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Are we having fun yet? Developing interactive lectures and presentations. Jackson

Presented at LILAC 2007

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Are we having fun yet? Developing interactive lectures and presentations. Jackson

  1. 1. LILAC 2007 Tuesday 27th March 2007 Are We Having Fun Yet? Developing interactive lectures and presentations Andy Jackson Teaching & Learning Librarian University of Dundee
  2. 2. Yellow – the Cephalonian Method Blue – Other interactive techniques Green – Educational principles Pink – the Induction Lecture Orange – Introduction
  3. 3. What should I expect to get out of this session? • A chance to see the Cephalonian Method in action • Some ideas on potential ice-breakers or learning activities for your lectures & presentations • An opportunity to see how interactive techniques can be used to facilitate deep learning in lectures • A renewed sense of purpose, or a chance to catch up on some sleep…
  4. 4. The Induction Lecture
  5. 5. It’s 2007. Surely every possible refinement has been made to the face-to-face lecture format?
  6. 6. o Despite the advent of the VLE, there are still people doing face-to-face teaching!  The pressure on F2F teaching is now greater than ever – eLearning has raised the bar  We need to recognise the expectations of students that they be entertained as they are educated (whether we like this idea or not) o There isn’t much in the Library press on the subject of lecturing…a bit more in the general educational press, however! o Most of us in educational institutions have to do a lecture at some point
  7. 7. What interactive techniques will be discussed in this session? o These are ideas or examples drawn from experience to illustrate the idea of lecture-theatre interaction o It’s by no means an exhaustive list of techniques – you may have your own tips or ideas which work for you Library Bingo Cephalonian Method Audience Response Systems Small-group work
  8. 8. I don’t do any lecturing. Have I chosen the wrong session to come to? o It may be that you are going to do some lecturing  Save yourself the hassle of developing purely didactic lectures – start from the interactive slant o If your contribution to Library induction is only in tours or visits, you could still bring interactive elements in  Map drawing exercise – self- orientation of Library  Library bingo can work with induction tours too!
  9. 9. Why do you think the induction lecture is so important?
  10. 10. • Induction lectures usually take place early on – in the ‘information ghetto’ (i.e. week one/two of a new course and divorced from the academic content of the course) o The Library lecture competes with other lectures and presentations, often with greater perceived importance or immediacy o Delivery early on in a course means student hasn’t had time to assimilate what they need to know and what they can come back to o You only get one chance to make a first impression! o We have to ensure that we don’t ruin any subsequent opportunities to lecture to students…or students will vote with their feet!
  11. 11. The Cephalonian Method
  12. 12. Can you briefly explain the Cephalonian Method?
  13. 13. • Characterised by:-  Maximised interactions between audience and lecturer  A less didactic approach  Use of music, colour and images  Use of appropriate humour  Overall sense of informality o Degree of randomness about the running order, so questions must be designed to stand alone o Degree of risk as it requires engagement from both sides – which can’t easily be planned!
  14. 14. Why should I use the Cephalonian style of lecture? g
  15. 15. o It’s distinctive – students may not always remember what you told them, but they’ll remember the way you did it!  This may make them more disposed to using the Library if they associate it with something positive o It is student-focused o It is based on genuine interaction rather than a purely didactic approach o Gives the audience a sense of participation o Revitalises the ‘information giving’ type of presentation which can be boring o Relates the content of the information to the context in which it might be useful (see the ‘Miguel’ question in Morgan & Davies’ original Cephalonian presentation)
  16. 16. Other Interactive Techniques
  17. 17. How does Library bingo work?
  18. 18. o This is a technique based on a simple conceit – that of bingo or lotto – which is understood by most o Use it to make audience think about their impressions of Libraries and what services/resources they expect from it  Students asked to write down five things (resources or services) which they expect a Library to provide (give an example – ‘books’)  A small prize is offered for the winner to hold the attention (chocolate works!) /continued
  19. 19.  Ostensibly at random (but in an order you decide upon!) put up slides for services/resources you offer (Photocopiers/ Journals collection/Web access) • Ensure the less-guessable services/resources come up first, to increase the tension! Make something common (e.g. journals/magazines) the last one  Give brief explanations of each slide in turn  When ‘house’ is called (and the fights over the prize die down), you can ask students to flag up things on their lists which haven’t been mentioned • Gives you a chance to say ‘yes we do that’ … • …or to explain why the Library doesn’t provide the service or resource
  20. 20. How can small-group interactions be used in a lecture setting?
  21. 21. o Simple ‘breakaways’ to discuss relevant trigger questions, spread throughout the lecture o Return and share with the rest of the audience o Can be fact-based (identifying ‘correct’ answers through discussion) or opinion/anecdotal (student impressions of libraries) o Must be clear tasks, prefaced by an explanation of why we are doing it and used to move the lecture on o Examples – working in pairs for 2 minutes  When did you last use a Library?  What was the reason for your visit?  What were your impressions of it?  Feedback
  22. 22. What is an Audience Response System? A: A pointless gadget B: A suggestive acronym C: An expensive toy D: A useful interactive toolD: A useful interactive tool
  23. 23. o Just like ‘Ask The Audience’ on Who Wants To Be A Millionaire – a familiar format which shouldn’t require explaining o Many systems on the market - Turning Point, ACTIvote etc o Obviously requires some financial input – your Learning Technologists may already have the kit? o Can be used to engage audiences, particularly in structured discussions or to check understanding  Formative/Summative exercise, e.g. Referencing techniques?  Instant response and therefore instant, contextualised feedback  Use for in-class evaluations? Guaranteed 100% response!
  24. 24. Educational Principles
  25. 25. Is it really possible to facilitate deep learning in a lecture? Source : Interested Student Seeking meaning/forming their own ideas or opinions Deeper Understanding? Warburton, K., 2003. Deep learning and education for sustainability. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education. 4 (1), pp 44 - 56
  26. 26. o Our role in using interactive techniques is primarily to create an environment where learning can take place o Interaction is the key to engagement…you expect something of the audience – they are required to engage! o Develop a motivation to understand o work with academics to make Library/Info Lit skills a measurable component of the course o dangle carrots, e.g. better marks!
  27. 27. These all sound a bit gimmicky. Can these approaches be linked to sound educational theory? “Learning in action is grounded in the inquiry-reflection process” (Coghlan 2004) “Expository lecture is endemic in large classes…not because it is the most appropriate way…but because many will see it as the only way” (Biggs 2003) “Learners will be happy to coast through a lecture as it is a familiar and non-threatening experience for most of them. Try to challenge them and the format” (Webb & Powis 2004)
  28. 28. What problems might I encounter if I open my lecture up to interaction? o Silence – students may be used to a more passive style of learning, or they may be self-conscious o Loss of focus  the medium is NOT the message…content is still king  Interaction is a device under your control, not to ingratiate yourself with students o Loss of control – you must manage the interactions… o settling the audience after group segments is crucial o Requires particular skills –  You have to be confident in dealing with interactions  You mustn’t be the sort to be fazed by being in the spotlight  You have to be able to handle unexpected interactions  you have empowered the students to participate…don’t be surprised when they do!
  29. 29. I don’t feel comfortable using this more light-hearted approach to lecturing. Is this normal? From
  30. 30. o It’s tempting to try and put on a show and be entertaining for its own sake o We are not there primarily to entertain, but to educate o Make the material relevant before you try and dress it up in funny clothes o We use humour or cultural references only to focus or enhance the educational content o If you’re not comfortable with a humorous or light-hearted approach don’t even attempt it
  31. 31. Is there research evidence for the efficacy of these techniques? o Not a lot of research on the Cephalonian Method  Morgan & Davies (Cardiff University) continue to research the method extensively  Also some work being done at Loughborough University? o Research on other techniques  MMU (Jones, Peters & Shields article in Journal of Information Literacy)  Read Webb & Powis (the bible for IL Skills teaching!)
  32. 32. Thank you for participating Are there any questions, comments, feedback?
  33. 33. LILAC 2007 Tuesday 27th March 2007 Are We Having Fun Yet? Developing interactive lectures and presentations Andy Jackson Teaching & Learning Librarian University of Dundee