Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing: Genre Confusion and Disinformation - Joel M Burkholder & Kat Phillips

Ad

A Wolf in
Sheep’s
Clothing:
Genre Confusion
and
Disinformation
JOEL M BURKHOLDER, JMB7609@PSU.EDU, @FROMTHESHELVES
KAT PHI...

Ad

Objectives
Participants will:
• Explain disinformation as social acts, created by political actors, that borrow rhetorical...

Ad

Activity
1:
Is this
news?

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Check these out next

1 of 25 Ad
1 of 25 Ad

A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing: Genre Confusion and Disinformation - Joel M Burkholder & Kat Phillips

Download to read offline

Presented at LILAC 2022

Presented at LILAC 2022

Advertisement
Advertisement

More Related Content

More from IL Group (CILIP Information Literacy Group) (20)

Advertisement

A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing: Genre Confusion and Disinformation - Joel M Burkholder & Kat Phillips

  1. 1. A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing: Genre Confusion and Disinformation JOEL M BURKHOLDER, JMB7609@PSU.EDU, @FROMTHESHELVES KAT PHILLIPS, KEC5013@PSU.EDU, @724PHILLIPSK PENN STATE UNIVERSITY, PENNSYLVANIA, UNITED STATES
  2. 2. Objectives Participants will: • Explain disinformation as social acts, created by political actors, that borrow rhetorical techniques from authoritative genres to appear credible • Identify how heuristics influence the way individuals in general, and themselves in particular, make decisions • Employ IF I APPLY, a tool for information evaluation that helps identify implicit and explicit biases in a text, to interrupt habitual thinking
  3. 3. Activity 1: Is this news?
  4. 4. https://repository.ifla.org/handle/123456789/167
  5. 5. https://www.iste.org/explore/Digital-and-media-literacy/Today%27s-news%3A-Real-o
  6. 6. https://guides.library.harvard.edu/fake
  7. 7. Genre Confusion The strategic borrowing of conventions associated with authoritative genres to increase perceptions of authority and credibility
  8. 8. The Rhetorical Situation
  9. 9. Question What other examples beyond fake news engage in genre confusion?
  10. 10. Techno Ethos
  11. 11. Techno Ethos
  12. 12. Academic Ethos Process Evidence Credentials Language
  13. 13. Heuristics Strategies that “reduce the complex tasks of assessing probabilities and predicting values to simpler judgmental operations” (Tversky & Kahneman, 1974, p. 1124).
  14. 14. Content
  15. 15. Structure
  16. 16. Quite Simply
  17. 17. Hijacking Heuristics https://www.flickr.com/photos/stignygaard/18858761288
  18. 18. Lack of Metacognition • Emotions • Overconfidence • Echo chambers
  19. 19. Reflection
  20. 20. IF I APPLY ADDRESS COGNITIVE BIAS Identify emotions Find unbiased sources Intellectual courage to seek other authoritative voices ASSESS THE SOURCE Authority Purpose/Point of View Publisher List of sources Year of publication #IFIAPP
  21. 21. Activity 2 How could cognitive or confirmation biases factor into the selection and evaluation of this source? If someone were to read this and perceive it as true, how did this source achieve its purpose?
  22. 22. Joel Burkholder Reference & Instruction Librarian Penn State University Email: jmb7609@psu.edu Twitter: @FromtheShelves Kat Phillips Nursing & Allied Health Librarian Penn State University Email: kec5013@psu.edu Twitter: @724PhillipsK
  23. 23. Questions? Joel Burkholder, jmb7609@psu.edu, @FromtheShelves Kat Phillips, kec5013@psu.edu, @724PhillipsK
  24. 24. References Ali, K. & Zain-ul-abdin, K. (2021) Post-truth propaganda: heuristic processing of political fake news on Facebook during the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 49(1). 109-128. DOI: 10.1080/00909882.2020.1847311 Anson, I. (2018). Partisanship, Political knowledge, and the Dunning-Kruger Effect. Political Psychology, 39(5). 1173-1192. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12490 Graves, L. (2021). Lessons from an extraordinary year : four heuristics for studying mediated misinformation in 2020 and beyond. In H. Tumbler & S. Waisbord (Eds.), The Routledge companion to media disinformation and populism. Routledge. Horne, Benjamin D., and Sibel Adali. “This Just In: Fake News Packs a Lot in Title, Uses Simpler, Repetitive Content in Text Body, More Similar to Satire than Real News.” ArXiv:1703.09398 [Cs], March 28, 2017. http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.09398. IF I APPLY Guide: https://guides.libraries.psu.edu/IFIAPPLY Klein, A. (2012). Slipping Racism into the Mainstream: A Theory of Information Laundering. Communication Theory, 22(4). 427-448. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2012.01415.x Kreiss, D. (2018). In P. J. Boczkowski & Z. Papacharissi (Eds.), Trump and the media. MIT Press. Lazer, D. M. J., Baum, M. A., Benkler, Y., Berinsky, A. J., Greenhill, K. M., Menczer, F., Nyhan, B., Pennycook, G., Rothschild, D., Schudson, M., Sloman, S. A., Sunstein, C. R., Thorson, E. A., Watts, D. J., & Zittrain, J. L. (2018). The Science of Fake News. Science, 359(6380), 1094–1096. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aao2998 Pennycock, G., & Rand, D. G. (2021). The Psychology of Fake News. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 25(5), 388–402. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2021.02.007 Phillips, Kathleen, Roles, Eryn, and Sabrina Thomas. (2019). “Navigating the Information Ecosystem: Getting Personal with Source Evaluation, IF I APPLY.” https://mds.marshall.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1067&context=lib_faculty. Polletta, F. & Callahan, J. Deep Stories, Nostalgia Narratives, and Fake News: Storytelling in the Trump Era. Politics of Meaning/Meaning of Politics: Cultural Sociology of the 2016 US Presidential Election. Mast, J. L. & Alexander, J. C. (Eds.). Palgrave Macmillian, 2019. 55-73. Sample, C., Jensen, M. J., Scott, K., McAlaney, J., Fichpatrick, S., Brockinton, A., & Ormrod, A. (2020). Interdisciplinary Lessons Learned while Researching Fake News. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.537612 Sundar, S. S. (2008). The MAIN Model: A Heuristic Approach to Understanding Technology Effects on Credibility. Digital Media, Youth, and Credibility. Metzger, M. & Flanagin, A. J. (Eds.). The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2008. 73–100. doi: 10.1162/dmal.9780262562324.073 Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgement Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Science, 185(4157). 1124-1131. https://www2.psych.ubc.ca/~schaller/Psyc590Readings/TverskyKahneman1974.pdf Zimdars, M. (2016). Informational Infidelity: What Happens when the “Real” News is Considered “Fake” News, too? Flow. http://www.flowjournal.org/2016/12/informational-infidelity/

×