1106 face to face students – 706 Master’s, 454 Doctoral 3274 distance learning students (Master’s) Many of them are on the same programme e.g. MSc Public Health, but the teaching is separate. Different lectures, different tutors, different assessments. Need to integrateNeed to offer more in depth literature review training for students who carry out systematic reviews as their projects.
Flipped learning is a pedagogical approach in which the conventional notion of classroom-based learning is inverted, so that students are introduced to the learning material before class, with classroom time then being used to deepen understanding through discussion with peers and problem-solving activities facilitated by teachers.
In traditional learning, students acquire knowledge in a classroom context and are then sent away to synthesise, analyse and evaluate this after the class. In the flipped classroom, students acquire knowledge before the class and use classroom time to practice and apply concepts and ideas through interaction with peers and teachers. After the class, students reflect upon the feedback they have received and use this to further their learning.
The research on information literacy training and flipped learning shows that most students prefer flipped learning and are more successful in citing journal articles afterwards, but it’s not for every student.
Librarians aren’t always happy with making the change to improvisation and prefer delivering prepared lectures.
DL students carry out a 6 week information skills course online, with library staff providing guidance via forums, live Collaborate sessions which are also recorded for those unable to attend, and can book SKYPE 1-2-1s to discuss their search. Due to time differences attendance at the live Collaborate sessions are usually low and tend to address student questions as asked on the forum rather than answering questions live.
Face to face students usually have a hands on session of 2 or 3 hours in a computer lab although if no lab is available they may have a lecture only and be encouraged to bring laptops. They can attend further 1-2-1 sessions to discuss their search but demand is extremely high close to when project proposal forms are due and we cannot meet demand.
We looked at doing a flipped course which could be piloted with a course running both face to face and via distance learning to achieve the aim of combining teaching. Provision would be equal with both groups of students undertaking the same 6 week information skills module online, then being offered a 1 hour Collaborate session (DL students), 1 hour lab session for face to face students, and SKYPE and face to face 1-2-1s of half an hour being available on a first come first served basis.
In fact we were unable to find a course that ran both face to face and distance learning to pilot, so we offered the model to the Medical Microbiology degree. This course has never had room for a library session in the timetable so we had been offered a choice of sessions in reading week or after timetabled hours, both of which were poorly attended. There was still no room in the timetable so although we only needed an hour for the flipped session this still had to be held at lunchtime. We were able to hold the session in term 2 closer to the project date to improve attendance further. Although some were not happy with having to attend at lunchtime, 12 out of 16 students did attend the surgery session. We don’t have any info on the students who didn’t attend and whether they completed the module, so findings are dependent on students who attended the session (75% of the cohort).
In order to test the session I designed a questionnaire to measure how much of the online module students had completed, whether students preferred this model to a traditional session, whether the session worked and to obtain suggestions for future sessions. I used a paper questionnaire so students would be more likely to fill it in over an online questionnaire, and all but one student did complete some of the form.
27% did not look at the module at all. Survey identified a need to use academics to improve completion rate. (This year the module organiser was travelling with no access to email so this option was not available).
Most students (72%) did work through the module and half (36%) of those in full. Hopefully more students will complete the session closer to when they need to start work on the literature review.
64% preferred found this model more engaging than the usual model of a lecture format, although a significant number do prefer the lecture. This fits in with the existing literature where most students perform better with this lecture but some do not engage with it.
Only one student thought face to face was better preparation for searching for their project. 2 students say they prefer to learn fully online so may need to emphasise that the session is optional since they of course had the option to complete the learning fully online. Overall most students felt the flipped model was good preparation for literature searching for their projects.
Focussing on the learning module, students appreciated that the module was available at any time and would continue to be available throughout the course. They liked working at their own pace and being able to get assistance online and face to face.
Although there were videos included in the online module, students wanted more videos demonstrating how to search.
They also wanted the training to take place later in the year and not at lunchtime, but since we were able to move the session later in the year at least we had already gone part way to meeting their requirements.
Most students rated this style of session as more engaging and more useful. Usefulness does not end with session since they continue to have access to module Many more students benefited from teaching since it did not depend on availability at a specific time, likely to reduce demand for 1-2-1s Last year of face to face teaching (2017-18) 6 students attended training, in 2016 2 students, so many more students attended training since 12 came to the sessions, others may have viewed module online
We considered making completing the module compulsory before attending training, or making students carry out a quiz, but library instruction is not considered part of the timetable and existing pressure on timetable. The session was envisaged as enabling students to ask questions but they didn’t bring any! This is usual when carrying out DL Collaborate sessions too so had prepared material based on that, but is there any way we can encourage students to bring questions? Students want more videos! These are time consuming but we can also look at integrating more of the existing videos into the online module. Students want the session later in the year, which may be possible but only if we continue to hold it at lunchtime.
The next step is to complete a pilot with a larger cohort next term to see if results are replicated across a larger group. If this model of teaching is possible we could switch all face to face teaching to this model. A problem is that most students did not complete the module in full but for those who attend face to face sessions they don’t stay til the end or switch off before the end.
If the model is successful we can look at the initial aim of integrating teaching.
We are putting together an advanced online module for systematic reviews, so can look at creating the online module to support flipped learning, as well as working as a standalone module.
By Barry Mangham [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], from Wikimedia Commons
Reverse engineering information literacy: using a flipped classroom model - Perris
London School of Hygiene and
Photo by Joe Pizzio on Unsplash
using a flipped
- About LSHTM
- Education Programme Review
recommended that the School
“should integrate its F2F and
- More and more students are
taking a systematic review
approach to their MSc
projects so information skills
training needs to become
more in depth to address this
Photo by rawpixel on Unsplash
Flipped classroom model
"Flipped Learning Workshop with Katherine Hale" by Laurie Sullivan is licensed under CC BY 2.0
• Research with students has found that they
prefer the “flipped” model and are able to
cite more scholarly journal articles
afterwards (Brooks, 2014)
• not ideal for every student (Arnold-Garza,
• librarians have reported difficulties
improvising rather than delivering prepared
lectures (Tagge, 2018).
- 6 week intermediate level information skills
- Online /recorded Collaborate sessions
- SKYPE 1-2-1s.
- 3 hour computer
- 1-2-1 sessions
Photo: Anne Koerber
Pilot course: Medical microbiology
- Traditional low
- F2F version of
photo by Lucas Vasques on Unsplash
- A success?
- 11 out of 12 students
- completed (91.6%)
photo by Ben Mullins on Unsplash
Did you work through the online
module before attending the session?
0 1 2 3 4 5
Photo by JESHOOTS.COM on Unsplash
I found learning online followed by an
optional face to face session to be:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
More engaging than a 2-3 hour
Less engaging than a 2-3 hour
I feel I would be best prepared for
literature searching for my project by
0 2 4 6 8
Fully face to face
What did you like about this module?
• Working at
Photo by Lauren Mancke on Unsplash
What improvements could be made
to the module?
Photo by Christian Wiediger on Unsplash
What worked well?
- Generally considered more useful and
engaging than face to face only teaching
- Many more students received teaching than
Photo by Headway on Unsplash
What could be improved?
• Encouragement to
complete module in full
• Prepared questions
• Video demonstrations
- Additional pilot
- Increasing module completion?
- Switching F2F teaching to this method
- Integrated teaching
- Advanced online module for systematic
London School of
Hygiene and Tropical
Telephone: 020 7927 2093
Arnold-Garza, S. (2014a). The flipped classroom: Assessing an innovative teaching
model for effective and engaging library instruction. College & Research Libraries
News, 75(1), p. 10-13. Available at: doi: https://doi.org/10.5860/crln.75.1.9051.
Arnold-Garza, S. (2014b). The Flipped Classroom Teaching Model and Its Use for
Information Literacy Instruction. Communications in Information Literacy, 8 (1), 7-
Brooks, A. W. (2014). Information Literacy and the Flipped Classroom: Examining
the Impact of a One-Shot Flipped Class on Student Learning and Perceptions.
Communications in Information Literacy, 8 (2), 225-235. https://doi.org/10.15760/
Tagge, N (2018) Leveraging accreditation to integrate sustainable information
literacy instruction into the medical school curriculum. Journal of the Medical
Library Association: JMLA 106 (3), 377 https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2018.276