depth that I did with that assignment had I never not have been able to order my thoughts that way
  33. 33. Highlights in context helped them select/deselect evidence Quote from the tutor: ...cos they highlighted a lot more than they were using but they knew what they were using and why they were using it and why it allowed them to say what they needed to so XXX was saying it helped her to organise her thinking – it helped her organise her points and helped her select her evidence to put forward.
  34. 34. Synthesis and creating new knowledge • Helped the student engage in a deeper analysis of their selected text and application of their chosen theory. – 80% agreed that they gave them an insight into how they could apply the theories to their chosen text as well as helping them better understand the text – The tools allowed them to do their thinking about the theory and text as they were interacting online inside of the texts – They could return to view their comments and further develop their ideas
  35. 35. “Thinking out loud” ...I could go and put it somewhere, get instant access to it, see what I was thinking the last time I looked at it, see where I needed to take it next, write myself little questions if I didn’t have time to deal with it there and then, you know, and if I was out and about and I was thinking “oh my God that’s just made me think something to do with that highlight that I just put in yesterday” I could really quickly access it ...and comment
  36. 36. “tight, textual analysis” The evidence of this analysis could be seen in her final assignment “I could see in that paragraph all the thinking and the work that she’d done so you know it was nice to be able to reward her with that comment and praise for the effort that she’d put in”.
  37. 37. Scaffolding through the use of questions – Tutor intervention was the real key - each student received personalised feedback to comments posted online • Questioning technique: comments by the tutor: the way I visualise it these layers of comments that you can see on the side of the screen here are almost like an archaeological dig – I was pushing them to go a bit deeper a bit deeper. If you scrape that back, what’s below that – if you scrape that back what’s below that...
  38. 38. Why, why, why??? • she’d ask me another question and I’d think “well actually I’d better go away and have a little think about that” or I’d go and try and find a secondary resource and I’d be trudging off to the library thinking “well I need to find something that says that! I need to find a way to back that up because that’s what I think and I obviously think it for a reason”.
  39. 39. Synthesized argument • We’re trying to get them into the way of applying the theory and then using that application to build their argument that’s what we’re always aiming for – that sort of synthesized argument. And it’s interesting cos I think those students who used the social reading got it ... I can see some of the students still don’t quite get how you apply the theory ... I think some of those students would have really have benefitted, even if like me they’d lurked on eMargin they would have seen the conversations that others were having and that in itself I think would have been useful.
  40. 40. Improved marks https://www.flickr.com/photos/48078450@N04/4727929974
  41. 41. Librarian’s view • There was a perception that the social reading made her more visible to students • Able to observe firsthand student concerns about linking their reading to the wider literature and offer timely help at the point of need • Intervened with a comment (backed up by the tutor who gave the subject view point) or invited the student to attend a 1-2-1 tutorial • Also contacted more off the list – maybe due in part to being more visible online
  42. 42. Social Reading: future plans • Continue with Social reading next year • Perhaps focus on one tool – Readmill • Acquire funding to employ students as mentors • Have a hands-on workshop allowing students to practice using the tools
  43. 43. Social Reading: the wishlist • Merge group discussion facility of Goodreads with the highlighting/annotating functionality of Readmill • Use social reading with the secondary reading tools
  44. 44. Further reading • Johnson, T. E., Archibald, T. N., and Tenenbaum, G. (2010) Individual and team annotation effects on students’ reading comprehension, critical thinking, and meta-cognitive skills. Computers in Human Behaviour, 26 pp.1496 – 1507. • Nokelainen, P., Miettinen, M., Kurhila, J., Floréen, P., & Tirri, H. (2005). A shared document‐based annotation tool to support learner‐centred collaborative learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(5), 757-770. • Novak, E., Razzouk, R., & Johnson, T. (2012). The educational use of social annotation tools in higher education: A literature review. Internet and Higher Education, 15(1), 39-49.
  45. 45. Further reading • Secker, J., & Coonan, E. (2011). A New Curriculum for Information Literacy: curriculum and supporting documents. Available at: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/37679/ [Accessed 5 April 2014] • University of Leicester (2012) #tagginganna blog. Available at: https://sites.google.com/site/tagginganna/ [Accessed 24 August 2012]. • Wolfe, J (2002) Annotation technologies: a software and research review. Computers and Composition, 19 (4), pp. 471 – 479
  46. 46. Any Questions?? Here are my contact details: Alison Sharman Email: a.sharman@hud.ac.uk Twitter: asharman

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