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A. Mach - La fin des "trentes glorieuses" et la crise des années 1990

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Présentation par André Mach sur le thème "La fin des "trentes glorieuses" et la crise des années 1990" tenue dans le cadre de la journée annuelle de la Société suisse d'histoire économique et sociale le 24 avril 2010 à Berne.

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A. Mach - La fin des "trentes glorieuses" et la crise des années 1990

  1. 1. Fin des «trente glorieuses» et crise des années 1990 André Mach (IEPI, UNIL) Journée d’étude de la Société suisse d’histoire économique et sociale, Berne 24.4.2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>Solution «nationale-libérale» dans les années 70 </li></ul><ul><li>- Brève mais profonde récession, nombreuses pertes d’emplois, mais pas de chômage </li></ul><ul><li>- Les travailleurs étrangers et les femmes supportent la crise: retrait du marché du travail </li></ul><ul><li>Absence de coordination des politiques macro-économiques en raison du fédéralisme, banque centrale indépendante et absence de volonté politique </li></ul><ul><li>Réponse suisse à la crise: Solution «nationale-libérale» (Schmidt 1985) ou «corporatisme sélectif» (Piotet 1987) </li></ul><ul><li>Grande stabilité politique et économique comparativement aux autres pays européens durant les années 1970 et 80 </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Crise des années 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>- Tournant à plusieurs niveaux: conjoncture économique, coalitions politiques et politiques poursuivies </li></ul><ul><li>Contexte économique: </li></ul><ul><li>- Stagnation économique (1991-97) et forte progression du chômage </li></ul><ul><li>La solution «nationale-libérale» ne fonctionne plus pour résorber le chômage </li></ul><ul><li>Parmi les secteurs perdants: construction et industries MEM </li></ul><ul><li>+ Contexte international: libéralisation des échanges et intégration européenne </li></ul>
  4. 7. <ul><li>Réponses politiques dans les années 90 </li></ul><ul><li>- Accentuation des divergences au sein du «bloc bourgeois»  «Offensive néo-libérale»: livres blancs 1991, 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Remise en cause du «protectionnisme sélectif»: politique agricole, loi sur les cartels, libéralisation du marché intérieur, main d’œuvre étrangère </li></ul><ul><li>Augmentation des dépenses sociales </li></ul><ul><li>Politiques macroéconomiques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Politique financière favorable aux secteurs les plus internationalisés: TVA, droits de timbre,… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Politique monétaire restrictive: forte appréciation du franc suisse (94-96) qui a ralenti la reprise économique </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>Les gagnants de la crise </li></ul><ul><li>Forte progression de la fortune des personnes physiques durant les années 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Forte expansion internationale des entreprises suisses </li></ul><ul><li>Financiarisation des entreprises suisses </li></ul>

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